Politics of North Macedonia
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Politics in North Macedonia occur within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated North Macedonia as "hybrid regime" in 2016.
The political system of North Macedonia consists of three branches: Legislative, Executive and Judicial. The Constitution is the highest law of the country. The political institutions are constituted by the will of its citizens by secret ballot at direct and general elections. Its political system of parliamentary democracy was established with the Constitution of 1991, which stipulates the basic principles of democracy and guarantees democratic civil freedom. The Elections for Representatives in the Assembly of North Macedonia is held in October. The Assembly is composed of 123 Representatives, who are elected for a period of four years. Out of this number, 120 are elected proportionally in 6 constituencies of 20 each, and 3 according to the majority principle, specifically for the diaspora (depending on turnout) (the territory of the Republic of North Macedonia representing one constituency). There are approximately 1.5 million voters registered in the General Electoral Roll for the election of Representatives in the Assembly of North Macedonia in 2.973 polling stations. The voting for the representatives is conducted according to the list system.
- Kiro Gligorov (1991–1999)
- Boris Trajkovski (1999–2004)
- Branko Crvenkovski (2004–2009)
- Gjorge Ivanov (2009–present)
|President||Gjorge Ivanov||VMRO-DPMNE||12 May 2009|
|Prime Minister||Zoran Zaev||SDSM||31 May 2017|
Although in Macedonian, these roles have very similar titles (Претседател на Република Северна Македонија "President of the Republic of North Macedonia" and Претседател на Владата на Република Северна Македонија "President of the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia") it is much less confusing to refer to them in English as President and Prime Minister respectively. These are also the terms used in the English translation of the constitution.
- cannot hold any other public office or position in a political party
- is elected for a 5-year term and can serve a maximum of two terms
- is Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and President of the Security Council
- nominates a candidate from the majority party or parties in the Assembly who then proposes the Government who are elected by the Assembly
- makes diplomatic appointments and some judicial and Security Council appointments
- grants decorations, honours and pardons
The power of the President is fairly limited with all other executive power being vested in what the Constitution describes as the Government, i.e., the Prime Minister and Ministers.
- cannot be Representatives in the Assembly
- cannot hold any other public office or follow a profession while in office
- are elected by a majority vote in the Assembly
- are granted immun
- cannot be called for service in the Armed Forces
- propose laws, budget and regulations to be adopted by the Assembly
- control diplomatic policy
- make other state appointments
The current cabinet is a coalition of SDSM, the Democratic Union for Integration, the New Social Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Party, Alliance for Albanians, Party for the Full Emancipation of the Roma of Macedonia, and the Party for the Movement of Turks in Macedonia. The members of the Cabinet of North Macedonia are chosen by the Prime Minister and approved by the national Parliament, however certain cabinet level positions are chosen by both President and Prime Minister, and approved by the Parliament.
|Zoran Zaev||Prime Minister|
|Dragan Tevdovski||Minister of Finance|
|Hasbi Lika||Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Framework Agreement Implementation|
|Koco Angjusev||Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Economic Affairs|
|Bujar Osmani||Deputy Prime Minister in charge of European Integration|
|Nikola Dimitrov||Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|Radmila Sekerinska||Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense|
|Oliver Spasovski||Minister of Internal Affairs|
|Renata Deskoska||Minister of Justice|
|Goran Sugareski||Minister of Transport and Communication|
|Kreshnik Bekteshi||Minister of Economy|
|Ljupčo Nikoloski||Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Watersupply|
|Venko Filipce||Minister of Health|
|Arbr Ademi||Minister of Education and Science|
|Damjan Mancevski||Minister of Information Society and Administration|
|Suhail Fazliu||Minister of Local Self-Government|
|Asaf Ademi||Minister of Culture|
|Mila Carovska||Minister of Labor and Social Policy|
|Sadula Duraki||Minister of Environment and Physical Planning|
|Elvin Hasan||Minister without Portfolio for Attracting foreign investment|
|Bardul Dauti||Minister without Portfolio|
|Zoran Sapuric||Minister without Portfolio to improve investment climate for domestic enterprises|
|Zorica Apostolska||Minister without Portfolio|
|Anita Angelovska-Bezhoska||Governor of the National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia|
|Ljupco Shvrgovski||Attorney General|
|Vasko Gjurcinovski||Chief of the General Staff of the Army of the Republic of North Macedonia|
|Zoran Jolevski||Special Envoy and Chief Negotiator of the Macedonia name dispute|
2016 election result
|Social Democratic Union coalition||436,981||37.87||49||+15|
|Democratic Union for Integration||86,796||7.52||10||−9|
|"Alliance for the Albanians" coalition||35,121||3.04||3||New|
|Democratic Party of Albanians||30,964||2.68||2||−5|
|"VMRO for Macedonia" coalition||24,524||2.13||0||New|
|"CCJ–Third Block" coalition||10,028||0.87||0||New|
|Party for Democratic Prosperity||1,143||0.10||0||0|
Judiciary power is exercised by courts, with the court system being headed by the Judicial Supreme Court, Constitutional Court and the Republican Judicial Council. The assembly appoints the judges.
With the passage of a new law and elections held in 2005, local government functions are divided between 78 municipalities (општини, opštini; singular: општина, opština. The capital, Skopje, is governed as a group of ten municipalities collectively referred to as "the City of Skopje". Municipalities in North Macedonia are units of local self-government. Neighbouring municipalities may establish cooperative arrangements.
The country's main political divergence is between the largely ethnically-based political parties representing the country's Macedonian majority and Albanian minority. The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in 2001, following which a power-sharing agreement was reached. In August 2004, the Republic's parliament passed legislation redrawing local boundaries and giving greater local autonomy to ethnic Albanians in areas where they predominate.
North Macedonia is member of the ACCT, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
- solutions, EIU digital. "Democracy Index 2016 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- "Republic of Macedonia Constitution".
- Macedonian Political System Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine