Pomona, California

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Pomona, California
L.A. County Fair at Dusk (cropped).JPG
Downtown Pomona 04 - panoramio.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Elementary School, Pomona.jpg
LINCOLN PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT, POMONA LOS ANGELES COUNTY CA (cropped).jpg
CLA Portrait.jpg
Clockwise from top: Los Angeles County Fair; Abraham Lincoln Elementary; California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Lincoln Park Historic District; Antiques Row.
Flag of Pomona, California
Flag
Official seal of Pomona, California
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
"Vibrant - Safe - Beautiful"[1]
Location in Los Angeles County and the U.S. state of California
Pomona is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Pomona
Pomona
Location in the United States
Pomona is located in California
Pomona
Pomona
Pomona (California)
Pomona is located in the United States
Pomona
Pomona
Pomona (the United States)
Coordinates: 34°3′39″N 117°45′21″W / 34.06083°N 117.75583°W / 34.06083; -117.75583Coordinates: 34°3′39″N 117°45′21″W / 34.06083°N 117.75583°W / 34.06083; -117.75583
Country United States
State California
County Los Angeles
Settled1830s[2]
IncorporatedJanuary 6, 1888[2]
Named forPomona, a Roman goddess of fruitful abundance[3]
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorTim Sandoval[4]
Area
 • Total22.99 sq mi (59.54 km2)
 • Land22.98 sq mi (59.52 km2)
 • Water0.01 sq mi (0.03 km2)  0.05%
Elevation850 ft (259 m)
Population
 • Total149,058
 • Estimate 
(2019)[8]
151,691
 • Rank7th in Los Angeles County
37th in California
171st in the United States
 • Density6,601.29/sq mi (2,548.73/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
91766–91768
Area code909
FIPS code06-58072
GNIS feature IDs1661247, 2411454
Websitewww.ci.pomona.ca.us

Pomona (/pəˈmnə/ (About this soundlisten) pə-MOH-nə[9]) is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Pomona is located in the Pomona Valley, between the Inland Empire and the San Gabriel Valley. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 149,058.[10]

The main campus of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, also known as Cal Poly Pomona, lies mostly within Pomona's city limits. Some campus areas are also located in San Dimas and Walnut.

History[edit]

Rancho San José was granted in 1837 to Californio rancheros Ygnacio Palomares (left) and Ricardo Vejar (right), encompassing all of modern Pomona.
View to the west-southwest down San Jose Creek from Pomona Park (now Ganesha Park) in 1904. Elephant Hill is in the center distance.

The area was originally occupied by the Tongva Native Americans.[citation needed]

The city is named after Pomona, the ancient Roman goddess of fruit.[11] For horticulturist Solomon Gates, "Pomona" was the winning entry in a contest to name the city in 1875, before anyone had ever planted a fruit tree there.[12] The city was first settled by Ricardo Vejar and Ygnacio Palomares in the 1830s, when California and much of the now-American Southwest were part of Mexico.

The first Anglo-Americans arrived prior to 1848 when the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in California becoming part of the United States.[2] In 1864, the owners of Rancho San José sold 12,000 acres (49,000,000 m2; 49 km2) to Louis Phillips, a Jewish Prussian immigrant, who would shortly be known as "the richest man in Los Angeles County." He built the largest commercial building in Los Angeles central business district at the time, the Phillips Block, which would eventually house Hamburger's, the then-largest department store in the Western United States.

Spadra[edit]

Rubottom's Hotel and stagecoach station at Spadra, 1867
Louis Phillips1875 Second Empire-style mansion at the site of the town of Spadra

