Politics of Tuscany

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The Politics of Tuscany, Italy takes place in the framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Tuscany, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute, which regulates the functioning of the regional institutions, has been in force since 2005.

Prior to the rise of Fascism, most of the deputies elected in Tuscany were part of the liberal establishment (see Historical Right, Historical Left and Liberals), which governed Italy for decades. Florence and the southern provinces of the region were anyway an early stronghold of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). At the 1924 general election, which opened the way to the Fascist authoritarian rule, Tuscany was one the regions where the National Fascist Party (PNF) obtained more than 70% of the vote.[1]

After World War II, Tuscany became a stronghold of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which was especially strong in rural areas. The PCI and its successors have governed the region since 1970. The region is now a stronghold of the "centre-left coalition" led by the Democratic Party (PD), like the other regions of the so-called "Red belt".[2][3][4]

The centre-left coalition has governed the region since 1995, under President Enrico Rossi since 2010.

Legislative branch[edit]

The Regional Council of Tuscany is composed of 41 members.

Councillors are elected in provincial constituencies by proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. The Florence constituency is further divided into 4 sub-constituencies. Preferential voting is allowed: a maximum of two preferences can be expressed for candidates of the same party list and provided the two chosen candidates are of different gender. In this system parties are grouped in alliances, supporting a candidate for the post of President of Tuscany. The candidate receiving at least 40% of the votes is elected to the post and his/her list (or the coalition) is awarded a majority in the Regional Council. If no candidate gets more than 40% of the votes, a run-off is held fourteen days after, with only the two top candidates from the first round allowed. The winning candidate is assured a majority in the Regional Council.[5]

The Council is elected for a five-year term, but, if the President suffers a vote of no confidence, resigns or dies, under the simul stabunt, simul cadent clause introduced in 1999 (literally they will stand together or they will fall together), also the Council is dissolved and a snap election is called.

Executive branch[edit]

The Regional Government (Giunta Regionale) is presided by the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione), who is elected for a five-year term, and is currently composed by ten members: the President and 9 regional ministers or assessors (Assessori), including a Vice President (Vice Presidente).[6]

List of Presidents[edit]

The current President of Tuscany is Enrico Rossi, who is serving his first term after winning the 2010 regional election.

Local government[edit]

Provinces[edit]

Tuscany is divided in ten provinces, which are a traditional form of local administration in the region.

Socialist and communist ideas had an early diffusion in quite all the provinces around World War I. After the Fascist parenthesis, left-wing parties found their strongholds in eastern rural provinces, especially Siena and Arezzo, while Christian Democracy used to be strong in the north-western part of the Region.

The city of Florence is now one of major national strongholds of Democratic Party. The Province of Siena is also called the "red province of Italy", because the Italian Communist Party has always governed it with the 60% of the votes since 1945 to its dissolution in 1991.

Province Inhabitants President Party Election
Florence 991,862 Dario Nardella Democratic Party 2015
Arezzo 348,327 Silvia Chiassai Martini Independent (centre-right) 2018
Grosseto 227,063 Antonfrancesco Vivarelli Colonna Independent (centre-right) 2017
Livorno 341,453 Maria Ida Bessi Independent (centre-left) 2018
Lucca 392,182 Luca Menesini Democratic Party 2015
Massa and Carrara 203,642 Gianni Lorenzetti Democratic Party 2016
Pisa 414,154 Massimiliano Angori Democratic Party 2018
Pistoia 292,108 Rinaldo Vanni Democratic Party 2015
Prato 248,174 Francesco Puggelli Democratic Party 2018
Siena 270,333 Silvio Franceschelli Democratic Party 2018

Municipalities[edit]

Tuscany is also divided in 287 comuni (municipalities), which have even more history, having been established in the Middle Ages when they were the main places of government. 18 comuni (10 provincial capitals) have more than 45,000 inhabitants, a large majority of which are ruled by the centre-left.

