|Part of a series on the|
|Catholic Church portal|
Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio,[b] 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013. Francis is the first pope to be a member of the Society of Jesus, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, and the first pope from outside Europe since Gregory III, a Syrian who reigned in the 8th century.
Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked for a time as a bouncer and a janitor as a young man before training to be a chemist and working as a technician in a food science laboratory. After recovering from a severe illness, he was inspired to join the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in 1958. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was the Jesuit provincial superior in Argentina. He became the archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina. The administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him to be a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Throughout his public life, Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interreligious dialogue. He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes.
Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, clerical celibacy, and the ordination of women, but has initiated dialogue on the possibility of deaconesses and has made women full members of dicasteries in the Roman Curia. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming for members of the LGBT community, and favors legal recognition of same-sex couples. Francis is an outspoken critic of unbridled capitalism and free market economics, consumerism, and overdevelopment, and advocates taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and supported the cause of refugees during the European and Central American migrant crises. Since 2018, he has been an opponent of populism. He has faced criticism from theological conservatives on many questions, including his promotion of ecumenism, as well as admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to communion with the publication of Amoris laetitia.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores, a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio (1908–1959) and Regina María Sívori (1911–1981). Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro (Province of Asti) in Italy's Piedmont region. Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genoese) origin. Mario José's family left Italy in 1929 to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini. According to María Elena Bergoglio (b. 1948), the pope's only living sibling, they did not emigrate for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio (1942–2010), Oscar Adrián (1938–deceased) and Marta Regina (1940–2007). Two great-nephews, Antonio and Joseph, died in a traffic collision. His niece, Cristina Bergoglio, is a painter based in Madrid, Spain.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires Province. He attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past Argentine president, and graduated with a chemical technician's diploma (not a master's degree in chemistry, as some media outlets incorrectly reported). In that capacity, he spent several years working in the food section of Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory, where he worked under Esther Ballestrino. Prior to working as a chemical technician, Bergoglio had also worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors.
When he was 21 years old, he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello, neorealism, and tango dancing, with a fondness for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga.
Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest. Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met and briefly doubted about continuing the religious career. As a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Santiago, Chile. After his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio officially became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience of a member of the order.
In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province. He taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966, he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.
In 1967 Bergoglio began his theological studies at Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel and on 13 December 1969 was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. He served as the master of novices for the province there and became a professor of theology.
Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain, and took final, solemn vows as a Jesuit, including the fourth vow of obedience to missioning by the pope, on 22 April 1973. He was named provincial superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina that July, for a six-year term which ended in 1979. In 1973, shortly after being named provincial superior, He had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but his stay was shortened by the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War. After the completion of his term of office, in 1980 he was named the rector of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel where he had studied. Before taking up this new appointment, he spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English, staying at the Jesuit Centre at the Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Dublin. He served at San Miguel for six years until 1986 when, at the discretion of Jesuit superior-general Peter Hans Kolvenbach, he was replaced by someone more in tune with the worldwide trend in the Society of Jesus toward emphasizing social justice, rather than his emphasis on popular religiosity and direct pastoral work.
He spent several months at the Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt, Germany, considering possible dissertation topics. He settled on exploring the work of the German / Italian theologian Romano Guardini, particularly his study of 'Contrast' published in his 1925 work Der Gegensatz. However, he was to return to Argentina prematurely to serve as a confessor and spiritual director to the Jesuit community in Córdoba. In Germany, he saw the painting Mary, Untier of Knots in Augsburg and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where it has become an important Marian devotion.[c] As a student at the Salesian school, Bergoglio was mentored by Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest Stefan Czmil. Bergoglio often rose hours before his classmates to serve Mass for Czmil.
Bergoglio was asked in 1992 by Jesuit authorities not to reside in Jesuit houses, because of continued tensions with Jesuit leaders and scholars, a sense of Bergoglio's "dissent," views of his Catholic orthodoxy and his opposition to theology of liberation, and his work as auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires. As a bishop he was no longer subject to his Jesuit superior. From then on, he did not visit Jesuit houses and was in "virtual estrangement from the Jesuits" until after his election as pope.
Pre-papal episcopate (1992–2013)
Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and consecrated on 27 June 1992 as titular bishop of Auca, with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator. He chose as his episcopal motto Miserando atque eligendo. It is drawn from Saint Bede's homily on Matthew 9:9–13: "because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him".