Phillips sold a parcel of his land to William "Uncle Billy" Rubottom, in 1866 who founded a new town there and named it Spadra after his hometown, now part of Clarksville, Arkansas. The site of Spadra is 3 miles (4.8 km) west of the Pomona Station along Pomona Blvd. just east of the 57 (Orange) Freeway. Spadra became a stagecoach stop, Rubottom built the Spadra Hotel and Tavern to serve travelers, and by 1870, Spadra had 400–500 residents, three stores, a school, and a post office. In 1873, Phillips convinced the Southern Pacific Railroad to build a line to Spadra. Phillips thought Spadra would become a great town, and built his Phillips Mansion there in 1875, which together with the Spadra Cemetery are the only two remnants of the town that still exist today. Fullerton's Main north–south road was named Spadra Road for its first 75 years, as long before the 57 Freeway it was the road through Brea Canyon to Spadra, and was later renamed Harbor Boulevard. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a terminus at Spadra, but the line was extended east to Colton, and Spadra lost momentum. In 1964, the area was annexed by Pomona.[13][14]

By the 1880s, the arrival of Coachella Valley water which, together with railroad access, made it the western anchor of the citrus-growing region. Pomona was officially incorporated on January 6, 1888.[2]

In the 1920s Pomona was known as the "Queen of the Citrus Belt", with one of the highest per-capita levels of income in the United States. In the 1940s it was used as a movie-previewing location for major motion picture studios to see how their films would play to modally middle-class audiences around the country (for which Pomona was at that time viewed as an idealized example).[citation needed]

Religious institutions are deeply embedded in the history of Pomona. There are now more than 120 churches, representing most religions in today's society. The historical architectural styles of these churches provide glimpses of European church design and architecture from other eras.[12]

Pomona Mall was a downtown pedestrian mall, recognized by the Los Angeles Conservancy as an outstanding example of Mid-century modern and modern architecture and design. It was completed in 1962, one element in a larger plan of civic improvements covering the whole city.[15] The eastern end is now part of the Western University of Health Sciences campus, while the western end now houses numerous art galleries, art studios and restaurants.[16][15]

In 2005, Pomona citizens elected Norma Torres, the first woman of Guatemalan heritage to be elected to a mayoral post outside of Guatemala.[17] Later, she would become a U.S. congresswoman representing California's 35th congressional district in 2015.

Geography[edit]

Pomona is 30 miles (48 km) east of the Los Angeles[18] area of Los Angeles County in the Pomona Valley, located at 34°3′39″N 117°45′21″W / 34.06083°N 117.75583°W / 34.06083; -117.75583 (34.060760, -117.755886).[19] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.964 square miles (59.48 km2), over 99% of it land.

Pomona is approximately 30 miles (48 km) east of downtown Los Angeles, 27 miles (43 km) north of Santa Ana, 26 miles (42 km) west of Riverside, and 33 miles (53 km) west of San Bernardino.

Pomona is bordered by the cities of San Dimas on the northwest, La Verne and Claremont on the north, Montclair and Chino on the east, Chino Hills and Diamond Bar on the south, and Walnut, South San Jose Hills, and Industry on the southwest. The Los Angeles/San Bernardino county line forms most of the city's southern and eastern boundaries.

Climate[edit]

Pomona has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa) with hot, dry summers and mild, damp winters and a large amount of sunshine year-round. August is the warmest month with an average daytime high temperature of 92 °F (33 °C). Summers are characterized by sunny days and very little rainfall during the months of June through September. Fall brings cooler temperatures and occasional showers, as well as seasonal Santa Ana winds originating from the northeast. December is the coolest month with an average high temperature of 68 °F (20 °C). Winter also brings the majority of annual precipitation. Snowfall is virtually unheard of, but frost can occur once or twice a year. Annual precipitation averages 17.32 inches (439.9 mm).

