Polypedates otilophus

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Borneo eared frog
Borneo Eared Frog (Polypedates otilophus), CMN.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Rhacophoridae
Genus: Polypedates
Species: P. otilophus
Binomial name
Polypedates otilophus
(Boulenger, 1893)

Rhacophorus otilophus Boulenger, 1893
Rhacophorus otiliophus (lapsus)

Polypedates otilophus (also known as the file-eared tree frog,[2][3] Borneo eared frog, or bony-headed flying frog[4]) is a species of frog in the family Rhacophoridae. It is endemic to Borneo where it is widespread and found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia,[2] typically in the lowlands but sometimes as high as 1,100 m (3,600 ft) above sea level.[3] This species has prominent, sharp ridges behind the eye, above the ear, referred to in its names.[3][4]


Polypedates pseudotilophus from Sumatra and (probably) Java was included in this species until 2014.[2]


Males measure up to 80 mm (3.1 in) and females up to 100 mm (3.9 in) in snout–vent length.[3] The body is robust and dorsally lemon yellow in color, with many thin, black stripes; also the thighs have many black bars. The tympanum is conspicuous, with a serrated bony crest above it (the "ear"). Fingertips are expanded into large discs; those on the toes are smaller. The fingers have only rudimentary webbing whereas the toes are moderately webbed.[5]

The tadpoles are yellowish green above and white below, acquiring the stripes seen in adults well before metamorphosis.[5] The largest tadpoles are 60 mm (2.4 in) in total length.[3]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Polypedates otilophus typically occurs in secondary habitats, at the edges of primary forest, and also in villages.[5] They are most easily spotted at suitable breeding ponds where adults perch on vegetation 1–4 m above the ground.[3] It is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.[1]

Adult exhibited at National Geographic Museum (Washington DC, USA)


  1. ^ a b Inger, R., Stuebing, R., Iskandar, D. & Mumpuni (2004). "Polypedates otilophus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T58962A11862860. Retrieved 26 July 2016.  N.b. Assessment conducted before Polypedates pseudotilophus was separated from this species.
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Polypedates otilophus (Boulenger, 1893)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Haas, A., Das, I., Hertwig, S.T. (2016). "Polypedates otilophus (File-eared Tree Frog)". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Dub (30 January 2014). "Borneo Eared or Bony Headed Flying Frog". frogs.cc. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Inger, R.F. (1966). "The systematics and zoogeography of the amphibia of Borneo". Fieldiana Zoology. 52: 326–329. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3147.