Pomak language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Pomor dialects.

Pomak language (Greek: πομακική γλώσσα, pomakiki glosa or πομακικά, pomakika, Bulgarian: помашки език, pomaški ezik, Turkish: Pomakça) is a term used in Greece[1] and Turkey[2] to refer to some of the Rup dialects of the Bulgarian language spoken by the Pomaks in Western Thrace in Greece and Eastern Thrace in Turkey. These dialects are native also in Bulgaria, and are classified as part of the Smolyan subdialect.[3] Some grammatical forms of the Rup dialects, published by the Danish linguist Pedersen in 1907, have striking resemblance to the grammatical forms of the Armenian language.[4][5] As well, the Rup dialects have slightly different forms of demonstrative suffixes (exercising also functions of the possessive pronouns) from the Bulgarian Tran dialect and the modern standard Macedonian language.[6] There are publications concerning the vocabulary of the Rup dialects[7][8] and anthroponyms of Armenian origin which overlap areas, populated by Paulicians from the 15th to 18th centuries.[9]

According to an alternative opinion, the Pomak language is an original Slavic language with many dialects.[10]

According to the 1935 census in Turkey, 3881 people in Eastern Thrace identified their mother tongue as Bulgarian and 18 382 as Pomak.[11] The overall statistic from 1935 shows that 41 041 people speak Pomak as their mother tongue or as a secondary dialect.[12]

The Pomak language was used mainly in oral communication. Currently in the formation of the literary standard Pomaks attempts to create script based on both the Greek and Latin alphabets. Recently, the Pomak Institute has published an alphabet with 29 letters for the Pomak language.[13]

Examples[edit]

1. Some Phrases and Words

English Rhodope Pomak Dialect (Xanthi, Komotini, Alexandroupoli)
Hello Dobar den (Formal), Zdravej (Informal)
I am Pomak/Bulgarian/Bulgarian Muslim (man) Je sam Pomak/Balgarin/Balgarski Mohamedanin
I speak bulgarian Je lafim balgarcko
How are you? Kak si?
Thank you Blagodarja
Good day Dobar den
Children Detine
This chair Aisos skemle
That auntie Ainos lelka
Ibrahim is my uncle Ibrahim e moj amiđa
Hatiđa is my sister Hatiđa e moja sestra
My father Mojet bubajko
What are you doing? Kina rabutaš?
I knew Je znajeh
Do you know? Znaješ li ti?
He was a good man Toj beše dobar čilak
I am from Xanthi Je sam ot Skeča
One woman from the new village Enna žena ot novoto selo
One day and one night Edin den i enna nošt
Last year Lani

Some words and phrases, in the Pomak language, are borrowed from Turkish, Greek, and other languages.

2. A Sample of the Grammar

Spatio-pragmatic and Temporal-modal Uses of Nominals and Noun Modifiers

Three deictics (-s-, -t- and -n-) are used for spatio-pragmatic and temporal-modal reference in nominals. These deictics are used among others in noun modifiers such as definite articles and demonstratives:[14]

The cat (close to the speaker, here and now): Koteso.

The cat (close to the addressee or realis past): Koteto.

The cat (distal, realis future, irrealis or habitual): Koteno.

This is grand-father's snake: Aisos e dedvasa zmie.

That is grand-father's chair: Ainos e dedvasa skemle.

3. A Text in Pomak Language

Isojzek kitape zafatih da go pisovam iki bin bešte, aga čuh dve-tri dumi at stareh insana faf Mustafčevo. Seftja gi čuešo inezi stari dumi i pačudih so oti trjabava da ima ešte mlogo stari dumi, aga gi nema nikade izpisani. Mifko godini napreš mlozi insan, ne Pomaci, zafatiho da spisavot Pomackoso dumene i kakna sa pravet Pomacise ešte at starite godini. Ja so pačudih, oti naj-napreš nie, Pomacise, trabjava da zafatime da pisavame našoso dumene i našise adeteve i tačila. At kak izpisah isozek kitape, vjaravom oti pamagom i ja Mifko da so na zabaravi pomackoso dumene. Sas isozek kitape ištom da kažom kak dumet bugjun Pomacise ad Mustafčevo nadol da Skeče. Za mone isazi kitap bešo kakta adin borč za majko, za bubajka i za mone deti. Našise deti na možot ešte da so učot faf mečitene Pomackokse ezika. Faf Mjusljumanckise mečiteve učot Urumckokse ezika (I trjabava da go učot, oti živeme faf Janana). Ala učot našise dečija zorlo i turckokse ezika i nikutri na pita nami: „Ištete li našise deti da so učat na turcki?" Turckoso so ne mehne le hič sas pomackoso. Pǎk nie sme Pomaci. Oti da so učime turcki? Za kakna ni e turckoso, at kak živeme faf Janana? Hane da dojde adin den da možame pres straha i pres srama da dumime kakna so dumili našite djadove i da pisavame na našokse ezika. Sebadin Karahođa, Skeče

