Politics of Guinea
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Politics of Guinea takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Guinea is both head of state and head of government of Guinea. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly.
- 1 Political history
- 2 Ethnic politics
- 3 Executive branch
- 4 Legislative branch
- 5 Administrative divisions of Guinea
- 6 Political parties and elections
- 7 International organization participation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Conté era (1984-2008)
A military dictatorship, led by then-Lt. Col. Lansana Conté and styling itself the Military Committee of National Recovery (CMRN), took control of Guinea in April 1984, shortly after the death of independent Guinea's first president, Sékou Touré. With Conté as president, the CMRN set about dismantling Touré's oppressive regime, abolishing the authoritarian constitution, dissolving the sole political party and its mass youth and women's organizations, and announcing the establishment of the Second Republic. The new government released all political prisoners and committed itself to the protection of human rights. In order to reverse the steady economic decline under Touré's rule, the CMRN reorganized the judicial system, decentralized the administration, promoted private enterprise, and encouraged foreign investment.
In 1990, Guineans approved by referendum a new constitution that inaugurated the Third Republic, and established a Supreme Court. In 1991, the CMRN was replaced by a mixed military and civilian body, the Transitional Council for National Recovery (CTRN), with Conté as president and a mandate to manage a five-year transition to full civilian rule. The CTRN drafted laws to create republican institutions and to provide for independent political parties, national elections, and freedom of the press. Political party activity was legalized in 1992, when more than 40 political parties were officially recognized for the first time.
In December 1993, Conté was elected to a 5-year term as president in the country's first multi-party elections, which were marred by irregularities and lack of transparency on the part of the government. In 1995, Conté's ruling PUP party won 76 of 114 seats in elections for the National Assembly amid opposition claims of irregularities and government tampering. In 1996, President Conté reorganized the government, appointing Sidya Touré to the revived post of Prime Minister and charging him with special responsibility for leading the government's economic reform program. In the early hours of 23 December 2008, Aboubacar Somparé, the President of the National Assembly, announced on television that Conté had died at 6:45pm local time on 22 December "after a long illness", without specifying the cause of death.
According to Somparé, Conté "hid his physical suffering" for years "in order to give happiness to Guinea." Conté had left the country for medical treatment on numerous occasions in the years preceding his death, and speculation about his health had long been widespread. Contrary to his usual practice, Conté did not appear on television to mark Tabaski earlier in December 2008, and this sparked renewed speculation, as well as concern about the possibility of violence in the event of his death. At around the same time, a newspaper published a photograph suggesting that Conté was in poor physical condition and having difficulty standing up. The editor of that newspaper was arrested and the newspaper was required to print a photograph in which Conté looked healthy.
According to the constitution, the President of the National Assembly was to assume the Presidency of the Republic in the event of a vacancy, and a new presidential election was to be held within 60 days. Somparé requested that the President of the Supreme Court, Lamine Sidimé, declare a vacancy in the Presidency and apply the constitution. Prime Minister Souaré and Diarra Camara, the head of the army, stood alongside Somparé during his announcement. The government declared 40 days of national mourning and Camara called on soldiers to remain calm.
2008 coup and following
Six hours after Somparé announced Conté's death, a statement was read on television announcing a military coup d'état. This statement, read by Captain Moussa Dadis Camara  on behalf of a group called National Council for Democracy, said that "the government and the institutions of the Republic have been dissolved". The statement also announced the suspension of the constitution "as well as political and union activity". In its place, the military said it had established a consultative council composed of civilian and military leaders.
|Wikinews has related news: At least 50 killed in clashes in Guinea|
On 27 September 2009, the day before planned demonstrations in the capital city Conakry, the government declared demonstrations illegal. Thousands of protestors defied the ban, assembling in a soccer stadium. 157 were left dead after the level of violence used by security forces escalated. Captain Moussa (Dadis) Camara told Radio France International on 28 September the shootings by members of his presidential guard were beyond his control. "Those people who committed those atrocities were uncontrollable elements in the military," he said. "Even I, as head of state in this very tense situation, cannot claim to be able to control those elements in the military."
On 3 December 2009 Captain Moussa Dadis Camara suffered a head wound in an attempted assassination in Conakry led by his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Aboubacar Sidiki Diakité, who is known as Toumba. Captain Camara underwent surgery at a hospital in Morocco. Reports say Toumba's men opened fire on Captain Camara late Thursday at an army camp in the city of Conakry. 
