Politics of Ukraine
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Politics of Ukraine takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers (until 1996, jointly with the President). Legislative power is vested in the parliament (Verkhovna Rada). Scholars have described Ukraine's political system as "weak, fractured, highly personal and ideologically vacuous while the judiciary and media fail to hold politicians to account" (Dr. Taras Kuzio in 2009). Ukrainian politics has been categorised as "over-centralised" which is seen as both a legacy of the Soviet system and caused by a fear of separatism. Corruption in Ukraine is rampant, and widely cited, at home and abroad, as a defining characteristic (and decisive handicap) of Ukrainian society, politics and government. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Ukraine as "hybrid regime" in 2016.
- 1 Constitution of Ukraine
- 2 Fundamental Freedoms
- 3 Executive branch
- 4 Legislative branch
- 5 Political parties and elections
- 6 Judicial branch
- 7 Local government
- 8 Autonomous Republic of Crimea
- 9 International organization participation
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 References
Constitution of Ukraine
Shortly after becoming independent in 1991, Ukraine named a parliamentary commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for national minorities. A new, democratic constitution was adopted on 28 June 1996, which mandates a pluralistic political system with protection of basic human rights and liberties, and a semi-presidential form of government.
The Constitution was amended in December 2004 to ease the resolution of the 2004 presidential election crisis. The consociationalist agreement transformed the form of government in a semi-presidentialism in which the President of Ukraine had to cohabit with a powerful Prime Minister. The Constitutional Amendments took force between January and May 2006.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law, although religious organizations are required to register with local authorities and with the central government. Minority rights are respected in accordance with a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities the right to schools and cultural facilities and the use of national languages in conducting personal business. According to the Ukrainian constitution, Ukrainian is the only official state language. However, in Crimea and some parts of eastern Ukraine—areas with substantial ethnic Russian minorities—use of Russian is widespread in official business.
Freedom of speech and press are guaranteed by law, but authorities sometimes interfere with the news media through different forms of pressure (see Freedom of the press in Ukraine). In particular, the failure of the government to conduct a thorough, credible, and transparent investigation into the 2000 disappearance and murder of independent journalist Georgiy Gongadze has had a negative effect on Ukraine's international image. Over half of Ukrainians polled by the Razumkov Center in early October 2010 (56.6%) believed political censorship existed in Ukraine.
Official labor unions have been grouped under the Federation of Labor Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, among them the Independent Union of Miners of Ukraine, have formed the Consultative Council of Free Labor Unions. While the right to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political demands are prohibited.
|President||Petro Poroshenko||Independent||7 June 2014|
|Prime Minister||Volodymyr Groysman||Petro Poroshenko Bloc||14 April 2016|
The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The President nominates the Prime Minister, who must be confirmed by parliament. The Prime-minister and cabinet are de jure appointed by the Parliament on submission of the President and Prime Minister respectively. Pursuant to Article 114 of the Constitution of Ukraine.
The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament of Ukraine) has 450 members, elected for a four-year term (five-year between 2006 and 2012 with the 2004 amendments). Prior to 2006, half of the members were elected by proportional representation and the other half by single-seat constituencies. Starting with the March 2006 parliamentary election, all 450 members of the Verkhovna Rada were elected by party-list proportional representation. The Verkhovna Rada initiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, and approves the budget.
The overall trust in legislative powers in Ukraine is very low.
Political parties and elections
Ukrainian parties tend not to have clear-cut ideologies but incline to centre around civilizational and geostrategic orientations (rather than economic and socio-political agendas, as in Western politics), around personalities and business interests. Party membership is lower than 1% of the population eligible to vote (compared to an average of 4.7% in the European Union).