Climate data for Pomona, California (normals 1981-2010)(extremes 1893-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 91
(33)
94
(34)
100
(38)
104
(40)
106
(41)
117
(47)
113
(45)
110
(43)
113
(45)
107
(42)
97
(36)
93
(34)
117
(47)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 83
(28)
85
(29)
86
(30)
92
(33)
94
(34)
95
(35)
100
(38)
101
(38)
103
(39)
97
(36)
87
(31)
81
(27)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 68.1
(20.1)
68.5
(20.3)
70.9
(21.6)
75.7
(24.3)
78.8
(26.0)
83.5
(28.6)
90.1
(32.3)
91.5
(33.1)
88.7
(31.5)
80.4
(26.9)
73.6
(23.1)
67.4
(19.7)
78.1
(25.6)
Daily mean °F (°C) 55.6
(13.1)
56.7
(13.7)
58.8
(14.9)
62.5
(16.9)
66.4
(19.1)
70.5
(21.4)
75.9
(24.4)
76.6
(24.8)
74.5
(23.6)
67.4
(19.7)
60.3
(15.7)
54.8
(12.7)
65.0
(18.3)
Average low °F (°C) 43.2
(6.2)
44.9
(7.2)
46.6
(8.1)
49.3
(9.6)
54.1
(12.3)
57.4
(14.1)
61.7
(16.5)
61.7
(16.5)
60.3
(15.7)
54.5
(12.5)
47.1
(8.4)
42.3
(5.7)
51.9
(11.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 32
(0)
34
(1)
36
(2)
40
(4)
45
(7)
49
(9)
54
(12)
53
(12)
51
(11)
45
(7)
37
(3)
32
(0)
30
(−1)
Record low °F (°C) 21
(−6)
22
(−6)
26
(−3)
29
(−2)
31
(−1)
38
(3)
41
(5)
42
(6)
38
(3)
29
(−2)
24
(−4)
22
(−6)
21
(−6)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.11
(79)
4.59
(117)
2.63
(67)
1.20
(30)
0.23
(5.8)
0.09
(2.3)
0.00
(0.00)
0.03
(0.76)
0.15
(3.8)
1.05
(27)
1.62
(41)
2.45
(62)
17.15
(436)
Source: [20]

Architecture[edit]

The following structures in Pomona are noted by the Los Angeles Conservancy:

Demographics[edit]

The most common ancestries in Pomona are German, English, Italian, Irish and French.[26]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18903,634
19005,52652.1%
191010,20784.7%
192013,50532.3%
193020,80454.0%
194023,53913.1%
195035,40550.4%
196067,15789.7%
197087,38430.1%
198092,7426.1%
1990131,72342.0%
2000149,47313.5%
2010149,058−0.3%
2019 (est.)151,691[8]1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[27]
Demographic profile 2010[7] 1990[28] 1970[28] 1950[28]
White 48.0% 57.0% 85.8% 99.2%
 —Non-Hispanic 12.5% 28.2% N/A N/A
Black or African American 7.3% 14.4% 12.2% 0.6%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 70.5% 51.3% 15.4% N/A
Asian 8.5% 6.7% 0.6% 0.2%

2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census[29] reported that Pomona had a population of 149,058, a slight decline from the 2000 census population.[10] The population density was 6,491.2 people per square mile (2,506.3/km2). The racial makeup of Pomona was 71,564 (48.0%) White (12.5% Non-Hispanic White),[7] 10,924 (7.3%) African American, 1,763 (1.2%) Native American, 12,688 (8.5%) Asian of which is Chinese 2,217 1.48% Filipino 2,938 1.97% Japanese 443 0.3% Korean 633 0.42% Vietnamese 1643 1.1% ,[30] 282 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 45,171 (30.3%) from other races, and 6,666 (4.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 105,135 persons (70.5%).

The Census reported that 144,920 people (97.2% of the population) lived in households, 2,782 (1.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,356 (0.9%) were institutionalized.

There were 38,477 households, out of which 19,690 (51.2%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 19,986 (51.9%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,960 (18.1%) had a female householder with no husband present, 3,313 (8.6%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,823 (7.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 299 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5,810 households (15.1%) were made up of individuals, and 2,010 (5.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 30,259 families (78.6% of all households); the average family size was 4.15.

The population was spread out, with 43,853 people (29.4%) under the age of 18, 20,155 people (13.5%) aged 18 to 24, 42,311 people (28.4%) aged 25 to 44, 31,369 people (21.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,370 people (7.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.5 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males.

