Pollard script

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Pollard
Pollard Miao
Manuscripts in the Yunnan Nationalities Museum - DSC03941.JPG
Miao book in Pollard script, in the Yunnan Nationalities Museum, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
Script type
CreatorSam Pollard
Time period
ca. 1936 to the present
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesA-Hmao, Lipo, Szechuan Miao, Nasu
Related scripts
Parent systems
Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
  • Pollard
    Pollard Miao
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Plrd, 282 Edit this on Wikidata, ​Miao (Pollard)
Unicode
Unicode alias
Miao
U+16F00–U+16F9F
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The Pollard script, also known as Pollard Miao (Chinese: 柏格理苗文 Bó Gélǐ Miao-wen) or Miao, is an abugida loosely based on the Latin alphabet and invented by Methodist missionary Sam Pollard. Pollard invented the script for use with A-Hmao, one of several Miao languages. The script underwent a series of revisions until 1936, when a translation of the New Testament was published using it. The introduction of Christian materials in the script that Pollard invented caused a great impact among the Miao. Part of the reason was that they had a legend about how their ancestors had possessed a script but lost it. According to the legend, the script would be brought back some day. When the script was introduced, many Miao came from far away to see and learn it.[1][2]

Pollard credited the basic idea of the script to the Cree syllabics designed by James Evans in 1838–1841, “While working out the problem, we remembered the case of the syllabics used by a Methodist missionary among the Indians of North America, and resolved to do as he had done”. He also gave credit to a Chinese pastor, “Stephen Lee assisted me very ably in this matter, and at last we arrived at a system”.[3]

Changing politics in China led to the use of several competing scripts, most of which were romanizations. The Pollard script remains popular among Hmong in China, although Hmong outside China tend to use one of the alternative scripts. A revision of the script was completed in 1988, which remains in use.

As with most other abugidas, the Pollard letters represent consonants, whereas vowels are indicated by diacritics. Uniquely, however, the position of this diacritic is varied to represent tone. For example, in Western Hmong, placing the vowel diacritic above the consonant letter indicates that the syllable has a high tone, whereas placing it at the bottom right indicates a low tone.

Alphabets[edit]

The script was originally developed for A-Hmao, and adopted early for Lipo. In 1949 Pollard (Pollard died in 1915. How could he adapted the writing system in 1949?) adapted it for a group of Miao in Szechuan, creating a distinct alphabet.[4] There is also a Nasu alphabet using Pollard script.

Consonants[edit]

𖼀 𖼁 𖼂 𖼃 𖼄
PA BA YI PA PLA MA
𖼅 𖼆 𖼇 𖼈 𖼉
MHA ARCHAIC MA FA VA VFA
𖼊 𖼋 𖼌 𖼍 𖼎
TA DA YI TTA YI TA TTA
𖼏 𖼐 𖼑 𖼒 𖼓
DDA NA NHA YI NNA ARCHAIC NA
𖼔 𖼕 𖼖 𖼗 𖼘
NNA NNHA LA LYA LHA
𖼙 𖼚 𖼛 𖼜 𖼝
LHYA TLHA DLHA TLHYA DLHYA
𖼞 𖼟 𖼠 𖼡 𖼢
KA GA YI KA QA QGA
𖼣 𖼤 𖼥 𖼦 𖼧
NGA NGHA ARCHAIC NGA HA XA
𖼨 𖼩 𖼪 𖼫 𖼬
GHA GHHA TSSA DZZA NYA
𖼭 𖼮 𖼯 𖼰 𖼱
NYHA TSHA DZHA YI TSHA YI DZHA
𖼲 𖼳 𖼴 𖼵 𖼶
REFORMED TSHA SHA SSA ZHA ZSHA
𖼷 𖼸 𖼹 𖼺 𖼻
TSA DZA YI TSA SA ZA
𖼼 𖼽 𖼾 𖼿 𖽀
ZSA ZZA ZZSA ZZA ZZYA
𖽁 𖽂 𖽃 𖽄 𖽅
ZZSYA WA AH HHA BRI
𖽆 𖽇 𖽈 𖽉 𖽊
SYI DZYI TE TSE RTE


Vowels and finals[edit]

𖽔 𖽕 𖽖 𖽗
A AA AHH AN
𖽘 𖽙 𖽚 𖽛
ANG O OO WO
𖽜 𖽝 𖽞 𖽟
W E EN ENG
𖽠 𖽡 𖽢 𖽣
OEY I IA IAN
𖽤 𖽥 𖽦 𖽧
IANG IO IE II
𖽨 𖽩 𖽪 𖽫
IU ING U UA
𖽬 𖽭 𖽮 𖽯
UAN UANG UU UEI
𖽰 𖽱 𖽲 𖽳
UNG Y YI AE
𖽴 𖽵 𖽶 𖽷
AEE ERR ROUNDED ERR ER
𖽸 𖽹 𖽺 𖽻
ROUNDED ER AI EI AU
𖽼 𖽽 𖽾 𖽿
OU N NG UOG
𖾀 𖾁 𖾂 𖾃
YUI OG OER VW
𖾄 𖾅 𖾆 𖾇
IG EA IONG UI


