Pop!_OS

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Pop!_OS
Pop OS-Logo-nobg.svg
Apps Pop! OS 21.10.png
Pop!_OS 21.10, with the COSMIC desktop
DeveloperSystem76
OS familyLinux (Unix-like)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source
Initial releaseOctober 27, 2017; 4 years ago (2017-10-27)[1]
Latest releasePop!_OS 22.04 LTS[2] / 25 April 2022; 3 months ago (2022-04-25)
Repositoryhttps://github.com/pop-os
Update methodAPT (+ Pop!_Shop User Interface)
Package manager
Platformsx86-64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux kernel)
UserlandGNU
Default
user interface
GNOME (COSMIC)
Official websitepop.system76.com

Pop!_OS is a free and open-source Linux distribution, based upon Ubuntu, and featuring a customized GNOME desktop environment known as COSMIC. The distribution is developed by American Linux computer manufacturer System76. Pop!_OS is primarily built to be bundled with the computers built by System76, but can also be downloaded and installed on most computers.[3]

Pop!_OS provides full out-of-the-box support for both AMD and Nvidia GPUs. It is regarded as an easy distribution to set up for gaming, mainly due to its built-in GPU support. Pop!_OS provides default disk encryption, streamlined window and workspace management, keyboard shortcuts for navigation as well as built-in power management profiles. The latest releases also have packages that allow for easy setup for TensorFlow and CUDA.[4][5]

Pop!_OS is maintained primarily by System76, with the release version source code hosted in a GitHub repository. Unlike many other Linux distributions, it is not community-driven, although outside programmers can contribute, view and modify the source code. They can also build custom ISO images and redistribute them under another name.[6][7]

Features[edit]

Pop!_OS primarily uses free software, with some proprietary software used for hardware drivers for Wi-Fi, discrete GPU and media codecs. It comes with a wide range of default software, including LibreOffice, Firefox and Geary. Additional software can be downloaded using the Pop!_Shop package manager.[5]

Pop!_OS uses APT as its package manager and initially did not use Snaps or Flatpak, but Flatpak support was added in version 20.04 LTS. Software packages are available from the Ubuntu repositories, as well as Pop!_OS's own repositories. Pop!_OS features a customized GNOME Shell interface, with a Pop!_OS theme.[8][9]

There is a GUI toggle in the GNOME system menu for switching between different video modes on dual GPU laptops. There are three display modes: hybrid, discrete and iGPU only. There is a power management package developed from the Intel Clear Linux distribution.[10][5] Pop!_OS currently uses Xorg as its display manager, with Wayland available optionally.

TensorFlow and CUDA enabled programs can be added by installing packages from the Pop!_OS repositories without additional configuration required.[11]

It provides a Recovery Partition that can be used to 'refresh' the system while preserving user files. It can be used only if it is set up during initial installation.[12]

From the 21.04 release, Pop!_OS included a new customized GNOME desktop environment called COSMIC, an acronym for "Computer Operating System Main Interface Components" developed by System76. It features separate views for workspaces and applications, a dock included by default, and supports both mouse-driven and keyboard-driven workflows.[13][14]

System76 stated it will be creating a new desktop environment not based on GNOME. This desktop environment will be written in Rust and developed to be similar to the COSMIC desktop used since version 21.04. System76 cites limitations with GNOME extensions, as well as disagreements with GNOME developers on the desktop experience as reasons to build a new desktop environment.[15]

Installation[edit]

Pop!_OS provides two ISO images for download: one with AMD video drivers and another with Nvidia drivers. The appropriate ISO file may be downloaded and written to either a USB flash drive or a DVD using tools such as Etcher or UNetbootin.[16]

Pop!_OS initially used Ubiquity. Later it switched to a custom installer built in partnership with elementary OS.[17][18]

Release history[edit]

17.10[edit]

Prior to offering Pop!_OS, System76 had shipped all its computers with Ubuntu pre-installed. Development of Pop!_OS was commenced in 2017, after Ubuntu decided to halt development of Unity and move back to GNOME as its desktop environment. The first release of Pop!_OS was 17.10, based upon Ubuntu 17.10.[19] In a blog post explaining the decision to build the new distribution, the company stated that there was a need for a desktop-first distribution. The first release was a customized version of Ubuntu GNOME, with mostly visual differences. Some different default applications were supplied and some settings were changed.[20] The initial Pop theme was a fork of the Adapta GTK theme, plus other upstream projects.[21] 17.10 also introduced the Pop!_Shop software store, which is a fork of the elementary OS app store.[22]

