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Bologna sausage, sometimes phonetically spelled baloney (//), boloney or polony, known in Europe as a Lyoner, is a sausage derived from Mortadella: a similar-looking, finely ground pork sausage containing cubes of lard, originally from the Italian city of Bologna (IPA: [boˈloɲɲa] ( listen)). U.S. Government regulations require American bologna to be finely ground  and without visible pieces of lard. Bologna can alternatively be made out of chicken, turkey, beef, pork, venison, or soy protein. Unlike the mortadella, bologna sausage is not an Italian product and several differences among process and ingredients are seen. Typical seasoning for bologna includes black pepper, nutmeg, allspice, celery seed, coriander, and like mortadella, myrtle berries give it its distinctive flavor.
Polony is the name for a large sausage created from a mixture of beef and pork that is popular in South Africa and was very popular in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. Polony is now eaten less often. It can be stored for long periods, sometimes many weeks. Polony is highly seasoned before being hot smoked. It is then cooked in boiling water when required.
Sometimes referred to as garlic bologna, this sausage differs from traditional bologna due to various seasonings, most typically garlic being added to the recipe. Although referred to as German bologna elsewhere, it is usually called Fleischwurst in Germany and Extrawurst in Austria. Other varieties, such as the French variation, are sometimes called saucisse de Lyon which the Swiss call Lyoner or Lyonerwurst ("Lyon sausage") and usually do not contain a noticeable amount of garlic, while Fleischwurst is often flavored with garlic, these varieties are generally an off-white color, as they do not contain nitrites (which give cooked pork its pink color).
In Australia, garlic bologna is widely referred to as Berliner and labeled as Berliner Fleischwurst by various local 'small goods' manufacturers.
In Germany, "regular" bologna is sometimes referred to as Mortadella, and is mostly identical and made out of the same meats as its American counterpart, although it often contains pistachios. The original, larger, and less finely ground Mortadella is then called italienische Mortadella.
In various countries in Central and Eastern Europe, many sausages are made from very finely ground meat, usually poultry, pork, or beef. They differ from local Mortadella-labeled sausages (which, in contrast, are very similar to Italian original) by being dominantly seasoned with garlic, rather than myrtle, and by not containing pieces of fat/bacon, pistacchio, or olives. They are known by the common name Pariser/Parizer (intended meaning being Parisian sausage) or special salami. The etymology of former name is unknown, but it is assumed to stem from some German name for French or Lyonese sausage, whereas the latter is usually a local translation of Austrian name Extrawurst. Various local brand names are also variants the British name for the sausage, Polony, such as Slovenian Poli or Croatian Poliko.
Kosher or halal bologna
Kosher or halal bologna is typically made with only beef, but sometimes made from turkey, chicken, or lamb.
Ring bologna is much smaller in diameter than standard bologna. It is a good size for slicing and putting on crackers as a snack or hors d'oeuvre (as opposed to the "sandwich-sized" slices of typical bologna). It is generally sold as an entire link rather than sliced. The link is arranged as a semicircle or "ring" when prepared for sale (hence the name). Pickled bologna is usually made from ring bologna soaked in vinegar and typical pickling spices. It is usually served in chunks as a cold snack.
Lauantaimakkara ("Saturday sausage") is a Finnish pork sausage type derived from the early Lyon sausage, the "Lyoner". Lauantaimakkara resembles Bologna sausage in consistence and color, but is mildly spiced and unsmoked.
Rag bologna is a long stick, or "chub" of high-fat bologna traditionally sold wrapped in a cloth rag. The recipe has a higher content of filler than that of regular bologna. Milk solids, flour, cereal, and spices are added during processing, and the roll of bologna is bathed in lactic acid before being coated in paraffin wax. This type of bologna is native to West Tennessee and the surrounding regions and is not commonly available outside this area. It is generally eaten on white bread with mustard and pickles, but is also a staple of family gatherings where thick slices are smoked and barbecued along with other meats. In Newfoundland, a type of rag bologna referred to as "wax" bologna is sliced thickly and fried, which is referred to as "Newfie steak".
South African polony
South Africans refer to bologna exclusively as polony, although South African polony is typically made using highly processed meat. These processed meat products are typically an artificially bright pink color, and are a low-income food due to their low cost. Large pink, bland polonies are called French Polony , with thinner rolls referred to simply as polony. Garlic Polony is also widely available.
Various vegetarian and vegan versions of polony are available. A typical UK recipe uses soya and wheat protein in the place of lean meat and palm oil instead of lard together with starch, carrageenan and flavourings, it can be eaten cold or cooked in the same ways as traditional polony.
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