On 3 June 1997, Bergoglio was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Buenos Aires with right of succession. Upon Quarracino's death on 28 February 1998, Bergoglio became metropolitan archbishop of Buenos Aires. In that role, Bergoglio created new parishes and restructured the archdiocese administrative offices, led pro-life initiatives, and created a commission on divorces. One of Bergoglio's major initiatives as archbishop was to increase the Church's presence in the slums of Buenos Aires. Under his leadership, the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled. This work led to him being called the "Slum Bishop".
Early in his time as archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio sold off the archdiocese's shares in multiple banks and turned its accounts into those of a normal customer in international banks. The shares in banks had led the local church to a propensity towards high spending, and the archdiocese was nearing bankruptcy as a result. As a normal customer of the bank, the church was forced into a higher fiscal discipline.
On 6 November 1998, while remaining archbishop of Buenos Aires, he was named ordinary for those Eastern Catholics in Argentina who lacked a prelate of their own church. Major Archbishop Sviatoslav Shevchuk said that Bergoglio understands the liturgy, rites, and spirituality of Shevchuk's Greek Catholic Church and always "took care of our Church in Argentina" as ordinary for Eastern Catholics during his time as archbishop of Buenos Aires.
In 2000, Bergoglio was the only church official to reconcile with Jerónimo Podestá, a former bishop who had been suspended as a priest after opposing the Argentine Revolution military dictatorship in 1972. He defended Podestá's wife from Vatican attacks on their marriage. That same year, Bergoglio said the Argentine Catholic Church needed "to put on garments of public penance for the sins committed during the years of the dictatorship" in the 1970s, during the Dirty War.
Bergoglio made it his custom to celebrate the Holy Thursday ritual washing of feet in places such as jails, hospitals, retirement homes or slums. In 2007, just two days after Benedict XVI issued new rules for using the liturgical forms that preceded the Second Vatican Council, Cardinal Bergoglio established a fixed place for a weekly Mass in this extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. It was celebrated weekly.
On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected president of the Argentine Episcopal Conference for a three-year term (2005–08). He was reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008. He remained a member of that commission's permanent governing body, president of its committee for the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines. While head of the Argentine Catholic bishops' conference, Bergoglio issued a collective apology for his church's failure to protect people from the Junta during the Dirty War. When he turned 75 in December 2011, Bergoglio submitted his resignation as archbishop of Buenos Aires to Pope Benedict XVI as required by canon law. Still, as he had no coadjutor archbishop, he stayed in office, waiting for an eventual replacement appointed by the Vatican.
At the consistory of 21 February 2001, Archbishop Bergoglio was created a cardinal by Pope John Paul II with the title of cardinal priest of San Roberto Bellarmino, a church served by Jesuits and named for one; he was formally installed in that church the following 14 October. When he traveled to Rome for the ceremony, he and his sister María Elena visited the village in northern Italy where their father was born. As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative positions in the Roman Curia. He was a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Congregation for the Clergy, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, the Pontifical Council for the Family and the Commission for Latin America. Later that year, when Cardinal Edward Egan returned to New York following the September 11 attacks, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops, and, according to the Catholic Herald, created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue".
Cardinal Bergoglio became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism, and a commitment to social justice. A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos. He took public transportation and cooked his own meals. He limited his time in Rome to "lightning visits". He was known to be devoted to St. Thérèse of Lisieux, and he enclosed a small picture of her in the letters he wrote, calling her "a great missionary saint".
After Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, Bergoglio attended his funeral and was considered one of the papabile for succession to the papacy. He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. In the National Catholic Reporter, John L. Allen Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 conclave. In September 2005, the Italian magazine Limes published claims that Bergoglio had been the runner-up and main challenger to Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave and that he had received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot. The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave. According to the Italian journalist Andrea Tornielli, this number of votes had no precedent for a Latin American papabile. La Stampa reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea that the cardinals should not vote for him. According to Tornielli, Bergoglio made this request to prevent the conclave from delaying too much in the election of a pope.
As a cardinal, Bergoglio was associated with Communion and Liberation, a Catholic evangelical lay movement of the type known as associations of the faithful. He sometimes made appearances at the annual gathering known as the Rimini Meeting held during the late summer months in Italy. In 2005, Cardinal Bergoglio authorized the request for beatification—the third step towards sainthood—for six members of the Pallottine community murdered in the San Patricio Church massacre. At the same time, Bergoglio ordered an investigation into the murders themselves, which had been widely blamed on the National Reorganization Process, the military junta that ruled Argentina at the time.
