Pont-Saint-Esprit

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Pont-Saint-Esprit
Commune
Saint Saturnin church and the medieval bridge over the Rhône River
Saint Saturnin church and the medieval bridge over the Rhône River
Coat of arms of Pont-Saint-Esprit
Coat of arms
Pont-Saint-Esprit is located in France
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Location within Occitanie region
Pont-Saint-Esprit is located in Occitanie
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Coordinates: 44°15′27″N 4°38′57″E / 44.2575°N 4.6492°E / 44.2575; 4.6492Coordinates: 44°15′27″N 4°38′57″E / 44.2575°N 4.6492°E / 44.2575; 4.6492
Country France
Region Occitanie
Department Gard
Arrondissement Nîmes
Canton Pont-Saint-Esprit
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2008) Gilbert Baumet
Area1 18.49 km2 (7.14 sq mi)
Population (2012)2 10,651
 • Density 580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code 30202 /30130
Elevation 36–187 m (118–614 ft)
(avg. 59 m or 194 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Pont-Saint-Esprit (Occitan: Lo Pònt Sant Esperit) is a commune in the Gard département in southern France. It is situated on the Rhône River and is the site of a historical crossing, hence its name. The Ardèche River flows into the Rhône, just to the north of the bridge. The residents are called Spiripontains.

Bouvier family origins[edit]

Pont-Saint-Esprit is famous as the town of origin of Michel Bouvier, a cabinetmaker, who was the ancestor of John Vernou Bouvier III, father of Jacqueline Kennedy.

1951 mass poisoning incident[edit]

On 15 August 1951, an outbreak of poisoning, marked by acute psychotic episodes and various physical symptoms, occurred in Pont-Saint-Esprit. More than 250 people were involved, including 50 persons interned in asylums and four deaths.[1] Most academic sources accept ergot poisoning as the cause of the epidemic, while a few theorize other causes such as poisoning by mercury, mycotoxins, or nitrogen trichloride.[2][3][4][5][6] In 2008, journalist Hank Albarelli speculated that the incident was a secret mind control experiment by the Central Intelligence Agency, a conclusion subsequently dismissed by historians and chemists.[7]

Population[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17935,766—    
18004,055−29.7%
18064,331+6.8%
18214,545+4.9%
18314,953+9.0%
18415,239+5.8%
18515,538+5.7%
18615,123−7.5%
18724,350−15.1%
18814,726+8.6%
18915,262+11.3%
19014,798−8.8%
19114,685−2.4%
19215,801+23.8%
19314,652−19.8%
19464,149−10.8%
19544,925+18.7%
19625,778+17.3%
19686,951+20.3%
19756,709−3.5%
19828,067+20.2%
19909,277+15.0%
19999,265−0.1%
20069,661+4.3%
201110,640+10.1%
201210,651+0.1%

International relations[edit]

Pont-Saint-Esprit is twinned with:

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Gabbai, Lisbonne and Pourquier (1951-09-15). "Ergot Poisoning at Pont St. Esprit". British Medical Journal. 2 (4732): 650–651. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.930.650-a. PMC 2069953Freely accessible. PMID 14869677. 
  2. ^ Lisbonne, Gabbai (15 September 1951). "Ergot Poisoning at Pont St. Esprit". British Medical Journal. 2 (4732): 650–651. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.930.650-a. PMC 2069953Freely accessible. PMID 14869677. 
  3. ^ Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function. Oxford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-514694-3. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  4. ^ Pommerville, Jeffrey C.; Alcamo, I. Edward (2013). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology: Body systems edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 734. ISBN 978-1-4496-0594-0. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Cavaciocchi, Simonetta, ed. (2010). Economic and biological interactions in pre-industrial Europe, from the 13th to the 18th century. Istituto internazionale di storia economica F. Datini. Settimana di studio. Firenze University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-88-8453-585-6. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  6. ^ Frederick Burwick (1 November 2010). Poetic Madness and the Romantic Imagination. Penn State Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-271-04296-1. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  7. ^ Horn, Heather. "Did the CIA Really Dose a French Village With LSD? Telegraph says the Agency caused madness, many say "rot"". The Atlantic. The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • John G. Fuller, The Day Of St. Anthony's Fire (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1968).

External links[edit]