Bertel King of Make Use Of reviewed version 17.10, in November 2017 and noted, "System76 isn’t merely taking Ubuntu and slapping a different name on it." King generally praised the release, but did fault the "visual inconsistencies" between applications that were optimized for the distribution and those that were not and the application store, Pop!_Shop, as incomplete. For users who may want to try it on existing hardware he concluded, "now that Ubuntu 17.10 has embraced GNOME, that’s one less reason to install Pop!_OS over Ubuntu."[23]

18.04 LTS[edit]

Version 18.04 added power profiles; providing easy GPU switching, especially for Nvidia Optimus equipped laptops; HiDPI support; full disk encryption and access to the Pop!_OS repository.[24]

In 2018, reviewer Phillip Prado described Pop!_OS 18.04 as "a beautiful looking Linux distribution". He concluded, "overall, I think Pop!_OS is a fantastic distribution that most people could really enjoy if they opened up their workflow to something they may or may not be used to. It is clean, fast, and well developed. Which I think is exactly what System 76 was going for here."[25]

18.10[edit]

Release 18.10 was released in October 2018. It included a new Linux kernel, graphic stack, theme changes and updated applications, along with improvements to the Pop!_Shop software store.[26]

19.04[edit]

Version 19.04 was mostly an incremental update, corresponding to the same Ubuntu version. It incorporated a "Slim Mode" option to maximize screen space, through reducing the height of application window headers, a new dark mode for nighttime use and a new icon set.[27]

Joey Sneddon of OMG! Ubuntu! reviewed Pop!_OS 19.04 in April 2019 and wrote, "I don’t see any appreciable value in Pop OS. Certainly nothing that would make me recommend it over regular Ubuntu 19.04 ..."[12]

19.10[edit]

In addition to incremental updates, version 19.10 introduced Tensorman, a custom TensorFlow toolchain management tool, multilingual support and a new theme based on Adwaita.[28][29][30]

In a 2019 comparison between Pop!_OS and Ubuntu, Ankush Das of It's FOSS found that while both distributions have their advantages, "the overall color scheme, icons, and the theme that goes on in Pop!_OS is arguably more pleasing as a superior user experience."[31]

20.04 LTS[edit]

Pop!_OS 20.04 LTS was released on 30 April 2020 and is based upon Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. It introduced selectable auto-tiling, expanded keyboard shortcuts and workspaces management. It also added Pop!_Shop application store support for Flatpak and introduced a "hybrid graphics mode" for laptops, allowing operation using the power-saving Intel GPU and then providing switching to the NVidia GPU for applications that require it. Firmware updates became automatic and operating system updates could be downloaded and later applied while off-line.[32]

In examining Pop!_OS 20.04 beta, FOSS Linux editor, Divya Kiran Kumar noted, "with its highly effective workspaces, advanced window management, ample keyboard shortcuts, out-of-the-box disk encryption, and myriad pre-installed apps. It would be an excellent pick for anyone hoping to use their time and effort effectively."[33]

Jason Evangelho reviewed Pop!_OS in FOSS Linux January 2020 and pronounced it the best Ubuntu-based distribution.[34]

A review of Pop!_OS 20.04 by Ankush Das in It's FOSS in May 2020 termed it "the best Ubuntu-based distribution" and concluded, "with the window tiling feature, flatpak support, and numerous other improvements, my experience with Pop!_OS 20.04 has been top-notch so far."[35]

OMG! Ubuntu! reviewer Joey Sneddon wrote of Pop!_OS 20.04, "it kinda revolutionises the entire user experience". He further noted, "The fact this distro doesn't shy away from indulging power users, and somehow manages to make it work for everyone, underlines why so-called 'fragmentation' isn't a bad thing: it's a chameleonic survival skill that allows Linux to adapt to whatever the task requires. It is the T-1000 of computing, if you get the reference. And I can't lie: Ubuntu could really learn a few things from this approach."[36]

