Polystichum

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Polystichum
Polystichum setiferum0.jpg
Polystichum setiferum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida/Pteridopsida
(disputed)
Order: Polypodiales
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Subfamily: Dryopteridoideae
Genus: Polystichum
Roth 1800
Species

See text

Synonyms
  • Acropelta T.Nakai 1953
  • Adenoderris J.Sm. 1875
  • Aetopteron Ehrh. ex House 1920
  • Hemesteum H.Lév. 1915
  • Hypopeltis Michx. 1803
  • Papuapteris C. Chr. 1937
  • Phanerophlebia C. Presl 1836
  • Plecosorus Fée 1852
  • Sorolepidium Christ 1911[1]

Polystichum is a genus of about 260 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution. The highest diversity is in eastern Asia, with about 120 species in China alone; the region from Mexico to Brazil has nearly 100 additional species; Africa (17 species), North America (15 species), and Europe (5 species) have much lower diversity. Polystichum species are terrestrial or rock-dwelling ferns of warm-temperate and montane-tropical regions (a few species grow in alpine regions).

Description[edit]

Many ferns of this genus have stout, slowly creeping rootstocks that form a crown, with a vase-like ring of evergreen fronds 30 to 200 centimetres (10 to 80 in) long. The sori are round, with a circular indusium. The stipes have prominent scales. The genus differs from the well-known and allied fern genus Dryopteris in the indusium being circular, not reniform, and in having the leaf blades with asymmetrical segments—one side of the segment is much longer than the other at the base.

Cultivation[edit]

Several species are grown as ornamental plants in gardens. One species, Polystichum tsus-simense of eastern Asia, is commonly offered as a houseplant.

Hybrids[edit]

Hybridisation is frequent in the genus, with several named hybrids, including:-

  • P. × bicknellii (P. aculeatum × P. setiferum)
  • P. × illyricum (P. aculeatum × P. lonchitis)
  • P. × lonchitiforme (P. lonchitis × P. setiferum)
  • P. × lesliei (P. setiferum × P. munitum) first found in Surrey in 1995 and a second plant found in Cornwall in 2001.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Polystichum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Pharmacis fusconebulosa. Specimens of some of these can be found at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

Apomixis[edit]

Apomixis, the development of an embryo without the occurrence of fertilization, is particularly common among ferns. Apomixis evolved several times independently in three different clades of polystichoid ferns. [3]

Selected species[edit]

The genus Polystichum includes, but is not limited to, the following species. In this list, a species name preceded by (=) is considered to be a synonym of the accepted species name above it.

Former species[edit]

Species that were at one time considered part of the Polystichum genus, but are now categorized elsewhere, include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Synonyms Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 25 Jan 2012
  2. ^ Murphy, Rosaline J; Page, Christopher N; Parslow, Rosemary E; Bennallick, Ian J (2012). Ferns, Clubmosses, Quillworts and Horsetails of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Truro: ERCCIS. ISBN 978 1 902864 07 5. 
  3. ^ Hong-Mei Liu, Robert J. Dyer, Zhi-You Guo, Zhen Meng,Jian-Hui Li, Harald Schneider (2012) The Evolutionary Dynamics of Apomixis in Ferns: A Case Study from Polystichoid Ferns Journal of Botany Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 510478, 11 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/510478
  4. ^ P. andersonii, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  5. ^ P. bonseyi Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  6. ^ P. bonseyi, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  7. ^ P. brachypterum, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  8. ^ P. braunii, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  9. ^ P. brachypterum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  10. ^ P. capillipes Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  11. ^ P. echinatum, Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden., 19 Jan 2012 
  12. ^ P. kiusiuense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  13. ^ P. haleakalense, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 19 Jan 2012 
  14. ^ Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta, J. P. Roux, Nov. 2001. p. 129
  15. ^ P. mollissimum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  16. ^ P. nakenense Chinese Plant Names www.eFloras.org 20 Dec 2012
  17. ^ P. neolobatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  18. ^ P. ordinatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  19. ^ P. erinaceum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  20. ^ P. brunneum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  21. ^ P. setigerum, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Profile, 20 Jan 2012 
  22. ^ P. lichiangense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  23. ^ P. sinense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  24. ^ P. apicisterile Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  25. ^ P. integripinnulum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  26. ^ P. conaense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  27. ^ P. ilicifolium Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  28. ^ P. heteropaleaceum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  29. ^ P. kodamae Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  30. ^ P. xiphophyllum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  31. ^ P. gyirongense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  32. ^ P. jizhushanense Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012
  33. ^ P. auriculatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  34. ^ P. falcatum Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 Jan 2012
  35. ^ P. lepidocaulon Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 20 Jan 2012

External links[edit]