Politics of New Caledonia
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politics and government of
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New Caledonia is a French sui generis collectivity with a system of government based on parliamentarism and representative democracy. The President of the Government is the head of government, and there is a multi-party system, with Executive power being exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress of New Caledonia. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
- 1 Political developments
- 2 Executive branch
- 3 Legislative branch
- 4 Political parties and elections
- 5 Judicial branch
- 6 Administrative divisions
- 7 International organization participation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Article 77 of the Constitution of France and the Organic Law 99-209 confers a unique status on New Caledonia between that of an independent country and a regular collectivité d'outre-mer or overseas collectivité of France. A territorial congress and government have been established, and the 1998 Nouméa Accord organized a devolution of powers. Key areas such as taxation, labor law, health and hygiene and foreign trade are already in the hands of the Congress. Further powers will supposedly be given to the Congress in the near future.
Under article 4 of the Organic Law 99-209 a New Caledonian "citizenship" has also been introduced: only New Caledonian "citizens" (defined by article 188) have the right to vote in the local elections. This measure has been criticized, because it creates a second-class status for French citizens living in New Caledonia who do not possess New Caledonian "citizenship" (because they settled in the territory recently). New Caledonia is also allowed to engage in international cooperation with independent countries of the Pacific Ocean. Finally, the territorial Congress is allowed to pass statutes that are contrary[further explanation needed] to French law in a certain number of areas.
On the other hand, New Caledonia remains an integral part of the French Republic. Inhabitants of New Caledonia are French citizens and carry French passports. They take part in the legislative and presidential French elections. New Caledonia sends two representatives to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate. The representative of the French central state in New Caledonia is the High Commissioner of the Republic (Haut-Commissaire de la République, locally known as "haussaire"), who is the head of civil services, and who sits in the government of the territory.
The Nouméa Accord stipulates that the Congress will have the right to call for a referendum on independence after 2014, at a time of its choosing. Following the timeline set by the Nouméa Accord, the groundwork was laid for a Referendum on full independence from France at a meeting chaired by the French Prime Minister Édouard Philippe on 2 November 2017, with the referendum to be held by November 2018. Voter list eligibility had been a subject of a long dispute, but the details have were resolved at this meeting. In the 2018 referendum, voters narrowly chose to remain a part of France.
|High Commissioner||Vincent Bouvier||July 2014|
|President of the Government||Philippe Germain||TE||1 April 2015|
The high commissioner is appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior. The president of the government is elected by the members of the Territorial Congress.
The Congress (Congrès) has 54 members, being the members of the three regional councils, all elected for a five-year term by proportional representation. Furthermore, there is a 16-member Kanak Customary Senate (two members from each of the eight customary aires).
Political parties and elections
|The Rally–UMP (Front for Unity)||13,649||12.79||7||–6|
|Union for Caledonia in France||12,539||11.75||6||New|
|Build Our Rainbow Nation||12,289||11.52||6||New|
|National Union for Independence||8,876||8.32||6||–|
|One Province for All (in coalition with Caledonia Together)||2,561||2.40||2||New|
|North Province Agreement (in coalition with Front for Unity)||2,191||2.05||1||New|
|Party of Kanak Liberation||2,053||1.92||1||–|
|Union for Building the Loyalty Islands||1,564||1.47||1||New|
|The Other Voice||939||0.88||0||New|
|Source: New Caledonia Government|
French National Assembly
- Sonia Lagarde (first constituency, Caledonia Together, CE) elected 2012
- Philippe Gomès (second constituency, Caledonia Together, CE) elected 2012
- Pierre Frogier (Rassemblement-UMP), elected 2011
- Hilarion Tumi Vendégou (Rassemblement-UMP), elected 2011
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court
International organization participation
- French-Pacific Banking Agreement
- International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
- Pacific Islands Forum (associate)
- The Pacific Community (SPC)
- United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (associate)
- World Federation of Trade Unions
- World Meteorological Organization.