Politics of Peru

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic,[1][2] whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Peru as "flawed democracy" in 2016.[3]

Democratic reform[edit]

The Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President Martin Vizcarra, the new government is expected to be transparent and accountable.[4] Previously a rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers. The executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch, antiquated and rife with corruption.

During the government of Fujimori the 1979 Constitution was changed after the Fujimori's self-coup where the president dissolved the Congress and established the new 1993 Constitution. One of the changes to the 1979 Constitution was the possibility of the president's immediate reelection (112 article) which made possible the reelection of Fujimori in the next years. After the Fujimori era and Fujimori's resign, the transition government of Valentín Paniagua changed the article 112 and called new elections in 2001 where Alejandro Toledo was elected. After that, Peru has had all presidents democratically elected.

Executive branch[edit]

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Martín Vizcarra Independent 23 March 2018
First Vice President Mercedes Aráoz Peruvians for Change 23 March 2018
Second Vice President Vacant 23 March 2018
Prime Minister César Villanueva Independent 2 April 2018

Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for a five-year term and may not immediately be re-elected.[5] All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.

The President appoints the Prime Minister (Primer Ministro) and the Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros, or Cabinet), which is individually and collectively responsible both to the president and the legislature.[1][2] All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers.

Legislative branch[edit]

The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress (Congreso) of 130 members. elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.

Political parties and elections[edit]

e • d Summary of the 10 April and 5 June 2011 Peruvian presidential election result
Candidates – Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Ollanta HumalaPeru Wins (Gana Perú) 4,643,064 31.699 7,937,704 51.449
Keiko FujimoriForce 2011 (Fuerza 2011) 3,449,595 23.551 7,490,647 48.551
Pedro Pablo KuczynskiAlliance for the Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) 2,711,450 18.512  
Alejandro ToledoPossible Peru (Perú Posible) 2,289,561 15.631
Luis CastañedaNational Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) 1,440,143 9.832
José Ñique de la PuenteFonavist Party (Partido Fonavista del Perú) 37,011 0.253
Ricardo NoriegaNational Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional) 21,574 0.147
Rafael Belaúnde AubryForward Party (Partido Político Adelante) 17,301 0.118
Juliana ReymerNational Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional) 16,831 0.115
Humberto PinazoJustice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnología, Ecología) 11,275 0.077
Total valid (turnout %) 14,074,682 100.000 15,428,351 100.000
Blank votes 1,406,998 8.855 116,335 0.706
Invalid votes 416,026 2.620 921,711 5.598
Source: National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE), National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE)
e • d Summary of the 10 April 2011 election results for members of the Congress of the Republic of Peru and Peruvian members of the Andean Parliament
Parties Congress Andean Parliament
Votes % (Valid) Seats Votes % (Valid) Seats
Peru Wins (Gana Perú)

dominated by Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano)

including Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) and others
3,245,003 25.274 47 2,740,106 27.022 2
Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011)
including National Renewal (Renovación Nacional)
2,948,781 22.967 37 2,353,660 23.211 1
Electoral Alliance Possible Peru (Alianza Electoral Perú Posible)
1,904,180 14.831 21 1,498,783 14.780 1
Alliance for the Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio)
1,851,080 14.417 12 1,413,783 13.942 1
National Solidarity Alliance (Alianza Solidaridad Nacional)
1,311,766 10.217 9 954,618 9.414 0
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Partido Aprista Peruano) 825,030 6.426 4 638,675 6.298 0
Radical Change (Cambio Radical) 347,475 2.706 0 195,441 1.927 0
Fonavist Party (Fonavistas des Perú) 170,052 1.324 0 158,877 1.567 0
Decentralist Party Social Force (Partido Decentralista Fuerza Social) 108,200 0.843 0 65,265 0.644 0
Forward Party (Partido Político Adelante) 42,276 0.329 0 36,193 0.357 0
National Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional) 37,633 0.293 0 35,014 0.345 0
National Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional) 30,190 0.235 0
Justice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnologia, Ecologia) 17,478 0.136 0 49,869 0.492 0
Valid votes 12,839,144 100.000 130 10,140,284 100.000 5
Blank votes 4,352,212 26.056
Invalid votes 2,210,919 13.236
Source: National Office of Electoral Processes - on Congressional Election

- on Andean Parliament Election

Judicial branch[edit]

The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court seated in Lima. The National Council of the Judiciary appoints judges to this court.

The Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional) interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.

Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office (defensor del pueblo) was created to address human rights issues.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on 18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones). These regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. There are a total of 180 provinces and 1747 districts in Peru.

Lima Province is not part of any political region.

Political pressure groups and leaders[edit]

Leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path Abimael Guzmán (imprisoned), Gabriel Macario (top leader at-large); Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA Victor Polay (imprisoned), Hugo Avellaneda Valdez (top leader at-large). Both Shining Path & MRTA are considered terrorist organizations.

Non-governmental organizations[edit]

In the early 1970s and 1980s many grass-roots organizations emerged in Peru. They were concerned with problems of local people and poverty reduction. After 2000 they played an important role in the decentralisation process. Their hope was that power would be divided clearly between national and local governments and the latter would be able to address social justice and the concerns of local people better than the national government could. Some NGO-members even became part of local governments. There is debate extent to which this engagement in politics contributes to the attainment of their original goals.[6]

International organization participation[edit]

Peru or Peruvian organizations participate in the following international organizations:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  2. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. Retrieved 31 August 2017. Only in Latin America have all new democracies retained a pure presidential form, except for Peru (president-parliamentary) and Bolivia (assembly-independent).
  3. ^ solutions, EIU digital. "Democracy Index 2016 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  4. ^ "Peru's president doesn't haveroom for failure". miamiherald.com.
  5. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article No. 112.
  6. ^ Monika Huber, Wolfgang Kaiser (February 2013). "Mixed Feelings". dandc.eu.

External links[edit]