Polypedates

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Polypedates
Polyp leucom M 050408 041 ipb.jpg
Polypedates leucomystax
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Rhacophoridae
Subfamily: Rhacophorinae
Genus: Polypedates
Tschudi, 1838
Type species
Hyla leucomystax
Gravenhorst, 1829
Diversity
24 species (see text)

Polypedates is a genus of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae, the shrub frogs and Paleotropic tree frogs. They belong to subfamily Rhacophoridae. Members of this genus are collectively known as whipping frogs. They occur in East, South and Southeast Asia.[1]

The delimitation of Polypedates versus the related Rhacophorus has been difficult. In former times, the present genus was often entirely included in Rhacophorus. However, molecular phylogenetic studies support the recognition of both genera. Polypedates + Taruga are considered to be the sister taxon of Feihyla + Rhacophorus.[1][2]

Species[edit]

Currently 24 species are included in Polypedates, with new species still being described on a regular basis:[1]

The recently described Polypedates bijui[3] has now been renamed as Beddomixalus bijui, the only species in its genus.

Phylogeny[edit]

The following phylogeny of Polypedates is from Pyron & Wiens (2011).[4] 8 species are included. Polypedates is a sister group of Feihyla. Together, Polypedates and Feihyla form a sister group to Rhacophorus.[4]

Polypedates 



Polypedates eques



Polypedates fastigo





Polypedates colletti





Polypedates maculatus



Polypedates cruciger





Polypedates leucomystax




Polypedates mutus



Polypedates megacephalus







Kuraishi, et al. (2013) gives the following phylogeny of Polypedates.[5] Polypedates and Rhacophorus are estimated to have split off from their most recent common ancestor 26.6 million years ago during the Oligocene.

Polypedates 

(Sri Lankan clade)


Polypedates eques



Polypedates fastigo





Polypedates otilophus (Borneo)




Polypedates colletti (Southeast Asian)



(South Asian clade)


Polypedates maculatus



Polypedates cruciger





Polypedates sp. (Malay clade)




Polypedates macrotis (Sunda)




Polypedates cf. mutus sp. 1 (South China clade)




Polypedates braueri (North China clade)




Polypedates impresus[6][7] (Laos clade)




Polypedates leucomystax (Sunda clade)



Polypedates megacephalus (Indochina clade)












References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Polypedates Tschudi, 1838". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  2. ^ Li, Jiatang; Dingqi Rao; Robert W. Murphy; Yaping Zhang (2011). "The systematic status of rhacophorid frogs" (PDF). Asian Herpetological Research. 2: 1–11. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00001. 
  3. ^ Zachariah, Dinesh, Kunhikrishnan, Das, Raju, Radhakrishnan, Palot & Kalesh, 2011
  4. ^ a b R. Alexander Pyron; John J. Wiens (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (2): 543–583. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012. PMID 21723399. 
  5. ^ KURAISHI, N., MATSUI, M., HAMIDY, A., BELABUT, D. M., AHMAD, N., PANHA, S., SUDIN, A., YONG, H. S., JIANG, J.-P., OTA, H., THONG, H. T. and NISHIKAWA, K. (2013), Phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (Amphibia). Zoologica Scripta, 42: 54–70. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00562.x
  6. ^ Pan, S., N. Dang, J.S. Wang, Y. Zheng, D.Q. Rao, and J.T. Li. 2013. Molecular phylogeny supports the validity of Polypedates impresus Yang 2008. Asian Herpetological Research 4: 124–133.
  7. ^ Identified by Pan, et al. (2013) as Polypedates impresus, but given in Kuraishi, et al. (2013) as Polypedates cf. mutus.

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