Pope Alexander II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the Coptic patriarch, see Pope Alexander II of Alexandria.
'Anselm of Baggio' redirects here. For his nephew who succeeded him as bishop of Lucca, see St Anselm of Lucca.
Pope
Alexander II
Pope Alexander II.jpg
Papacy began 30 September 1061
Papacy ended 21 April 1073
Predecessor Nicholas II
Successor Gregory VII
Personal details
Birth name Anselmo da Baggio
Born ?
Milan, Holy Roman Empire
Died 21 April 1073(1073-04-21)
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post Bishop of Lucca (1057–61)
Other popes named Alexander

Pope Alexander II (d. 21 April 1073), born Anselm of Baggio (Italian: Anselmo da Baggio),[1] was bishop of Lucca and then pope from 30 September 1061 to his death in 1073.

Life[edit]

He was born in Milan of a noble family.[2] As bishop of Lucca, he had been an energetic coadjutor with Hildebrand of Sovana in endeavouring to suppress simony and enforce the clerical celibacy. (In this role, he is sometimes known as Anselm the Elder or Anselm I to distinguish him from his nephew St Anselm who succeeded to his office.) The papal election of 1061, which Hildebrand had arranged in conformity with the papal decree of 1059 (see Pope Nicholas II), was not sanctioned by the imperial court of Germany. True to the practice observed in preceding papal elections, the German court nominated another candidate, Cadalus, bishop of Parma, who was proclaimed Pope at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II. He marched to Rome and for a long time threatened his rival's position. At length, however, Honorius was forsaken by the German court and deposed by a council held at Mantua; Alexander II's position remained unchallenged.

In 1065, Pope Alexander II wrote to Béranger, Viscount of Narbonne, and to Guifred, bishop of the city, praising them for having prevented the massacre of the Jews in their district, and reminding them that God does not approve of the shedding of blood. That same year, he admonished Landulf VI of Benevento "that the conversion of Jews is not to be obtained by force."[3] Also in the same year, Alexander called for a crusade against the Moors in Spain.[4][5]

In 1066, he entertained an embassy from William, duke of Normandy, after his successful invasion of Brittany. The embassy had been sent to obtain his blessing for William's prospective invasion of England. Alexander gave it, along with a papal ring, the Standard of St. Peter,[6] and an edict to the English clergy guiding them to submit to the new regime. These favors were instrumental in the submission of the English church following the Battle of Hastings.[citation needed]

Alexander II oversaw the suppression of the "Alleluia" during the Latin Church's celebration of Lent.[7] This is followed to this day, and in the Tridentine rite "Alleluia" is also omitted during the Advent season.

Alexander II was followed by his associate Hildebrand, who took the title of Gregory VII.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cardini, Franco, Europe and Islam, (Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1999), 40.
  2. ^ Loughlin, James. "Pope Alexander II." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 1 Aug. 2014
  3. ^ Simonsohn, pp 35–37.
  4. ^ Jonathan P. Phillips, The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom, (St. Edmundsbury Press Ltd., 2007), 246.
  5. ^ Lee Hoinacki, El CaminoJonathan P. Phillips, The Second Crusade: Walking to Santiago de Compostela, (Penn State University Press, 1996), 101.
  6. ^ Houts, Elisabeth M. C. Van, The Normans in Europe, (Manchester University Press, 2000), 105.
  7. ^ Cabrol, p 46.

Sources[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Alexander II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 
  • Simonsohn, Shlomo. The Apostolic See and the Jews, Documents: 492–1404.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alexander (popes)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Cabrol, Fernand. Liturgical Prayer: Its History and Spirit. 2003. p. 46.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Nicholas II
Pope
1061–73
Succeeded by
Gregory VII