In a document released in 2010, an unknown source spoke with a U.S. diplomat and described the "ethnicization" of Guinea and the risk of conflict and violence like in Rwanda. He stated that Dadis Camara has recruited mercenaries from South Africa and Israel and assembled them, along with some of his own men, in Forecariah, in the ethnically Sussu region in the west of the country, while Dadis was from the Forest region to the east. His militia numbered 2,000-3,000 and was armed with weapons from Ukraine. The risk of conflict and destabilization threatened the entire region, he said.
After a meeting in Ouagadougou on 13 and 14 January, Camara, Konaté and Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, produced a formal statement of twelve principles promising a return of Guinea to civilian rule within six months. It was agreed that the military would not contest the forthcoming elections. On 21 January 2010 the military junta appointed Jean-Marie Doré as Prime Minister of a six-month transition government, leading up to elections.
The first round took place normally on 27 June 2010 with ex Prime Minister Cellou Dalein Diallo and his rival Alpha Condé emerging as the two runners-up for the second round. However, due to allegations of electoral fraud, the second round of the election was postponed until 19 September 2010. A delay until 10 October was announced by the electoral commission (CENI), subject to approval by Sékouba Konaté. Yet another delay until 24 October was announced in early October. Elections were finally held on 7 November. Voter turnout was high, and the elections went relatively smoothly.
16 November 2010, Alpha Condé, the leader of the opposition party Rally of the Guinean People (RGP), was officially declared the winner of a 7 November run-off in Guinea's presidential election. He had promised to reform the security sector and review mining contracts if elected.
In February 2013, the Guinean opposition party announced it would be stepping down from the electoral process due to a lack of transparency over the company used in registering voters. Calling on citizens to protest nationwide, the ensuing week saw multiple clashes between police and protesters, resulting in at least nine deaths, some of those due to live fire from security forces.
The protests were also a result of the previous months’ political wrangling between Condé’s administration and the opposition; minor protests were quelled on the street, and opposition supporters were arbitrarily arrested, prompting the resignation of two Guinean opposition ministers in September 2012. This month also saw the opposition parties announce their stepping down from the National Transitional Council, which is effectively an interim parliament, and that they would also boycott the national electoral commission. The president of the national electoral commission, Louceny Camara, also stepped down due to pressure from the opposition over his relationship with President Condé; Camara was rumoured to be his ally and a key figure in the president’s rumoured attempts to pre-rig the legislative polls.
The week after the protest saw another minor clash between protesters and security forces after a march to mark the funerals of the deceased was dispersed by tear gas and gunfire.
On 7 March 2013, the government postponed the 12 May election date indefinitely until the political tension eased and preparations for free and fair elections could be established.
Despite the election postponement, President Conde ordered a crackdown on those responsible for the violence, and on 10 March, a Guinean court ordered opposition leaders to appear at a hearing scheduled for 14 March, in which they would be questioned for their role in organising the protests. Former Prime Minister Sidya Toure branded the summons as an "illegal procedure for what was an authorised march" and a "manipulation of justice for political ends".
President Alpha Conde derives support from Guinea's second-largest ethnic group, the Malinke. Guinea's opposition is backed by some of the Fula ethnic group (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe), who account for around 40 percent of the population.
The president of Guinea is normally elected by popular vote for a five-year term; candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president. The president governs Guinea, assisted by a council of 25 civilian ministers appointed by him. The government administers the country through eight regions, 33 prefectures, over 100 subprefectures, and many districts (known as communes in Conakry and other large cities and villages or "quartiers" in the interior). District-level leaders are elected; the president appoints officials to all other levels of the highly centralized administration.
Since the 2010 Presidential Elections, the head of state has been Alpha Condé.
The National Assembly of Guinea, the country's legislative body, has not met since 2008 when it was dissolved after the military coup in December. Elections have been postponed many times since 2007. In April 2012, President Condé postponed the elections indefinitely, citing the need to ensure that they were "transparent and democratic".
Administrative divisions of Guinea
Guinea is divided into seven administrative regions and subdivided into thirty-three prefectures. The national capital, Conakry, ranks as a special zone. The regions are Boké, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, Nzérékoré and Conakry.