Parties currently represented in the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament)
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|Petro Poroshenko Bloc||People's Front||Opposition Bloc||Self Reliance||Radical Party||Fatherland||Revival[a 1]||People's Will[a 2][a 3]||Non-affiliated[a 4]|
|End of previous convocation||DNP[a 5]||DNP[a 6]||DNP[a 7]||DNP||1||86||41||35||93||445||5|
|Seats won in 2014 election||132||82||29||33||22||19||DNP||DNP||96||423||27|
|November 27, 2014
|December 2, 2014||147||420||30|
|February 5, 2015||150||82||31||21||18||42||422||28|
|June 24, 2015||144||81||43||22||19||422||28|
|October 22, 2015||142||26||20||48||422||28|
|February 13, 2016||136||23||53||422||28|
|April 11, 2016||141||47||422||28|
|April 12, 2016||145[a 8]||19||44||422||28|
|July 19, 2016||142||42||422||28|
|September 21, 2016||143||21||46||422||28|
|December 23, 2016||142||20||24||18||48||422||28|
|September 10, 2017||138||20||17||51||422||28|
|July 31, 2017||135||25||24||19||55||422||28|
|November 22, 2018||135||38||60||422||28|
|Latest voting share||32.7%||19.2%||10.2%||6.2%||4.7%||4.7%||6.2%||4.0%||12.1%||93.8%||6.2%|
Former parliamentary parties
A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name Reforms for the Future existed between 16 February 2011 and 15 December 2012. A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name For Peace and Stability existed between 2 July 2014 and 27 November 2014.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) was prohibited in 1991, however its members were not excluded from the Ukrainian parliament. They formed a parliamentary faction of the Socialist Party of Ukraine. For the 1994 parliamentary elections however the ban on communist parties was lifted and there were two parties with similar ideologies running for parliament the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Ukraine that was reestablished in 1993.
Presidential Election 2014
Originally scheduled to take place on 29 March 2015, the date was changed to 25 May 2014 following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. Petro Poroshenko won the elections with 54.7% of the votes. His closest competitor was Yulia Tymoshenko, who emerged with 12.81% of the votes. The Central Election Commission reported voter turnout at over 60% excluding those regions not under government control, Crimea and a large part of the Donbass. Since Poroshenko obtained an absolute majority in the first round, a run-off second ballot was unnecessary.
Parliamentary Election 2012
|Party of Regions||6,116,815||30.00||4.37||72||113||
185 / 450
|Fatherland (including United Opposition)[a]||5,208,390||25.55||5.17[b]||62||39||
101 / 450
|Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform (UDAR) of Vitali Klitschko||2,847,878||13.97||New||34||6||
40 / 450
|Communist Party of Ukraine||2,687,246||13.18||7.79||32||—||
32 / 450
37 / 450
|Party of Natalia Korolevska "Ukraine – Forward!"||322,202||1.58||New||—||—||—||New|
|Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko||221,136||1.08||New||—||1||
1 / 450
|Party of Pensioners of Ukraine||114,198||0.56||0.41[d]||—||—||—||0|
|Socialist Party of Ukraine||93,081||0.46||2.41||—||—||—||0|
|Party of Greens of Ukraine||70,316||0.35||0.06||—||—||—||0|
|Ukrainian Party "Green Planet"||70,117||0.35||—||—||—||—||0|
|Ukraine of the Future||38,544||0.19||New||—||—||—||New|
|Political Association "Native Fatherland"||32,724||0.16||New||—||—||—||New|
|People's Labor Union of Ukraine||22,854||0.11||New||—||—||—||New|
|All-Ukrainian Association "Community"||17,678||0.08||—||—||—||—||0|
|Liberal Party of Ukraine||15,566||0.07||—||—||—||—||0|
3 / 450
2 / 450
1 / 450
43 / 450
|Total valid votes||20,388,138||100||225||220||445|
|Invalid ballot papers||409,068||1.97|
|Vacant (constituencies with no result)||5||
5 / 450
|Source: CEC (Proportional votes, Single-member constituencies)|
Presidential Election 2010
|Candidates||Nominating Party||First round||Second round|
|Viktor Yanukovych||Party of Regions||8,686,642||35.32||12,481,266||48.95|
|Yulia Tymoshenko||All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland"||6,159,810||25.05||11,593,357||45.47|
|Petro Symonenko||Communist Party of Ukraine||872,877||3.54|
|Volodymyr Lytvyn||People's Party||578,883||2.35|
|Oleh Tyahnybok||All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom"||352,282||1.43|
|Oleksandr Moroz||Socialist Party of Ukraine||95,169||0.38|
|Yuriy Kostenko||Ukrainian People's Party||54,376||0.22|
|Liudmyla Suprun||People's Democratic Party||47,349||0.19|
|Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine|
The first round of voting took place on January 17, 2010. Eighteen candidates nominated for election in which incumbent president Viktor Yushchenko was voted out of office having received only 5.45% of the vote. The two highest polling candidates, Viktor Yanukovych (34.32%) and Yulia Tymoshenko (25.05%), will face each other in a final run-off ballot scheduled to take place on February 7, 2010
Parliamentary Election 2007
Presidential Election 2004
The initial second round of the Presidential Election 2004 (on November 17, 2004) was followed by the Orange Revolution, a series of peaceful protests that resulted in the nullification of the second round. The Supreme Court of Ukraine ordered a repeat of the re-run to be held on December 26, 2004, and asked the law enforcement agencies to investigate cases of election fraud.
