A pontifical university is an ecclesiastical university established or approved directly by the Holy See, composed of three main ecclesiastical faculties (Theology, Philosophy and Canon Law) and at least one other faculty. These academic institutes deal specifically with Christian revelation and related disciplines, and the Church's mission of spreading the Gospel, as proclaimed in the apostolic constitution Sapientia christiana. As of 2018, they are governed by the apostolic constitution Veritatis gaudium issued by Pope Francis on 8 December 2017.
Quality and ranking
Pontifical universities follow a European system of study hour calculation, granting the baccalaureate, the licentiate, and the ecclesiastical doctorate. These ecclesiastical degrees are prerequisites to certain offices in the Roman Catholic Church, especially considering that bishop candidates are selected mainly from priests who are doctors of sacred theology (S.T.D.) or canon law (J.C.D.) and that ecclesiastical judges and canon lawyers must have at least the Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.).
Pontifical colleges and universities are generally nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of academic merit, religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, nationality, or civil status, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, and the campus regulations are obeyed. However, some faculties or degrees and disciplines may be for Catholics only, and non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may be exempted from participating in otherwise required campus activities, particularly those of a religious nature.
In 2003 the Holy See took part in the Bologna Process, a series of meetings and agreements between European states designed to foster comparable quality standards in higher education, and in the "Bologna Follow-up Group". Pope Benedict XVI established the Agency for the Evaluation and Promotion of Quality in Ecclesiastical Universities and Faculties (AVEPRO), an attempt to promote and develop a culture of quality within the ecclesiastical institutions and enable them to aim in developing internationally valid quality criteria.
Compared to secular universities, which are academic institutions for the study and teaching of a broad range of disciplines, ecclesiastical or pontifical universities are "usually composed of three principal ecclesiastical faculties, theology, philosophy, and canon law, and at least one other faculty. A pontifical university specifically addresses Christian revelation and disciplines correlative to the evangelical mission of the Church as set out in the apostolic constitution Sapientia christiana".
List of pontifical universities
- Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, Buenos Aires
- International Theological Institute
- Pontifical Athenaeum, Heiligenkreuz Abbey, Heiligenkreuz
- Theological Faculty, Catholic-Theological Private University Linz, Linz
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre
- Dominican University College, Ottawa
- Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto
- Regis College, Toronto
- Saint Paul University, Ottawa
- Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago
- Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso
- Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra, Santo Domingo, Santiago de Los Caballeros, and Puerto Plata.
- Catholic University of Lyon, Lyon
- Catholic University of Toulouse, Toulouse
- Catholic University of the West, Angers
- Institut Catholique de Paris, Paris
- Université Catholique de Lille, Lille
- Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt & Ingolstadt
- Munich University of Philosophy, Munich
- Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala City
- Wedabhakti Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta
- Marianum Theological Faculty, Rome
- Pontifical Atheneum of St. Anselm (Sant'Anselmo), Rome
- Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum, Rome
- Pontifical Gregorian University (Gregorianum), Rome
- Pontifical Lateran University, Rome
- Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, Rome
- Pontifical University of St. Anthony, Rome
- Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure (Seraphicum), Rome
- Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum), Rome
- Pontifical Urbaniana University, Rome
- Salesian Pontifical University, Rome
- Pontificia Università della Santa Croce (Holy Cross), (Pope John Paul II, 1998
- Pontifical University of Mexico, Mexico City
- Universidad Católica Santa María La Antigua, Panama City
- Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru), Lima
- Catholic University of Portugal, Lisbon
- Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid
- Pontifical University of Salamanca
- University of Deusto, Bilbao
- University of Navarra, Pamplona
- Facoltà di Teologia di Lugano, Lugano
- Boston College School of Theology, Boston, MA
- International Marian Research Institute at the University of Dayton, Dayton, OH
- Jesuit School of Theology of Santa Clara University, Berkeley, CA
- John Paul II Institute, Washington, DC
- Pontifical College Josephinum, Columbus, Ohio (Pope Leo XIII, 1892)
- Pontifical Faculty at the University of Saint Mary of the Lake (Mundelein Seminary), Mundelein, IL
- Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception (PFIC), Dominican House of Studies, Washington, DC
- St. Mary's Seminary and University, Baltimore, MD
Additionally, numerous other United States institutions have arrangements by which they may grant pontifical degrees, including:
- Sacred Heart Major Seminary, Detroit, MI; offers the Baccalaureate in Sacred Theology (S.T.B.) which is conferred by the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome (Angelicum) through the faculty of SHMS.