Political parties and elections
|Party of Unity and Progress (Parti de l'Unité et du Progrès)||1,947,318||61.5||85|
|Union for Progress and Renewal (Union pour le Progrès et le Renouveau)||842,270||21.7||20|
|Union for the Progress of Guinea (Union pour le Progrès de la Guinée)||130,065||4.1||3|
|Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally (Parti Démocratique de Guinée-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain)||107,666||3.4||3|
|National Alliance for Progress (Alliance Nationale pour le Progrès)||62,780||2.0||2|
|Party of the Union for Development (Parti de l’Union pour le Développement)||20,823||0.7||1|
|Total (turnout 71.6%)||3,162,855||114|
|Source: Democraf. The elections were boycotted by the Rassemblement du Peuple Guinéen.|
|Candidates - Parties||Votes||%|
|Lansana Conté - Party of Unity and Progress (Parti de l'Unité et du Progrès)||95.6|
|Mamadou Bhoye Barry - Union for National Progress (Union pour le progrès national)||4.4|
|Total (turnout 82.8 %)|
|Source: Rulers. The main opposition parties boycotted the elections and the result is contested.|
See also Guinean legislative election, 2013
International organization participation
- "Guinea's long-time military leader Conte dies", AFP, 23 December 2008. Archived 27 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Guinea's dictator, Lansana Conte, dies", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 23 December 2008. Archived 10 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Economie et Politique : Somparé demande au président de la Cour suprême de faire constater la vacance du pouvoir", Guinéenews, 22 December 2008 (in French). Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Guinea: Coup Follows Conté's Death", allAfrica.com, 23 December 2008.
- "Economie et Politique : Le gouvernement décrète 40 jours de deuil national ; le programme des obsèques attendu mardi.", Guineenews, 22 December 2008 (in French). Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Economie et Politique : Exclusif : Aboubacar Somparé, confirme la mort du président Conté", Guineenews, 22 December 2008 (in French). Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Military-led group announces coup in Guinea", Associated Press, 23 December 2008. Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Death of Guinea dictator prompts 'coup'", AFP (Sydney Morning Herald), 23 December 2008.
- "Army in Guinea dissolves government following coup after president's death". Daily Mail. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
- Guinea military kills 157 in protest crackdown: rights group, CBC News
- "Guinean soldiers look for ruler's dangerous rival", Malaysia News.Net (5 December 2009) Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- http://188.8.131.52 Archived 1 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.nyud.net/cable/2009/12/09RABAT988.html
- ""In Full: Declaration Made in Burkina Faso Between Dadis Camara and Sekouba Konate", Newstime Africa (16 January 2010)". Newstimeafrica.com. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- "Guinea junta officially names Dore prime minister", Reuters, 21 January 2010.
- afrol News – Election date for Guinea proposed. Afrol.com. Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
- Guinea to hold presidential elections in six months _English_Xinhua Archived 10 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. News.xinhuanet.com (16 January 2010). Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
- "Guinea election goes to run-off as Diallo falls short". BBC News. 3 July 2010.
- "Guinea sets date for presidential run-off vote". BBC News. 9 August 2010.
- Saliou Samb, "Guinea election body proposes 10 October run-off", ''Reuters'' (20 September 2010). Reuters.com. Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
- "Guinea run-off election date set", ''Al Jazeera'' (5 October 2010). English.aljazeera.net (5 October 2010). Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
- "Guinea sees big turnout in presidential run-off poll", ''BBC'' (7 November 2010). Bbc.co.uk (7 November 2010). Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
- Conde declared victorious in Guinea – Africa | IOL News. IOL.co.za (16 November 2010). Retrieved on 28 June 2011.
- Saliou Samb (4 March 2013). "Guinea riots spread outside capital as election talks fail". Reuters.
- "Security forces break up Guinea opposition funeral march". Reuters. 8 March 2013.
- Reuters (6 September 2012). "Guinea election commission chiefs steps down". Eye Witness News.
- Xinhua (7 March 2013). "News Analysis: Guinea's legislative election delayed again for more time to resolve differences". Xinhua.
- Daniel Flynn (10 March 2013). "Guinea court summons opposition leaders over protests". Reuters.
- "Guinea's Conde appeals for calm after 11 killed in ethnic clashes", Reuters, 16 July 2013.
- RNW Africa Desk (28 April 2012). "Guinea president postpones parliamentary elections indefinitely". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Guinea's ruling party falls short of majority in legislative vote". Reuters. 19 October 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2015.