|Candidates — nominating parties||Votes first round 31-Oct-04||%||Votes run-off 21-Nov-04||%||Votes rerun 26-Dec-04||%|
|Viktor Yushchenko — Self-nomination||11,188,675||39.90||14,222,289||46.61||15,115,712||51.99|
|Viktor Yanukovych — Party of Regions||11,008,731||39.26||15,093,691||49.46||12,848,528||44.20|
|Oleksandr Moroz — Socialist Party of Ukraine||1,632,098||5.82|
|Petro Symonenko — Communist Party of Ukraine||1,396,135||4.97|
|Nataliya Vitrenko — Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine||429,794||1.53|
|Participation rate from 37,613,022||74.54||81.12||77.28|
|Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine. On December 3, the Supreme Court of Ukraine declared the results of the November 21, 2004 run-off ballot to be invalid. The re-run ballot was held on December 26, 2004.|
- the Supreme Court of Ukraine;
- high specialized courts: the High Arbitration Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Вищий господарський суд України), the High Administrative Court of Ukraine;
- regional courts of appeal, specialized courts of appeal;
- local district courts.
Laws, acts of the parliament and the Cabinet, presidential edicts, and acts of the Crimean parliament (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) may be nullified by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, when they are found to violate the Constitution of Ukraine. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.
The Constitution of Ukraine provides for trials by jury. This has not yet been implemented in practice. Moreover, some courts provided for by legislation as still in project, as is the case for, e.g., the Court of Appeals of Ukraine. The reform of the judicial branch is presently under way. Important is also the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine, granted with the broad rights of control and supervision.
Administrative divisions of Ukraine are 24 oblasts (regions), with each oblast further divided into rayons (districts). The current administrative divisions remained the same as the local administrations of the Soviet Union. The heads of the oblast and rayon are appointed and dismissed by the President of Ukraine and serve as representatives of the central government in Kyiv. They govern over locally elected assemblies. This system encourages regional elites to compete fiercely for control over the central government and the position of the president.
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
During 1992, a number of pro-Russian political organizations in Crimea advocated secession of Crimea and annexation to Russia. During USSR times Crimea was ceded from Russia to Ukraine in 1954 by First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to mark the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav. In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that Crimea would remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction while retaining significant cultural and economic autonomy, thus creating the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
The Crimean peninsula—while under Ukraininan sovereignty, served as site for major military bases of both Ukrainian and Russian forces, and was heavily populated by ethnic Russians.
In early 2014, Ukraine's pro-Russian president, Viktor Yanukovich, was kicked out of power by Ukraininans, with the use of brute force. In response,the citizens of Crimea decided to join Russia. The legitimate parliament of Crimea which was elected based on the Ukrainian legislation announced a referendum. The Parliament, by an overwhelming majority, voted to join Russia. Results of the Referendum held in March 2014, in Crimea with 97% of voters backing joining Russia. On 18 March 2014, Russia and the new, self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in the Russian Federation. In response, the UN General Assembly passed non-binding resolution 68/262 declaring the referendum invalid, and officially supporting Ukraine's claim to Crimea. Although Russia administers the peninsula as two federal subjects, Ukraine and the majority of countries do not recognise Russia's annexation.
International organization participation
BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS (participating), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee
- Politics of Ukraine portal
- List of Ukrainian politicians
- Declaration of Independence
- Proclamation of Independence
- Corruption in Ukraine
- Cassette Scandal
- Ukraine without Kuchma
- Orange Revolution
- Russia-Ukraine gas dispute
- Universal of National Unity
- 2007 Ukrainian political crisis
- NATO-Ukrainian relations
- Ukrainian nationalism
Center for Adaptation of Civil Service to the Standards of EU - public institution established by the Decree of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine to facilitate administrative reform in Ukraine and to enhance the adaptation of the civil service to the standards of the European Union.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Politics of Ukraine.|
- Ukraine: State of Chaos
- Short film: AEGEE's Election Observation Mission
- Kupatadze, Alexander: "Similar Events, Different Outcomes: Accounting for Diverging Corruption Patterns in Post-Revolution Georgia and Ukraine" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 26
- Populism in Ukraine in Comparative European Context, Taras Kuzio (24 April 2009)
- Ukraine at a Crossroads, Peter Lang, 2005, ISBN 978-3-03910-468-0 (page 43)
- The Making of Regions in Post-Socialist Europe: The Impact of Culture, Economic Structure and Institutions, Vol. II:Case Studies from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine by Melanie Tatur, VS Verlag, 2004, ISBN 978-3-8100-3814-2 (page 111)
- The Making of Regions in Post-Socialist Europe: The Impact of Culture, Economic Structure and Institutions, Vol. II:Case Studies from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine by Melanie Tatur, VS Verlag, 2004, ISBN 978-3-8100-3814-2 (page 349)
- Dorell, Oren and Kim Hjelmgaard, "2 years after revolution, corruption plagues war-torn Ukraine,", Feb. 21, 2016, USA Today
- New York Times Editorial Board, "Ukraine’s Unyielding Corruption," (editorial), March 30, 2016, New York Times.