Positioning tone marks[edit]

𖾏 𖾐 𖾑 𖾒
RIGHT TOP RIGHT ABOVE BELOW


Baseline tone marks[edit]

𖾓 𖾔 𖾕 𖾖 𖾗 𖾘 𖾙
TONE-2 TONE-3 TONE-4 TONE-5 TONE-6 TONE-7 TONE-8


Archaic baseline tone marks[edit]

𖾚 𖾛 𖾜 𖾝 𖾞 𖾟
REFORMED TONE-1 REFORMED TONE-2 REFORMED TONE-4 REFORMED TONE-5 REFORMED TONE-6 REFORMED TONE-8


Unicode[edit]

The Pollard script was first proposed for inclusion in Unicode by John Jenkins in 1997.[5] It took many years to reach a final proposal in 2010.[6]

It was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1.

The Unicode block for Pollard script, called Miao, is U+16F00–U+16F9F:

Miao[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+16F0x 𖼀 𖼁 𖼂 𖼃 𖼄 𖼅 𖼆 𖼇 𖼈 𖼉 𖼊 𖼋 𖼌 𖼍 𖼎 𖼏
U+16F1x 𖼐 𖼑 𖼒 𖼓 𖼔 𖼕 𖼖 𖼗 𖼘 𖼙 𖼚 𖼛 𖼜 𖼝 𖼞 𖼟
U+16F2x 𖼠 𖼡 𖼢 𖼣 𖼤 𖼥 𖼦 𖼧 𖼨 𖼩 𖼪 𖼫 𖼬 𖼭 𖼮 𖼯
U+16F3x 𖼰 𖼱 𖼲 𖼳 𖼴 𖼵 𖼶 𖼷 𖼸 𖼹 𖼺 𖼻 𖼼 𖼽 𖼾 𖼿
U+16F4x 𖽀 𖽁 𖽂 𖽃 𖽄 𖽅 𖽆 𖽇 𖽈 𖽉 𖽊  𖽏
U+16F5x 𖽐  𖽑  𖽒  𖽓  𖽔  𖽕  𖽖  𖽗  𖽘  𖽙  𖽚  𖽛  𖽜  𖽝  𖽞  𖽟
U+16F6x  𖽠  𖽡  𖽢  𖽣  𖽤  𖽥  𖽦  𖽧  𖽨  𖽩  𖽪  𖽫  𖽬  𖽭  𖽮  𖽯
U+16F7x  𖽰  𖽱  𖽲  𖽳  𖽴  𖽵  𖽶  𖽷  𖽸  𖽹  𖽺  𖽻  𖽼  𖽽  𖽾  𖽿
U+16F8x  𖾀  𖾁  𖾂  𖾃  𖾄  𖾅  𖾆  𖾇   𖾏 
U+16F9x   𖾐    𖾑    𖾒  𖾓 𖾔 𖾕 𖾖 𖾗 𖾘 𖾙 𖾚 𖾛 𖾜 𖾝 𖾞 𖾟
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Published sources[edit]

  • Enwall, Joakim (1994). A Myth Become Reality: History and Development of the Miao Written Language, two volumes. Stockholm East Asian Monographs, 5 & 6. Stockholm: Institute of Oriental Languages, Stockholm University. ISBN 9789171534231.
  • Pollard, Samuel (December 1909). "Gathering up the Fragments". The United Methodist Magazine. 2: 531–35.
  • Wen, You (1938). "Lun Pollard Script". Xinan Bianjiang. 1: 43–53.
  • Wen, You (1951), Guizhou Leishan xin chu canshi chukao. Huaxi wenwu Reprinted in Wen You (1985). Wen You lunji. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan keyanchu.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Enwall 1994
  2. ^ Tapp, N. (2011). "The Impact of Missionary Christianity Upon Marginalized Ethnic Minorities: The Case of the Hmong". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 20: 70–95. doi:10.1017/S0022463400019858. hdl:1885/22258.. Republished in Storch, Tanya, ed. (2006). Religions and Missionaries around the Pacific, 1500–1900. The Pacific World: Lands, Peoples and History of the Pacific, 1500–1900. Vol. 17. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 289–314. ISBN 9780754606673. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  3. ^ Pollard, Samuel (1919), Story of the Miao, London: Henry Hooks, p. 174
  4. ^ Duffy, John M. (2007). Writing from these roots: literacy in a Hmong-American community. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3095-3.
  5. ^ Jenkins, John H. (21 May 1997). "L2/97-104: Proposal to add Pollard to Unicode/ISO-IEC 10646" (PDF). Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  6. ^ "N3789: Final proposal for encoding the Miao script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). 26 March 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2014.

External links[edit]