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Стойков, Ст. Българска диалектология. София, 1968. (Stoykov St. Bulgarian Dialectology. Sofia, 1968).
  • Милетич, Л. Ловчанските помаци. София, Български преглед, г. V, кн. I, 1898, c. 67 - 78. (Miletic, L. The Lovech Pomaks. Sofia, Bulgarian Review, y. V, vol. I, 1898, p. 67-78).
  • Савов, В. Ловчанските помаци и техния говор. Известия на семинара по славянска филология. София, 1931, кн. VII, с. 1 - 34. (Savov, V. The Lovech Pomaks and their speech. Proceedings of the Workshop on Slavic Studies. Sofia, 1931, vol. VII, p. 1-34).
  • Миков, В. Българските мохамедани в Тетевенско, Луковитско и Белослатинско. Родина, 1940 - 1941, No 3, с. 51 - 68.(Mikov, V. Bulgarian Muslims in Teteven, Lukovit, and Byala Slatina Country. Rodina, 1940 - 1941, No 3, p. 51- 68).
  • Български диалектен атлас. София, 1980, т. IV: с. Галата /под No 1471/, с. Добревци /под No 1458/ и с. Кирчево (Помашка Лешница) /под No 2306/. (Bulgarian Dialect Atlas. Sofia, 1980, section IV: the village of Galata /under No 1471/, Dobrevtsi /under No 1458/, and Kirchevo (Pomak Leshnitsa) /under No 2306/).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pilbrow, Tim (1997). "The Nation and its Margins: Negotiating a National Identity in Post-1989 Bulgaria". Anthropology of East Europe Review. Field and International Study Program, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University [and] Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Central Connecticut State University. 15 (2): 68. OCLC 475414332. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  2. ^ Turan, Ömer (2007). "Pomaks, Their Past and Present". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. Routledge. 19 (1): 69. doi:10.1080/13602009908716425. 
  3. ^ Bulgarian dialectology; Stoyan Stoykov; 4th edition, 2002; pp.128-143
  4. ^ Պեդերսեն, Հ. Հին հայերէնի ցուցական դերանուները, Վիեննա, 1907, էջ 7 (in Armenian). (Pedersen, H. The Demonstrative Pronouns of the Old Armenian Language. Vienna, 1907, p. 7).
  5. ^ Tumanian, E. G. (in Russian) Drevnearmianskiĭ iazyk (Classical Armenian). Moskva, "Nauka", 1971, 448 p. (p. 274).
  6. ^ Iaroslav Iashchuk. On Possible Origin of the Postpositive Definite Article in Balkan Languages and Contribution of Armenian to Balkan Sprachbund Formation. In: Academia.edu [1]
  7. ^ http://napenalki.com/glossary.html?task=list&glossid=1&letter=%D0%99
  8. ^ Селян, Е. (in Bulgarian) Коренът "джур" в българска езикова среда. Сп. "Филология", Изд.: СУ "Св. Кл. Охридски", София, 1983, бр. 12 - 13, с. 137 – 139. (Selian, E. The Root "Jur" in the Bulgarian Language Environment. Magazine "Philology". Publisher: Sofia University "St. Kl. Ohridski", Sofia, 1983, issue 12-13, p. 137-139).
  9. ^ Голийски, П. (in Bulgarian) Ономастични и лексикални аспекти на арменското етническо присъствие в българските земи през средновековието. Автореферат на докторска дисертация. СУ "Св. Климент Охридски", ФКНФ, ЦИЕК, катедра "Класически Изток", секция "Арменска филология". София, 2005 г., 241 с. (Goliyski, P. Onomastic and lexical aspects of Armenian ethnic presence in the Bulgarian lands during the Middle Ages. Abstract of doctoral dissertation. Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski", FKNF, CELC, Department "Classic East," section "Armenian Studies." Sofia, 2005, p. 241).
  10. ^ Edouard Selian. The language of the Paulicians and Pomaks.
  11. ^ Сребранов, Румен (2007). Чечкият говор (in Bulgarian). София: Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов". p. 24. ISBN 978-954-322-230-8. 
  12. ^ Ülker, Erol (2007). "Assimilation of the Muslim communities in the first decade of the Turkish Republic (1923-1934)". European Journal of Turkish Studies. Revues.org: 18. OCLC 179911432. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  13. ^ http://pomaknews.com/en/?p=354
  14. ^ Adamou, E. 2011, Temporal uses of Definite Articles and Demonstratives in Pomak (Slavic, Greece), Lingua 121(5) : 871-889.