Relations with Argentine governments
Bergoglio was the subject of allegations regarding the Navy's kidnapping of two Jesuit priests, Orlando Yorio and Franz Jalics, in May 1976, during Argentina's Dirty War. He feared for the priests' safety and had tried to change their work prior to their arrest; however, contrary to reports, he never tried to throw them out of the Jesuit order. In 2005, Myriam Bregman, a human rights lawyer, filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the kidnapping. Her complaint did not specify how Bergoglio was involved; Bergoglio's spokesman flatly denied the allegations. The lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. The priests were tortured, but were found alive five months later, drugged and semi-naked. Yorio accused Bergoglio of effectively handing them over to the death squads by declining to tell the authorities that he endorsed their work. Yorio, who died in 2000, said in a 1999 interview that he believed that Bergoglio did nothing "to free us, in fact just the opposite". Jalics initially refused to discuss the complaint after moving into seclusion in a German monastery. However, two days after the election of Francis, Jalics issued a statement confirming the kidnapping and attributing the cause to a former lay colleague who became a guerrilla, was captured, then named Yorio and Jalics when interrogated. The following week, Jalics issued a second, clarifying statement: "It is wrong to assert that our capture took place at the initiative of Father Bergoglio (…) the fact is, Orlando Yorio and I were not denounced by Father Bergoglio."
Bergoglio told his authorized biographer, Sergio Rubin, that after the priests' imprisonment, he worked behind the scenes for their release; Bergoglio's intercession with dictator Jorge Rafael Videla on their behalf may have saved their lives. Bergoglio also told Rubin that he had often sheltered people from the dictatorship on church property, and once gave his own identity papers to a man who looked like him, so he could flee Argentina. The interview with Rubin, reflected in the biography El jesuita, is the only time Bergoglio has spoken to the press about those events. Alicia Oliveira, a former Argentine judge, has also reported that Bergoglio helped people flee Argentina during the rule of the junta. Since Francis became pope, Gonzalo Mosca and José Caravias have related to journalists accounts of how Bergoglio helped them flee the Argentine dictatorship.
Oliveira described the future pope as "anguished" and "very critical of the dictatorship" during the Dirty War. Oliveira met with him at the time and urged Bergoglio to speak out—he told her that "he couldn't. That it wasn't an easy thing to do." Artist and human rights activist Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, said: "Perhaps he didn't have the courage of other priests, but he never collaborated with the dictatorship. …Bergoglio was no accomplice of the dictatorship." Graciela Fernández Meijide, member of the Permanent Assembly for Human Rights, also said that there was no proof linking Bergoglio with the dictatorship. She told the Clarín newspaper: "There is no information and Justice couldn't prove it. I was in the APDH during all the dictatorship years and I received hundreds of testimonies. Bergoglio was never mentioned. It was the same in the CONADEP. Nobody mentioned him as instigator or as anything." Ricardo Lorenzetti, President of the Argentine Supreme Court, also has said that Bergoglio is "completely innocent" of the accusations. Historian Uki Goñi pointed that, during early 1976, the military junta still had a good image among society, and that the scale of the political repression was not known until much later; Bergoglio would have had little reason to suspect that the detention of Yorio and Jalics could end up in their deaths.
When Bergoglio became pope, an alleged photo of him giving the sacramental bread to dictator Jorge Rafael Videla became popular in social networks. It has also been used by the newspaper Página/12. The photo was soon proved to be false. It was revealed that the priest, whose face is not visible in the photo, was Carlos Berón de Astrada. The photo was taken at the church "Pequeña Obra de la Divina Providencia Don Orione" in 1990, not during the Dirty War, and after Videla's presidential pardon. The photo was produced by the agency AFP and it was initially published by the Crónica newspaper.
Fernando de la Rúa
Fernando de la Rúa replaced Carlos Menem as president of Argentina in 1999. As an archbishop, Bergoglio celebrated the annual Mass at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral on the First National Government holiday, 25 May. In 2000, Bergoglio criticized the perceived apathy of society. Argentina faced an economic depression at the time, and the Church criticized the fiscal austerity of the government, which increased poverty. De la Rúa asked the Church to promote a dialogue between the leaders of economic and political sectors to find a solution for the crisis. He claims that he talked with Bergoglio and proposed to take part in the meeting, but Bergoglio would have told him that the meeting was canceled because of a misunderstanding by De la Rúa's assistant, who may have declined the president's assistance. Bishop Jorge Casaretto considers it unlikely, as De la Rúa only made the request in newspaper interviews, but never made a formal request to the Church.
The Justicialist Party won the 2001 elections and got the majority in the Congress, and appointed Ramón Puerta as president of the Senate. As vice president Carlos Álvarez resigned shortly before, this left an opposing party second in the order of precedence. Bergoglio asked for an interview with Puerta, and had a positive impression of him. Puerta told him that the Justicialist party was not plotting to oust De la Rúa, and promised to help the president promote the laws that may be required.