There were 39,620 housing units [31] at an average density of 1,771.8 per square mile (684.1/km2), of which 21,197 (55.1%) were owner-occupied, and 17,280 (44.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.9%. 80,968 people (54.3% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 63,952 people (42.9%) lived in rental housing units

During 2009–2013, Pomona had a median household income of $49,474, with 21.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[7]

Economy[edit]

Since the 1980s, Pomona's newest neighborhood Phillips Ranch, experienced rapid growth with homes still being built in the hilly area between Downtown and Diamond Bar. Today, Phillips Ranch is nearly all residential.[32] Northern Pomona has seen some gentrification with additional housing units added and revamped streetscapes. Pomona Electronics was originally based in the city.[citation needed]

Pomona had two malls, the pedestrian Pomona Mall downtown and the Indian Hill Mall, both now defunct as malls per se, but still dedicated to retail and other uses.[citation needed]

According to the city's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[33] the top employers in the city and number of employees are Pomona Valley Hospital Medical Center (3,230), Pomona Unified School District (3,034), California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (2,440), Fairplex (1,071), Casa Colina Rehabilitation Center (1,020), City of Pomona (661), and County of Los Angeles Department of Social Services (350).

Arts and culture[edit]

Annual cultural events[edit]

The city is the site of the Fairplex, which hosts the L.A. County Fair and the Pomona Swap Meet & Classic Car Show. The swap meet (for car parts and accessories) is part of the car show, which is a single-day event held seven times throughout the year.[34]

The city is also home to the NHRA Auto Club Raceway at Pomona (formerly the Pomona Raceway), which hosts Winternationals drag racing competition.[35]

Museums and other points of interest[edit]

1910 postcard image of Pomona Valley with Mt. Baldy in the distance

Government[edit]

City Hall Pomona, California, 1969

Municipal government[edit]

Pomona was incorporated on January 6, 1888, and adopted a charter in 1911, making it a charter city.[3]

The city is governed by a seven-member city council. Regular municipal elections are held on a Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years. Councilmembers serve four-year terms, and the mayor is the presiding councilmember, elected at-large. The other six members are elected by districts. Every eight months, the council appoints a new vice mayor from among its members.[36]

Mayor: Tim Sandoval[36]

City Council members:[36]

  • John Nolte (District One)
  • Victor Preciado (District Two)
  • Nora Garcia (District Three)
  • Elizabeth Ontiveros-Cole (District Four)
  • Steve Lustro (District Five)
  • Robert Torres (District Six)

City manager: James Makshanoff[37]

City Commissions[edit]

District Board of Library

Trustees

District Board of Parking Place

Commissioners (VPD)

District Community Life

Commission

District Cultural Arts

Commission

Mayor Lisa Snider Mayor Luis Corcuera Mayor Donna Houston Mayor Joshua Swodeck
1 Mike Suarez 1 Juan Carlos Garcia Juarez 1 Lidia Manzanares 1 Miranda Sheffield
2 Meg Johannsen 2 Sergio Diaz Luna 2 Vacant 2 Jovani Esparza
3 Tom Rodriguez 3 Marcos Molina 3 Christina Jimenez 3 Jessica Leon
4 Debra Martin 4 Mike A. Davis 4 Lorraine Canales 4 Venita Reynolds
5 Megan Gearhart 5 Joseph Mladinov 5 Brian Mundy 5 Dianna Batts
6 Vacant 6 Jacqueline Elizalde 6 Jeanette Ellis Royston 6 Denise Marquez
District Historic Preservation

Commission

District Parks and Recreation

Commission

District Youth

Commission

District Planning

Commission

Mayor Ann Tomkins Mayor Ion Puschila Mayor Natalie Alvarado Mayor Dr. Kyle Brown
1 Chara Swodeck 1 Juanita Preciado-Becerra 1 Orlando Arias-Pulido 1 Yesenia Miranda Meza
2 Tamara Gonzalez 2 Fabian Pavon 2 Victor Tessier 2 Alfredo Camacho-Gonzalez
3 Jennifer Williams 3 Noel Mendez-Zamudio 3 Javier Rodriguez-Rivera 3 Gwen Urey
4 Alice R. Gomez 4 Vince Carpio 4 Mario Portillo 4 Carlos Gomez
5 James Gallivan 5 Cynthia Marino 5 Ryan Houston 5 Ron Vander Molen
6 James Kercheval 6 Donna Otero 6 Roman Macias 6 Kristie Kercheval
District Citizens Oversight

