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Ponos /ˈpˌnɒs/ or Ponus /ˈpnəs/ (Ancient Greek: Πόνος Pónos) is the personification of hardship or toil. According to Hesiod's Theogony, "painful" Ponos was the child of Eris (Strife), with no father.[1] Compare with Cicero who has the similar Roman god Labor (Toil) as the son of the Nox (Night) and Erebus (Darkness).[2]



  • Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, De Natura Deorum in Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods. Academics, translated by H. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library No. 268, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, first published 1933, revised 1951. ISBN 978-0-674-99296-2. Online version at Harvard University Press. Internet Archive.