Polyethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate

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Polyethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate
Polyethylene furanoate.svg
Other names
Polyethylene furanoate; Polyethylene furandicarboxylate; Poly(ethylene furanoate)
Molar mass Variable
Density 1.43 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 195–265 °C (383–509 °F; 468–538 K)[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Polyethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate, also named poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate), polyethylene furanoate and poly(ethylene furanoate) and generally abbreviated as PEF, is a polymer that can be produced by polycondensation of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and ethylene glycol. As an aromatic polyester from ethylene glycol it is a chemical analogue of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). PEF has been described in (patent) literature since 1951,[2] but has gained renewed attention since the US department of energy proclaimed its building block, FDCA, as a potential bio-based replacement for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) in 2004.[3]

Benefits over PET[edit]

One life-cycle assessment showed that replacing PTA in the production of PET by bio-based FDCA for the production of PEF has a potential for significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy use (NREU).[4] Furthermore, PEF exhibits an intrinsically higher gas barrier for oxygen,[5] carbon dioxide[6] and water vapor[7] than PET and can therefore be considered an interesting alternative for packaging applications such as bottles, films and food trays.


  1. ^ a b "PEF". Avalon Industries.
  2. ^ US 2551731 A, Polyesters from heterocyclic components, 1951
  3. ^ Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass
  4. ^ A.J.J.E. Eerhart et al., Replacing fossil based PET with biobased PEF; process analysis, energy and GHG balance, Energy Environ. Sci., 2012
  5. ^ S.K. Burgess et al., Oxygen sorption and transport in amorphous poly (ethylene furanoate), Polymer, 2014
  6. ^ S.K. Burgess et al., Carbon Dioxide Sorption and Transport in Amorphous Poly (ethylene furanoate), Macromolecules, 2015
  7. ^ S.K. Burgess et al., Water sorption in poly (ethylene furanoate) compared to poly (ethylene terephthalate). Part 2: Kinetic sorption, Polymer, 2014