Committee

District P.R. Assessment District

Oversight Committee

District Charter Review

Commission 2020

Mayor Guillermo Gonzalez Mayor Eric Jung Mayor Derek Engdahl
1 Mickey Gallivan 1 Denton Mosier 1 John Clifford
2 Ryan Lee 2 Krutal Desai 2 Efrain Escobedo
3 Leticia Casillas-Sanchez 3 Yvonne Cobarrubias 3 Ann Tomkins
4 Dean Rudenauer 4 Bonnie Martinez 4 Dean Rudenauer
5 Barry Lawrence 5 Eric Trypucko 5 Edward Jimenez
6 Mario Ramos 6 Vacant 6 Eunice Russell

Financial report[edit]

According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $220.3 million in revenues, $225.5 million in expenditures, $818.3 million in total assets, $520 million in total liabilities, and $80.6 million in cash and investments.[33]

County representation[edit]

In the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, Pomona is in the 1st District, represented by Democrat Hilda Solis.

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Pomona Health Center in Pomona.[38]

The Los Angeles County Fire Department provides fire department services for Pomona on a contract basis.

State and federal representation[edit]

In the California State Legislature, Pomona is in the 20th Senate District, represented by Democrat Connie Leyva, and in the 52nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Freddie Rodriguez.[39]

In the United States House of Representatives, Pomona is in California's 35th congressional district, represented by Democrat Norma Torres.[40]

Education[edit]

Public and private schools[edit]

Most of Pomona and some of the surrounding area are served by the Pomona Unified School District. Pomona High School, Diamond Ranch High School, Ganesha High School, Garey High School, Fremont Academy, Palomares Academy, and Village Academy are PUSD's seven high schools.[41] The Claremont Unified School District serves a small section of northern Pomona. Residents there are zoned to Sumner Elementary School, El Roble Intermediate School, and Claremont High School.[42]

The School of Arts and Enterprise, a charter high school, is also located in the city.[43]

There are four parochial schools of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles located in Pomona: St. Madeleine Catholic School (K-5), St. Joseph Elementary School (K–5),[44] Pomona Catholic Middle School and High School and St. Christopher-Joseph-Aquinas Academic Academy (2 locations).[45] There are also three Islamic schools: New Dimensions School (K-8), ICC Community School (K-8) and City of Knowledge (K-12).[45]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Nearby[edit]

Media[edit]

A&E's hit show “Live PD” follows the Police Department in Pomona on Friday and Saturday nights.

The major daily newspaper in the area is Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. La Opinión is the city's major Spanish-language paper. There are also a wide variety of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including:

Infrastructure[edit]

Rail[edit]

Pomona is connected to downtown Los Angeles and to downtown Riverside via Metrolink and is connected by Amtrak via the Sunset Limited and the Texas Eagle. In addition, Pomona will be connected to Los Angeles and eastern Los Angeles county via light rail when the Gold Line Foothill Extension is completed in 2026.[47] When it opens, the rail line will be renamed the A Line per Metro's new naming convention, and it will connect with the former Blue Line via the new Regional Connector in downtown Los Angeles.[48][49]

Metrolink stations[edit]

Freeways and highways[edit]

Airports[edit]

Pomona is serviced by:

Buses[edit]

Pomona is served by Foothill Transit. The Silver Streak is Foothill Transit's bus rapid transit line operating between eastbound to Montclair and westbound to Downtown Los Angeles. Omnitrans bus line 61 runs throughout downtown Pomona.