- Saint Patrick's Seminary and University, Menlo Park, CA; offers the STB through the Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception.
- Kenrick–Glennon Seminary, Shrewsbury, MO; offers the STB through the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.
- Mount St. Mary's University Seminary, Emmitsburg, MD; offers the STB through the Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception.
- Mount Angel Abbey's Seminary, Saint Benedict, OR; offers the STB through the Pontifical Athenaeum of Sant’ Anselmo in Rome.
- St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, NY; was granted by Pope Leo XIII the ability to award pontifical degrees up to and including the Doctorate in Theology and Philosophy.
Former pontifical universities
- Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, until the German Reformation
- Heythrop College, University of London; Bellarmine Institute, London, United Kingdom.
- Lund Studium Generale, Lund, Sweden, until the Danish Reformation
- Royal and Pontifical University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, until 1856, during the presidency of Justo José de Urquiza
- Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, until the Mexican War of Independence
- Universidad Católica de Santo Tomás de Villanueva, Havana, Cuba, until 1961, after the Cuban Revolution
- Universidad de San Ignacio, Manila, Philippines, until 1768, after the Expulsion of the Jesuits
- Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (then in Haiti), until 1823, during the Unification of Hispaniola
- University of Aberdeen, Old Aberdeen, Scotland, until the Scottish Reformation
- University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, until the English Reformation
- University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, until the French Revolutionary Wars
- University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, until the Danish Reformation
- University of Erfurt, until the German Reformation
- University of Freiburg, until the Suppression of the Society of Jesus
- University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, until the Scottish Reformation
- University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, until the German Reformation
- University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, until the German Reformation
- University of Mainz, until the French Revolutionary Wars
- University of Oxford, Oxford, England, until the English Reformation
- University of Paris, Paris, France, until the French Revolution
- University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, until the German Reformation
- University of Saint Andrews, Saint Andrews, Scotland, until the Scottish Reformation
- University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru, until the Peruvian War of Independence
- University of Tübingen, until the German Reformation
- University of Wittenberg, until the German Reformation
- University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany, until the Napoleonic Wars
- Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, until the Swedish Reformation
- School of Theology and Religious Studies, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC
- Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception at the Dominican House of Studies, Washington, D.C.
- Catholic Institute of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
- School of Canon Law, Catholic University of America
A number of national Roman Colleges designated as Pontifical Colleges serve primarily as residence halls for seminarians sent by the bishops of a particular country to study there, such as the Belgian Pontifical College. It may also provide housing for priests pursuing advanced degrees. Students may take classes at the Gregorian, the Angelicum or other universities in Rome. In addition, other members of the clergy may reside there when in Rome.
- Catholic university
- Doctor of Canon Law
- Ecclesiastical university
- Licentiate of Sacred Theology
- List of Roman Catholic seminaries
- Pontifical universities in Rome
- "AVEPRO". avepro.va. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Agenzia della Santa Sede per la Valutazione e la Promozione della Qualità delle Università e Facoltà Ecclesiastiche (AVEPRO), http://www.avepro.va/ Archived 8 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 1 November. 2012
- "Sapientia Christiana (April 15, 1979) | John Paul II". www.vatican.va. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- Pontifical University St. Patrick's College Maynooth
- Pontifical University of the Holy Cross Fdn
- Offers the S.T.B., according to "Gradi accademici" (in Italian). Lugano, Switzerland: Faculty of Theology. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Mater Ecclesiae College – Ecclesiastical Faculties at St Mary's University".
- "Baccalaureate in Sacred Theology (S.T.B.) – Sacred Heart Major Seminary". shms.edu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- University, St. Patrick's Seminary & (30 July 2018). "St. Patrick's Seminary – St. Patrick's Seminary & University". St. Patrick's Seminary & University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "STB". kenrick.edu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- User, Administrative. "Bachelor of Sacred Theology – Mount St. Mary's University". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Zwierlein, Frederick. The Life and Letters of Bishop McQuaid: Prefaced with the History of Catholic Rochester Before His Episcopate, Volume 3 (Rochester, 1927), p. 454–455.
- Denmark ruled Lund till the Great Northern War; Andrina Stiles (1992), Sweden and the Baltic, 1523–1721, London: Hodder & Stoughton.
- Pontifical Status, CUA
- Dominican House of Studies, Washington DC
- School of Canon law, CUA