- "Ostrich zoo and vintage cars: The curse of corruption in Ukraine,", Jun 14th 2014, The Economist
- "Fighting corruption in Ukraine: A serious challenge," (press release), Oct. 31, 2012., Transparency International
- solutions, EIU digital. "Democracy Index 2016 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2017-12-01.
- Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada decree No. 2222-IV: About the amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine. Adopted on 2004-12-08. (Ukrainian)
- Update: Return to 1996 Constitution strengthens president, raises legal questions, Kyiv Post (October 1, 2010)
- Over half of Ukrainians feel political censorship, Kyiv Post (October 9, 2010)
- "New Ukrainian president will be elected for 5-year term – Constitutional Court". Interfax-Ukraine. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- 84% of Ukrainians do not trust parliament Archived 2010-12-04 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Ukraine (December 23, 2009)
- Against All Odds:Aiding Political Parties in Georgia and Ukraine by Max Bader, Vossiuspers UvA, 2010, ISBN 978-90-5629-631-5 (page 82)
- Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (January 3, 2011)
- Black Sea Politics:Political Culture and Civil Society in an Unstable Region, I. B. Tauris, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84511-035-2 (page 45)
- State-Building:A Comparative Study of Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia by Verena Fritz, Central European University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-963-7326-99-8 (page 189)
- Political Parties of Eastern Europe:A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era by Janusz Bugajski, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, ISBN 978-1-56324-676-0 (page 829)
- Ukraine and European Society (Chatham House Papers) by Tor Bukkvoll, Pinter, 1998, ISBN 978-1-85567-465-3 (page 36)
- How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy by Anders Åslund, Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3
- The Rebirth of Europe by Elizabeth Pond, Brookings Institution Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8157-7159-3 (page 146)
- Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 383 and 396)
- The Crisis of Russian Democracy:The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession by Richard Sakwa, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-14522-0 (page 110)
- To Balance or Not to Balance:Alignment Theory And the Commonwealth of Independent States by Eric A. Miller, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-4334-0 (page 129)
- Ukraine:Challenges of the Continuing Transition Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine, National Intelligence Council (Conference Report August 1999)
- Understanding Ukrainian Politics:Power, Politics, And Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M. E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7656-1811-5 (page 189)
- Former German Ambassador Studemann views superiority of personality factor as fundamental defect of Ukrainian politics, Kyiv Post (December 21, 2009)
- Research, European Union Democracy Observatory
- Ukraine: Comprehensive Partnership for a Real Democracy, Center for International Private Enterprise, 2010
- Poll: Ukrainians unhappy with domestic economic situation, their own lives, Kyiv Post (September 12, 2011)
- Poroshenko Bloc to have greatest number of seats in parliament, Ukrinform (8 November 2014)
People's Front 0.33% ahead of Poroshenko Bloc with all ballots counted in Ukraine elections - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
Poroshenko Bloc to get 132 seats in parliament - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
- (in Ukrainian)Data on vote counting at percincts within single-mandate districts Extraordinary parliamentary election on 17.06.2016, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
- (in Ukrainian) Block Poroshenko and kick off to the polls together, TVi (2 September 2014)
- After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
- (in Ukrainian) Депутатські фракції і групи VIII скликання Deputy fractions and Groups VIII convocation, Verkhovna Rada
- (in Ukrainian)Yatsenyuk became a leader of the "People's Front" political council, while Turchynov is a head of its headquarters. Ukrayinska Pravda. 10 September 2014
Ukrainian PM, Parliament Speaker to Head Newly Formed Popular Front Party, RIA Novosti (10 September 2014)
- Ukraine's united opposition discussing formation of single party, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)(subscription required)
Five factions, including Communist Party, registered in parliament, Kyiv Post (12 December 2012)(subscription required)
Sobolev: Front for Change and Reform and Order Party to join Batkivschyna, Interfax-Ukraine (11 June 2013)