The service runs much more frequently than other area mass transit, and operates around the clock. 60-foot NABI articulated buses are used on this route, similar to those used on the Metro G Line, Metro Local, and Metro Rapid.[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

  • It was rumored that Walt Disney originally planned on having Disneyland built in Pomona, but the city council declined his offer, fearing that the park would not succeed and would cause the city to go into debt. According to a reporter for the Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, David Allen,[86] his former colleague, Matthew Tresaugue had reported, in a 1997 story, that Pomona was merely one of 71 considered cities,[87] but was ruled out due to temperature extremes,[88] i.e. too hot in the summer and too cold at night. Author James Ellroy used Pomona as the setting for the fictional amusement park Dream-a-Dreamland in his novel L.A. Confidential. Dream-a-Dreamland and its fictional owner, the cartoon magnate Ray Dieterling, were based very closely on Disneyland and Walt Disney.
  • In an episode of I Love Lucy, the main characters of the show "go out to the country" on a day trip to Pomona. This is now seen as odd due to Pomona having since become quite urban. In 1940, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz spent their honeymoon in downtown Pomona.
  • The Fox Theater in Pomona was frequently used by Hollywood during the Golden Age for test screenings. In Sunset Blvd. (Billy Wilder, 1950) when Norma Desmond, played by Gloria Swanson, reads a script to Joe Gillis (William Holden), Gillis comments: "They'll love it in Pomona".
  • The 1979 Steven Spielberg film 1941 is partly set in Pomona.
  • The 2003 film adaptation of The Cat in the Hat, starring Mike Myers, transforms Pomona's Antique Row into a scene straight from the imagination of Dr. Seuss.[89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Pomona California Website". City of Pomona California Website. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d William D. Halsey, ed. (1976). "Pomona". Collier's Encyclopedia. 19. Macmillan Educational Corporation. p. 232.
  3. ^ a b "About Pomona". City of Pomona. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  4. ^ https://www.ci.pomona.ca.us/index.php/government/city-council/mayor
  5. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  6. ^ "Pomona". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d "Pomona (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 26, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  9. ^ "Pomona". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on April 7, 2021. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
  10. ^ a b "Most Populous Cities in Los Angeles County Populations of 100,000+ (1990–2010 Census)". Los Angeles Almanac. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  11. ^ "Profile for Pomona, California, CA". ePodunk. Archived from the original on December 18, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  12. ^ a b A Brief History of Pomona Archived 2010-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Jerome, David (February 14, 2019). "Spadra Road: a lot of history in a name". Orange County Register.
  14. ^ Hadley Meares, “Phillips Mansion: The deserted hub of a lost California town: The grand brick estate was home to one of the founding fathers of the rough-and-tumble pueblo of Spadra”, L. A. Curbed, April 6, 2017
  15. ^ a b "Pomona Mall". Los Angeles Conservancy. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  16. ^ López, Ricardo (April 6, 2012). "Booming medical school brings life to downtown Pomona". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Norma Torres - Mayor of Pomona, California". City Mayors. 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
  18. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau" (PDF). Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  19. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  20. ^ "Averages for Pomona, CA". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
  21. ^ "College of Environmental Design, Cal Poly Pomona", Los Angeles Conservancy
  22. ^ "Pomona Mall", Los Angeles Conservancy
  23. ^ "Fox Theater Pomona", Los Angeles Conservancy
  24. ^ "Pomona Mall", Los Angeles Conservancy
  25. ^ "Pomona Civic Center", Los Angeles Conservancy
  26. ^ https://www.neighborhoodscout.com/ca/pomona/demographics
  27. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  28. ^ a b c "California — Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-08-12.
  29. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Pomona city". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  30. ^ https://pomona.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm
  31. ^ "Pomona, California, Housing Statistics". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
  32. ^ "Historic Ranch to Be Big Community". Los Angeles Times. November 15, 1964.
  33. ^ a b [1]
  34. ^ "Pomona Swap Meet". George Cross & Sons, Inc. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-26. Retrieved 2010-09-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ a b c "City of Pomona - City Council HOME". City of Pomona. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  37. ^ "City of Pomona - City Manager". www.ci.pomona.ca.us. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
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