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Citrus grandis - Honey White.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. maxima
Binomial name
Citrus maxima
Pomelo, raw
Flesh of a pomelo
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 159 kJ (38 kcal)
9.62 g
Dietary fiber 1 g
0.04 g
0.76 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.034 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.027 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.22 mg
Vitamin B6
0.036 mg
Vitamin C
61 mg
0.11 mg
6 mg
0.017 mg
17 mg
216 mg
1 mg
0.08 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Citrus maxima (or Citrus grandis), (Common names: shaddock,[1] pomelo, pummelo, pommelo, pamplemousse, or shaddok) is a natural (non-hybrid) citrus fruit, with the appearance of a big grapefruit, native to South and Southeast Asia.


Flowering and fruiting branch with numbered fruit segment and flower section. Chromolithograph by P. Depannemaeker, c. 1885, after B. Hoola van Nooten

Citrus maxima was originally called "shaddock" in English, after the captain of an East India Company ship who introduced it to Jamaica in 1696.[2] The word "pomelo" has become the more common name, although "pomelo" has historically been used for grapefruit. (The 1973 printing of the American Heritage Dictionary, for example, gives grapefruit as the only meaning of "pomelo".)

The etymology of the word "pomelo" is uncertain. It is thought to perhaps be an alteration of the Dutch pompelmoes (meaning Citrus maxima, although modern regional Dutch use may additionally refer to the yellow/white grapefruit, while the pink grapefruit may be called roze pompelmoes, and "pomelo" refers to Citrus maxima × Citrus × paradisi) or alternatively, perhaps an alteration of a compound of pome ("apple") + melon.[3]

Citrus maxima is native to Southeast Asia[4] where it is known under a wide variety of names. In large parts of South East Asia, it is a popular dessert, often eaten raw sprinkled with, or dipped in, a salt mixture. It is also eaten in salads and drinks.

Description and uses[edit]

Closeup of pomelo petiole

It is usually pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh and very thick albedo (rind pith). It is a large citrus fruit, 15–25 centimetres (5.9–9.8 in) in diameter,[5] usually weighing 1–2 kilograms (2.2–4.4 lb). Leaf petioles are distinctly winged.

The fruit tastes like a sweet, mild grapefruit (which is itself believed to be a hybrid of Citrus maxima and the orange[6]), though the typical shaddock is much larger than the grapefruit. It has none, or very little, of the common grapefruit's bitterness, but the enveloping membranous material around the segments is bitter, considered inedible, and thus is usually discarded. The peel is sometimes used to make marmalade, can be candied, and is sometimes dipped in chocolate. In Brazil, the thick skin is often used for making a sweet conserve, while the middle[clarification needed] is discarded. Citrus maxima is usually grafted onto other citrus rootstocks but can be grown from seed, provided the seeds are not allowed to dry out before planting.

The fruit is said to have been introduced to Japan by a Cantonese captain in the An'ei era (1772–1781).[7] There are two varieties: a sweet kind with white flesh and a sour kind with pinkish flesh, the latter more likely to be used as an altar decoration than actually eaten. Pomelos are often eaten in Asia during the mid-autumn festival or mooncake festival.

It is one of the ingredients of "Forbidden Fruit", a liqueur dating back to the early 20th century that also contains honey and brandy. This liqueur is most famously used in the Dorchester cocktail.

Drug interactions[edit]

Some medicines may interact dangerously with pomelos and some pomelo hybrids, including grapefruit, some limes, and some oranges.[8]


Possible non-hybrid pomelos[edit]


Main article: Citrus taxonomy

The pomelo is one of the four original citrus species (the others being citron, mandarin, and papeda), from which the rest of cultivated citrus hybridized. In particular, the common orange and the grapefruit are assumed to be natural occurring hybrids between the pomelo and the mandarin, with the pomelo providing the bigger size and greater firmness.

The pomelo is also employed today in artificial breeding programs:



  1. ^ "Shaddock". Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary, 1973.
  3. ^ pomelo, n.” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary [Draft revision; June 2008]
  4. ^ "Pummelo". Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  5. ^ Growing the granddaddy of grapefruit, SFGate.com, December 25, 2004
  6. ^ Grapefruit "Grapefruit" Check |url= scheme (help). Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  7. ^ "阿久根市: 観光・特産品(ボンタン)". City.akune.kagoshima.jp. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  8. ^ Grapefruit–medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences? CMAJ March 5, 2013 vol. 185 no. 4 First published November 26, 2012, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.120951 David G. Bailey, George Dresser, J. Malcolm O. Arnold, [1]
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Morton, J. 1987. Tangelo. p. 158–160. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/tangelo.html

External links[edit]