Provincial capitals[edit]

Municipality Inhabitants Mayor Party Election
Arezzo 100,140 Alessandro Ghinelli Independent (centre-right) 2015
Florence 370,702 Dario Nardella Democratic Party 2019
Grosseto 82,284 Antonfrancesco Vivarelli Colonna Independent (centre-right) 2016
Livorno 161,084 Luca Salvetti Democratic Party 2019
Lucca 84,928 Alessandro Tambellini Democratic Party 2017
Massa 71,006 Francesco Persiani Lega Nord 2018
Pisa 88,332 Michele Conti Lega Nord 2018
Pistoia 90,226 Alessandro Tomasi Brothers of Italy 2017
Prato 187,994 Matteo Biffoni Democratic Party 2019
Siena 54,561 Luigi De Mossi Independent (centre-right) 2018

Other municipalities with more than 45,000 inhabitants[edit]

Municipality Inhabitants Mayor Party Election
Carrara 65,612 Francesco De Pasquale Five Star Movement 2017
Viareggio 64,564 Giorgio Del Ghingaro Democratic Party 2015
Scandicci 50,304 Sandro Fallani Democratic Party 2019
Sesto Fiorentino 48,780 Lorenzo Falchi Italian Left 2016
Empoli 47,997 Brenda Barnini Democratic Party 2019
Capannori 46,355 Luca Menesini Democratic Party 2019
Campi Bisenzio 45,325 Emiliano Fossi Democratic Party 2018
Cascina 45,143 Susanna Ceccardi Lega Nord Toscana 2016

Parties and elections[edit]

Latest regional election[edit]

In the latest regional election, which took place on 31 May 2015, Enrico Rossi of the Democratic Party was re-elected for a second term. Claudio Borghi of Lega Nord came distant second. The Democrats were by far the largest party with 46.3% of the vote.

31 May 2015 Tuscan regional election results
Tuscany Regional Council 2015.svg
Candidates Votes % Seats Parties Votes % Seats
Enrico Rossi 656,920 48.02 1
Democratic Party 614,869 45.93 24
Tuscan People–Reformists 2020 (incl. PSI) 22,760 1.70
Total 637,629 47.63 24
Claudio Borghi 273,795 20.02 2
Lega Nord Toscana 214,430 16.02 4
Brothers of Italy 51,152 3.82 1
Total 265,582 19.84 5
Giacomo Giannarelli 205,818 15.05 1 Five Star Movement 200,771 15.00 4
Stefano Mugnai 124,432 9.10 1
Forza Italia 112,658 8.41 1
Lega ToscanaMore Tuscany 7,996 0.60
Total 120.654 9.01 1
Tommaso Fattori 85,870 6.28 1 Tuscany to the Left (incl. SEL, PRC, PCd'I) 83,187 6.21 1
Giovanni Lamioni 17,146 1.27 Passion for Tuscany (incl. NCD, UdC) 15,837 1.18
Gabriele Chiurli 3,621 0.26 Direct Democracy 3,319 0.25
Total candidates 1,367,872 100.00 6 Total parties 1,326,979 100.00 35
Source: Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections

References[edit]

  1. ^ Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009
  2. ^ Ceccarini, Luigi; Newell, James L. (2019). The Italian General Election of 2018: Italy in Uncharted Territory. Springer. p. 252. ISBN 9783030136178. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  3. ^ Newell, James L. (2010). The Politics of Italy: Governance in a Normal Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 9781139788892. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  4. ^ Barbieri, Giovanni (2012). "The Northern League in the 'Red Belt' of Italy" (PDF). Bulletin of Italian Politics. University of Glasgow. 4 (2): 277–294. ISSN 1759-3077. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  5. ^ http://raccoltanormativa.consiglio.regione.toscana.it/articolo?urndoc=urn:nir:regione.toscana:legge:2014-09-26;51
  6. ^ http://www.regione.toscana.it/regione/giunta

External links[edit]