In a 19 October 2020 review in FOSS Bytes by Mohammed Abubakar termed it, "The Best Ubuntu-based Distro!" and said it is, "an Ubuntu-based Linux distro that strikes a perfect balance between being beginner-friendly and professional or gaming use".[37]

20.10[edit]

Pop!_OS 20.10 was released on 23 October 2020 and is based upon Ubuntu 20.10. It introduced stackable tiled windows and floating window exceptions in auto-tiling mode. Fractional scaling was also introduced, as well as external monitor support for hybrid graphics.[38][39]

Beta News reviewer Brian Fagioli in particular praised the availability of fractional scaling and stacking and noted "what the company does with Pop!_OS, essentially, is improve upon Ubuntu with tweaks and changes to make it even more user friendly. Ultimately, Pop!_OS has become much better than the operating system on which it is based."[40]

21.04[edit]

Pop!_OS 21.04 was released on 29 June 2021 and is based upon Ubuntu 21.04.[14] It included the COSMIC (Computer Operating System Main Interface Components) desktop, based on GNOME, but with a custom dock and shortcut controls.[14][41]

Writing in OMG Ubuntu, Joey Sneddon noted, "COSMIC puts a dock on the desktop; separates workspace and applications into individually accessible screens; adds a new keyboard-centric app launcher (that isn’t trying to search all the things™ by default); plumbs in some much-needed touchpad gestures; and — as if all of that wasn’t enough — makes further refinements to its unique window tiling extension (which you’re free to toggle on/off at any point)." He continued, "Pop!_OS 21.04 is sort of what Ubuntu could — some might say ‘should’ — be: a distro that doesn’t patronise its potential users by fixating on an idealised use case drawn up in a meeting. COSMIC wants to help its users work more efficiently on their terms, not impose a predetermined workflow upon them."[41]

21.10[edit]

Pop!_OS 21.10 was released on 14 December 2021[42] and is based upon Ubuntu 21.10. It included GNOME 40, a new "Vertical Overview" extension, a new Applications menu and support for Raspberry Pi.

22.04 LTS[edit]

Pop!_OS 22.04 was released on 25 April 2022 and is based upon Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. It includes GNOME 42[43] base with System76 COSMIC UX. The ability to update and upgrade Pop!_OS automatically has been added to the OS Upgrade & Recovery panel in Settings (Supports: Debian, Flatpak, and Nix packages).

A new support panel has been added to the bottom of the settings menu. This panel gives quick access to troubleshooting resources for Pop!_OS. The ability to add a separate background for dark mode and light mode has been added. Pop!_Shop has been significantly renovated. Changes include: improvements to backend code, improved reliability for package operations(update, install, etc.), UI improvements to aid in allowing small window sizes for tiling, update and install buttons now also function as a progress bar and a new "recently updated" homepage section highlighting newly added/updated applications.[43]

Release table[edit]

Pop!_OS is based upon Ubuntu and its release cycle is the same as Ubuntu,[44] with new releases every six months in April and October. Long term support releases are made every two years, in April of even-numbered years. Each non-LTS release is supported for three months after the release of the next version, and LTS releases are supported for five years.

