Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate
Alkest TW 80
|Molar mass||1310 g/mol|
|Appearance||Amber colored viscous liquid|
|Density||1.06–1.09 g/mL, oily liquid|
|Boiling point||> 100°C|
|Solubility in other solvents||soluble in ethanol, cottonseed oil, corn oil, ethyl acetate, methanol, toluene|
|Viscosity||300–500 centistokes (@25°C)|
|Flash point||113 °C (235 °F; 386 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Polysorbate 80 is derived from polyethoxylated sorbitan and oleic acid. The hydrophilic groups in this compound are polyethers also known as polyoxyethylene groups, which are polymers of ethylene oxide. In the nomenclature of polysorbates, the numeric designation following polysorbate refers to the lipophilic group, in this case the oleic acid (see polysorbate for more detail).
The full chemical names for polysorbate 80 are:
- Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate
- (x)-sorbitan mono-9-octadecenoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)
- Alkest TW 80
- Poegasorb 80
- Tween 80 – Tween is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.
Polysorbate 80 is used as an emulsifier in foods.
For example, in ice cream, polysorbate is added up to 0.5% (v/v) concentration to make the ice cream smoother and easier to handle, as well as increasing its resistance to melting. Adding this substance prevents milk proteins from completely coating the fat droplets. This allows them to join together in chains and nets, which hold air in the mixture, and provide a firmer texture that holds its shape as the ice cream melts.
Health and beauty use
Polysorbate 80 is also used as a surfactant in soaps and cosmetics (including eyedrops), or a solubilizer such as in a mouthwash. The cosmetic grade of polysorbate 80 may have more impurities than the food grade.
Polysorbate 80 is an excipient that is used to stabilize aqueous formulations of medications for parenteral administration, and used as an emulsifier in the manufacture of the popular antiarrhythmic amiodarone. It is also used as an excipient in some European and Canadian influenza vaccines. Influenza vaccines contain 25 μg of polysorbate 80 per dose. It is also used in the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth. It is also used as an emulsifier in the estrogen-regulating drug Estrasorb.
Some mycobacteria contain a type of lipase (enzyme that breaks up lipid molecules). When added to a mixture of polysorbate 80 and phenol red, they cause the solution to change colour, so this is used as a test to identify the phenotype of a strain or isolate.
Consumption and potential effects
||This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (February 2015)|
In Europe and America, people eat about 100 mg of polysorbate 80 in foods per day on average. Polysorbate 80 has not been found to be carcinogenic. Rats fed with diets containing up to 5% polysorbate 80 by volume for 12 weeks showed no toxic effects. A 1997 study on two rats looked at the effect of consuming three doses by body weight of 0.5%/day on the sex organs of female rats and saw no abnormal changes in uterine weight. In general, polysorbate 80 is safe and well tolerated, notwithstanding the items listed below.
Lowered body weight of offspring
A 2008 animal study concluded no observable adverse effects were seen at doses per body weight up to 1.85 ml/kg·day, which is equivalent to a 70 kg person consuming about 140 g of this substance per day for 21 days. However, administration of 16.783 ml/kg·day to pregnant rats lowered body weight in male and female offspring. This is equivalent to a person consuming about 1.3 kg of polysorbate 80 per day for 21 days.
A 1956 study saw no effect on reproduction in rats during their lifetime at up to 5% of their diet being polysorbate 80. Reproduction decreased at 20% of their diet. A 1993 study raised concerns that polysorbate 80 might decrease fertility in rats.
Impact on mouse gut microbiota
Relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and Polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Use of germ-free mice and fecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome.
- Polysorbate 20, used as a wetting agent in mouth drops
- Polysorbate 40
- Polysorbate 60, used as an emulsifier in powdered drink preparations such as hot cocoa mix
- Polysorbate 65
- Merck Index, 13th Edition, 7664.
- Chou DK, Krishnamurthy R, Randolph TW, Carpenter JF, Manning MC (June 2005). "Effects of Tween 20 and Tween 80 on the stability of Albutropin during agitation". J Pharm Sci. 94 (6): 1368–81. doi:10.1002/jps.20365. PMID 15858848.
- US PTO TESS Registry Number 2885675
- Goff, H. Douglas (1997). "Colloidal aspects of ice cream—A review". International Dairy Journal. 7 (6–7): 363–373. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(97)00040-X. ISSN 0958-6946.
- "What is Polysorbate 80?". The Honest Company Blog. The Honest Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Gautier & Bellamy. "Pharmaceutical amiodarone composition for parenteral delivery". Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) Influenza Vaccine Quick Reference Guide Winnipeg Regional Health Authority 2009
- Ema, M.; Hara, H.; Matsumoto, M.; Hirata-Koizumi, M.; Hirose, A.; Kamata, E. (2008). "Evaluation of developmental neurotoxicity of polysorbate 80 in rats". Reproductive Toxicology. 25 (1): 89–52. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.08.003. PMID 17961976.
- OSER BL, OSER M (November 1956). "Nutritional studies on rats on diets containing high levels of partial ester emulsifiers. I. General plan and procedures; growth and food utilization". J. Nutr. 60 (3): 367–90. PMID 13377228.
- Williams J, Odum J, Lewis RW, Brady AM (March 1997). "The oral administration of polysorbate 80 to the immature female rat does not increase uterine weight". Toxicol. Lett. 91 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(96)03863-5. PMID 9096282.
- Steele RH, Limaye S, Cleland B, Chow J, Suranyi MG (2005). "Hypersensitivity reactions to the polysorbate contained in recombinant erythropoietin and darbepoietin". Nephrology (Carlton). 10 (3): 317–20. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2005.00389.x. PMID 15958049.
- Roberts, Carol L; Keita, A. V.; Duncan, S. H.; O'Kennedy, N.; Soderholm, J. D.; Rhodes, J. M.; Campbell, B. J. (2010-09-01). "Translocation of Crohn's disease Escherichia coli across M-cells: contrasting effects of soluble plant fibres and emulsifiers". Gut. 59 (10): 1331–1339. doi:10.1136/gut.2009.195370. PMC . PMID 20813719. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Lay summary (2010-08-30).
- Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia K.; Poole, Angela C.; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Ley, Ruth E.; Gewirtz, Andrew T. (March 5, 2015). "Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome". Nature. 519 (7541): 92–96. doi:10.1038/nature14232. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Oser, B L; Oser, M (December 1956). "Nutritional studies on rats of diets containing high levels of partial ester emulsifiers. II. Reproduction and lactation". The Journal of Nutrition. 60 (4): 489–505. PMID 13385715.
- Gajdová M, Jakubovsky J, Války J (March 1993). "Delayed effects of neonatal exposure to Tween 80 on female reproductive organs in rats". Food Chem. Toxicol. 31 (3): 183–90. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(93)90092-D. PMID 8473002.