Polyethylene furan-2,5-dicarboxylate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Polyethylene furan-2,5-dicarboxylate
Other names
Polyethylene furanoate; Polyethylene furandicarboxylate; Poly(ethylene furanoate)
Molar mass Variable
Density 1.43 g/cm3[1][2]
Melting point 195–265 °C (383–509 °F; 468–538 K)[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Polyethylene furan-2,5-dicarboxylate, also named poly(ethylene furan-2,5-dicarboxylate), polyethylene furanoate and poly(ethylene furanoate) and generally abbreviated as PEF, is a polymer that can be produced by polycondensation or ring-opening polymerization of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and ethylene glycol.[2][3] As an aromatic polyester from ethylene glycol it is a chemical analogue of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). PEF has been described in (patent) literature since 1951,[4] but has gained renewed attention since the US department of energy proclaimed its building block, FDCA, as a potential bio-based replacement for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) in 2004.[5]

Benefits over PET[edit]

One life-cycle assessment showed that replacing PTA in the production of PET by bio-based FDCA for the production of PEF has a potential for significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy use (NREU).[6] Furthermore, PEF exhibits an intrinsically higher gas barrier for oxygen,[7] carbon dioxide[8] and water vapor[9] than PET and is therefore an interesting alternative for packaging applications such as bottles, films and food trays.


  1. ^ a b "PEF". Avalon Industries.
  2. ^ a b de Jong, E.; Dam, M. A.; Sipos, L.; Gruter, G.-J. M. (January 2012). "Furandicarboxylic Acid (FDCA), A Versatile Building Block for a Very Interesting Class of Polyesters". ACS Symposium Series. 1105: 1–13. doi:10.1021/BK-2012-1105.CH001.
  3. ^ J.-G. Rosenboom et al., Bottle-grade polyethylene furanoate from ring-opening polymerisation of cyclic oligomers, Nature Communications, 2018
  4. ^ US 2551731 A, Polyesters from heterocyclic components, 1951
  5. ^ Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass
  6. ^ A.J.J.E. Eerhart et al., Replacing fossil based PET with biobased PEF; process analysis, energy and GHG balance, Energy Environ. Sci., 2012
  7. ^ S.K. Burgess et al., Oxygen sorption and transport in amorphous poly (ethylene furanoate), Polymer, 2014
  8. ^ S.K. Burgess et al., Carbon Dioxide Sorption and Transport in Amorphous Poly (ethylene furanoate), Macromolecules, 2015
  9. ^ S.K. Burgess et al., Water sorption in poly (ethylene furanoate) compared to poly (ethylene terephthalate). Part 2: Kinetic sorption, Polymer, 2014