Release history[3]
Version Release date General support until Based on
17.10 2017-10-27 Old version, no longer maintained: n/a Ubuntu 17.10
18.04 LTS 2018-04-30 Older version, yet still maintained: 2023-04 Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
18.10 2018-10-19 Old version, no longer maintained: 2019-07 Ubuntu 18.10
19.04 2019-04-20 Old version, no longer maintained: 2020-01 Ubuntu 19.04
19.10 2019-10-19 Old version, no longer maintained: 2020-07 Ubuntu 19.10
20.04 LTS 2020-04-30 Older version, yet still maintained: 2025-04 Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
20.10 2020-10-23 Old version, no longer maintained: 2021-07 Ubuntu 20.10
21.04 2021-06-29 Old version, no longer maintained: 2022-01-22 Ubuntu 21.04
21.10 2021-12-14 Old version, no longer maintained: 2022-07 Ubuntu 21.10
22.04 LTS 2022-04-25 Current stable version: Current Release Ubuntu 22.04 LTS
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pop!_OS released and Thank you". blog.system76.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Pop!_OS 22.04 LTS has landed!". System76 Blog. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b "DistroWatch.com: Pop!_OS". distrowatch.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  4. ^ "Pop!_OS 20.04 Beta Benchmarks On The System76 Thelio Major". Phoronix. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Evangelho, Jason. "Pop OS 18.10 Linux Gaming Report: System76 Nails It For Nvidia And AMD Users". Forbes. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  6. ^ "Pop!_OS". GitHub. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Pop!_OS Tech". Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  8. ^ "DistroWatch.com: Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD". distrowatch.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  9. ^ Salter, Jim (11 June 2020). "Linux distro review: System76's Ubuntu-based Pop!_OS". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  10. ^ "System76's Pop!_OS Is Exploring Intel's Clear Linux Performance/Power Optimizations - Phoronix". www.phoronix.com. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  11. ^ "Install Tensorflow GPU 1.13 on Pop OS 18.04". DEV Community. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b Sneddon, Joey (24 April 2019). "System76 Launch Pop OS 19.04, Based on Ubuntu 19.04". OMG! Ubuntu!. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2020. Oh, and isn’t it actually spelt Pop!_OS? Yes, but I’m not five years old.
  13. ^ Larabel, Michael (13 April 2021). "System76 Developing "COSMIC" Desktop Environment For Pop!_OS". Phoronix. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  14. ^ a b c "Pop!_OS 21.04: A Release of COSMIC Proportions". System76 Blog. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  15. ^ Sneddon, Joey (9 November 2021). "Don't Miss: System76 is Building its Own Desktop Environment". OMG! Ubuntu!. OHSO Media. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  16. ^ "Pop OS Installation Guide". LinOxide. 13 November 2017. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  17. ^ Staff, Ars (28 December 2018). "A tour of elementary OS, perhaps the Linux world's best hope for the mainstream". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  18. ^ (Correspondent), Don Watkins (17 January 2018). "Behind the scenes with Pop!_OS Linux". opensource.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
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  20. ^ "Trying Out System76's Pop!_OS Ubuntu-Based Operating System - Phoronix". www.phoronix.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  21. ^ ""Pop" GTK Theme Brings Ubuntu with GNOME to Life". OMG! Ubuntu!. 26 April 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  22. ^ "Pop!_OS Has Arrived: How Does It Compare to Ubuntu?". MakeUseOf. 10 November 2017. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  23. ^ King, Bertel (10 November 2017). "Pop!_OS Has Arrived: How Does It Compare to Ubuntu?". Make Use Of. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Pop!_OS 18.04 testing ISO coming soon, Updates on Pop!_Shop, SCaLE 16x Reflections, and Official HiDPI Daemon Release". System76 Blog. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
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  26. ^ "See what changes have been orbiting Pop!_OS!". system76.com. 19 October 2018. Archived from the original on 9 June 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  27. ^ "Pop!_OS 19.04 is here!". System76 Blog. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  28. ^ Esselbach, Philipp (20 October 2019). "Pop!_OS 19.10 released". Linux Compatible. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Pop!_OS 19.10 released". blog.system76.com. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  30. ^ "Theme Updates, Offline Upgrades Headline New Additions to Pop!_OS 19.10". blog.system76.com. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
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  32. ^ "What's New with Pop!_OS 20.04 LTS". system76.com. 30 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
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  35. ^ Das, Ankush (1 May 2020). "Pop OS 20.04 Review: Best Ubuntu-based Distribution Just Got Better". It's FOSS. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
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  38. ^ "What's New in Pop!_OS 20.10". system76.com. 23 October 2020. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  39. ^ Chinnagounder, Thiruvenkatam (24 October 2020). "Pop!_OS 20.10 Released: 5 New Features Of Ubuntu-based Linux Distro". paperblog.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  40. ^ Fagioli, Brian (23 October 2020). "System76's Pop!_OS 20.10 Ubuntu-based Linux distro now available for download". Beata News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  41. ^ a b Sneddon, Joey (30 June 2021). "Pop!_OS 21.04 Released with New 'Cosmic' Desktop". OMG! Ubuntu!. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  42. ^ Richell, Carl (9 December 2021). "Tuesday, December 14th". Twitter. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  43. ^ a b "Pop!_OS 22.04 LTS has landed!". System76 Blog. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  44. ^ Soller, Jeremy. "System76 Principal Engineer". Reddit.

External links[edit]