Front for Change, Reforms and Order to dissolve for merger with Batkivshchyna - Sobolev, Ukrinform (11 June 2013)
(in Ukrainian) Sobolev heads "Batkivshchyna" in the Rada, Televiziyna Sluzhba Novyn (20 March 2014)
"Turchynov is summoned for interrogation to SBU today – BYUT". UNIAN. 20 September 2010. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
"Batkivschyna to nominate Tymoshenko for presidency, Yatseniuk heads party's political council". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
"BYT-Batkivschyna replaces its leader". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 7 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Grytsenko, Oksana (September 21, 2014). "Allies of Yanukovych trying for parliament". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- (in Ukrainian) In Parliament created a faction, Ukrayinska Pravda (27 November 2014)
- (in Ukrainian) Two more deputies entered the Poroshenko Bloc faction, Ukrayinska Pravda (2 December 2014)
- Ukraine: Lawmakers end session without new PM vote, BBC News (12 April 2016)
- (in Ukrainian) Savchenko was expelled from the faction "Fatherland", Ukrayinska Pravda (20 December 2016)
(in Ukrainian) Deputy faction Mishchenko out PPB, Ukrayinska Pravda (23 December 2016)
- Individual deputies create Reforms for the Sake of Future group in parliament, Kyiv Post (February 16, 2011)
- Parliament of sixth convocation ends its work, Kyiv Post (6 December 2012)
- You Scratch My Back, and I’ll Scratch Yours, The Ukrainian Week (26 September 2012)
Voting for the Verkhovna Rada regulations amendment
Stenogram of November 6, 2012 session
Політичний цирк: кнопкодави попалися на своїх звичках (Political circus: the "button-pushers" got caught on its habits). Ukrayinska Pravda.
- Yefremov: Regions Party faction already has 223 members, Kyiv Post (28 November 2012 2012)
A difficult victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (31 October 2012)
- (in Ukrainian) , Ukrayinska Pravda (2 July 2014)
- (in Ukrainian) Політична партія „Трудова Україна“, Database DATA
Explaining State Capture and State Capture Modes by Oleksiy Omelyanchuk, Central European University, 2001 (page 22)
Trudova Ukraina elects a new chairman, Policy Documentation Center (November 27, 2000)
Explaining State Capture: Russia and Ukraine, Central European University (2001)
- "BBC News – Ukrainian president and opposition sign early poll deal". Bbc.co.uk. 21 February 2014.
- "Ukraine president announces early elections – Europe". Al Jazeera English.
- "Ukraine's President Yanukovich declares early elections, constitutional reforms – RT News". Rt.com. 21 February 2014.
- "Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote - CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
(in Russian) Results election of Ukrainian president, Телеграф (29 May 2014)
- Interfax (2014-05-26). "Ukrainian presidential election turnout tops 60 percent - chief election official | Russia Beyond The Headlines". Rbth.com. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- "CEC chair: Ukrainian presidential election turnout tops 60 percent". Kyivpost.com. 2014-05-26. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- Ukraine elections: Runners and risks, BBC News (22 May 2014)
- Q&A: Ukraine presidential election, BBC News (7 February 2010)
- Ukraine crisis timeline, BBC News
- EU & Ukraine 17 April 2014 FACT SHEET, European External Action Service (17 April 2014)
- Gutterman, Steve. "Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions". Reuters.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Poroshenko Declares Victory in Ukraine Presidential Election, The Wall Street Journal (25 May 2014)
- Russia will recognise outcome of Ukraine poll, says Vladimir Putin, The Guardian (23 May 2014)
- Ukraine talks set to open without pro-Russian separatists, The Washington Post (14 May 2014)
- http://www.cvk.gov.ua/vp2014/wp095pt00_t001f01=702pt001f01=702pt049f01=5.html[dead link]
- Foreign Electoral District
- http://www.cvk.gov.ua/vp2014/wp063pt00_t001f01=702pt001f01=702.html[dead link]
- (in Ukrainian) ЦВК оприлюднила офіційні результати 1-го туру виборів, Gazeta.ua (January 25, 2010)
- Yulia Timoshenko received 45.47 percent, or 11.6 million votes[dead link]
- "The Politics of Regionalism". Eurasia Review. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Official results: 97 percent of Crimea voters back joining Russia". cbsnews.com. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Alex Felton; Marie-Louise Gumuchian (27 March 2014). "U.N. General Assembly resolution calls Crimean referendum invalid". cnn.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Michel, Casey, [one-year-after-russias-annexation-world-has-forgotten-crimea "The Crime of the Century,"], March 4, 2015, The New Republic