Pontianak, Indonesia

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Pontianak
City
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawi ڤونتيانق
 • Chinese 坤甸
 • Pinyin Kūn diān
Pontianak City Equator.jpg
Official seal of Pontianak
Seal
Nickname(s): Equator City
Motto: Pontianak Kota Bersinar
Pontianak is located in Indonesia
Pontianak
Pontianak
Location of Pontianak in Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°0′N 109°20′E / 0.000°N 109.333°E / 0.000; 109.333
Country Indonesia
Province West Kalimantan
Established 23 October 1771
Government
 • Mayor Sutarmidji
Area
 • Total 107.82 km2 (41.63 sq mi)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 573,751
 • Density 5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +62 561
Website www.pontianakkota.go.id

Pontianak or Khuntîen in Hakka is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan. It is a large trading port on the island of Borneo, occupying an area of 107.82 km² in the delta of the Kapuas River. It is located almost precisely on the equator, hence it is widely known as Kota Khatulistiwa (Equator City). The city center is actually less than 3 kilometres (2 mi) south of the equator.

History[edit]

The city was formerly the capital of the independent Sultanate of Pontianak and was founded on 23 October 1771 around an old trading station on the Borneo coast. It is built on swampy ground that is subjected to regular flooding by the river, requiring buildings to be constructed on piles to keep them off the ground. Its name refers to a story about the founder, who saw a pontianak (a vampiric female ghost) at the palace building site, which he fought to save the people.[clarification needed] The Japanese massacred much of the Malay and Chinese elite of Pontianak and other sultanates on Kalimantan in the Pontianak incidents.

Education[edit]

There are colleges and universities operated by both state institutions as well as private and religious institutions. The University of Tanjung Pura, a state university, was established in Pontianak in 1963. Other universities are maintained by private institutions: Muhammadiyah University, University of Widya Dharma, University of Panca Bhakti, STMIK (Sekolah tinggi Manajemen Informatika dan Komputer), State Islamic college (STAIN), POLNEP (Politeknik Negeri Pontianak), AKBID St Benedicta, etc.

Demographics[edit]

Pontianak street view

The 2010 census enumerated Pontianak's population at 554,764; the latest official estimate (from January 2014) is 573,751.[1] Pontianak is a diverse and multicultural city. Its population mainly consists of Chinese, most Chinese are of either Teochew or Hakka descent. Most Chinese people in Pontianak can trace their origins to the Chaoshan region in the Guangdong province of Southern China. The (Malay and Dayak) are the other major ethnic groups in the city. The minorities of the city are other Indonesian ethnic groups that have migrated from other areas of the country. These groups include the Javanese, Bugis, Batak, Minang, Madurese, Sundanese, Balinese, Ambonese and Papuan.

Language[edit]

Citizens of Pontianak generally speak the national lingua franca of Bahasa Indonesia and have a distinct Pontianak Malay accent, which is somewhat similar to that used in Sarawak, Malaysia (which is nearby). The Teochew dialect of Min Nan is the lingua franca used among the Chinese population in Pontianak. This dialect is closely related to the Teochew language used by the Chinese in neighboring Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia.

Transportation[edit]

The most popular mode of transport is motorbike. Public transport includes minivans (local: opelet) and human-powered becaks (three-wheel pedicabs). There are some city buses serving certain routes only. Intercity buses take passengers to other nearby cities (2, 3, to 10 or more hours of travel), and even to Kuching, a city in Malaysia. Road transportation to Malaysia and Brunei is possible via Jalan Trans-Kalimantan(Jalan Lintas Kalimantan) to Tebedu in Sarawak.

Transportation to other parts of Indonesia is mainly via Supadio Airport. There are more than 10 flights every day connecting Pontianak and Jakarta. There are also flights from and to Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Batam, Kuching, and Kuala Lumpur. Sea transport connects Pontianak to Jakarta, Semarang, Cirebon, and some other cities, including regional cities such as Ketapang in the southern part of West Kalimantan.

Climate[edit]

Pontianak features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification (Af). The city experiences a large amount of rainfall throughout the year, averaging 3,210 mm (126 in) of precipitation annually. Only in the month of August does the average monthly precipitation fall below 200 mm (7 78 in). Temperatures are consistent throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures of 30 °C (86 °F) and average low temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F).

Climate data for Pontianak
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
32.7
(90.9)
32.9
(91.2)
33.2
(91.8)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.6
(90.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.2
(90)
32.0
(89.6)
32.7
(90.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
28.0
(82.4)
28.2
(82.8)
28.2
(82.8)
28.2
(82.8)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.2
(81)
27.7
(81.9)
Average low °C (°F) 22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.1
(73.6)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
22.7
(72.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 260
(10.24)
215
(8.46)
254
(10)
292
(11.5)
256
(10.08)
212
(8.35)
201
(7.91)
180
(7.09)
295
(11.61)
329
(12.95)
400
(15.75)
302
(11.89)
3,196
(125.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15 13 21 22 20 18 16 25 14 27 25 22 238
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN)[2]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Pontianak City parliament building

Pontianak City comprises six administrative districts (kecamatan), listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census:[3]

Tourism[edit]

The cultural diversity in Pontianak presents various events throughout the Year. The Chinese celebrates Lunar New Year, Cap Go Meh (Lantern Festival, which falls on the fifteenth day of the first month of lunar calendar), and Cheng Beng (Tomb Sweeping Festival, on first day of the fifth solar term of lunar calendar). The Dayak People celebrates harvest or locally known as Gawai Dayak. These events are usually marked with extravagant cultural parades around the city.

The equatorial line passing Pontianak is marked by an Equatorial Monument north of the city center. Between March 21 - 23 (spring solstice) and September 21 - 23 (summer solstice), solar culmination can be observed near the Equatorial Monument, where the declination of the Sun will be exactly at 0° at noon (12:00), causing shadow of the Monument and everything nearby to disappear for a few seconds.[4]

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]