Néstor and Cristina Kirchner
When Bergoglio celebrated Mass at the cathedral for the 2004 First National Government holiday, President Néstor Kirchner attended and heard Bergoglio request more political dialogue, reject intolerance, and criticize exhibitionism and strident announcements. Kirchner celebrated the national day elsewhere the following year and the Mass in the cathedral was suspended. In 2006, Bergoglio helped the fellow Jesuit Joaquín Piña to win the elections in the Misiones Province and prevent an amendment of the local constitution that would allow indefinite re-elections. Kirchner intended to use that project to start similar amendments at other provinces, and eventually to the national constitution. Kirchner considered Bergoglio as a political rival to the day he died in October 2010. Bergoglio's relations with Kirchner's widow and successor, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, have been similarly tense. In 2008, Bergoglio called for national reconciliation during disturbances in the country's agricultural regions, which the government interpreted as a support for anti-government demonstrators. The campaign to enact same-sex marriage legislation was a particularly tense period in their relations.
When Bergoglio was elected pope, the initial reactions were mixed. Most of the Argentine society cheered it, but the pro-government newspaper Página/12 published renewed allegations about the Dirty War, and the president of the National Library described a global conspiracy theory. The president took more than an hour before congratulating the new pope, and only did so in a passing reference within a routine speech. However, due to the pope's popularity in Argentina, Cristina Kirchner made what the political analyst Claudio Fantini called a "Copernican shift" in her relations with him and fully embraced the Francis phenomenon. On the day before his inauguration as pope, Bergoglio, now Francis, had a private meeting with Kirchner. They exchanged gifts and lunched together. This was the new pope's first meeting with a head of state, and there was speculation that the two were mending their relations. Página/12 removed their controversial articles about Bergoglio, written by Horacio Verbitsky, from their web page, as a result of this change.
Elected at 76 years old, Francis was reported to be healthy and his doctors have said his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not significantly affect his health. The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection. In the past, one attack of sciatica in 2007 prevented him from attending a consistory and delayed his return to Argentina for several days. Francis is the first Jesuit pope. This was a significant appointment, because of the sometimes tense relations between the Society of Jesus and the Holy See. However, Bergoglio came in second to Cardinal Ratzinger on all the ballots in the 2005 conclave, and at the time appeared as the only other viable candidate. He is also the first from the Americas, and the first from the Southern Hemisphere. Many media reported him as being the first non-European pope, but he is actually the 11th; the previous was Gregory III from Syria, who died in 741. Moreover, although Francis was not born in Europe, he is ethnically European.
As pope, his manner is less formal than that of his immediate predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as "no frills", noting that it is "his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration." On the night of his election, he took a bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car. The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the hospital and chatted with patients and staff. At his first media audience, the Saturday after his election, the pope explained his papal name choice, citing Saint Francis of Assisi as "the man who gives us this spirit of peace, the poor man", and he added "[h]ow I would like a poor Church, and for the poor".
In addition to his native Spanish, Francis is also conversant in Latin (the official language of the Holy See), he speaks fluent Italian (the official language of Vatican City and the "everyday language" of the Holy See), German, French, Portuguese, English, and he understands the Piedmontese language and some Genoese.
Francis chose not to live in the official papal residence in the Apostolic Palace, but to remain in the Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings. He is the first pope since Pope Pius X to live outside the papal apartments. Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus.
Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013, the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the papal name Francis. Francis was elected on the fifth ballot of the conclave. The Habemus papam announcement was delivered by the cardinal protodeacon, Jean-Louis Tauran. Cardinal Christoph Schönborn later said that Bergoglio was elected following two supernatural signs, one in the conclave and hence confidential, and a Latin-American couple of friends of Schönborn who whispered Bergoglio's name in Schönborn's ear; Schönborn commented "if these people say Bergoglio, that's an indication of the Holy Spirit".
Instead of accepting his cardinals' congratulations while seated on the papal throne, Francis received them standing, reportedly an immediate sign of a changing approach to formalities at the Vatican. During his first appearance as pontiff on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica, he wore a white cassock, not the red, ermine-trimmed mozzetta used by previous popes. He also wore the same iron pectoral cross that he had worn as archbishop of Buenos Aires, rather than the gold one worn by his predecessors.
After being elected and choosing his name, his first act was bestowing the Urbi et Orbi blessing on thousands of pilgrims gathered in St. Peter's Square. Before blessing the crowd, he asked those in St. Peter's Square to pray for his predecessor, "the bishop emeritus of Rome" Pope Benedict XVI, and for himself as the new "bishop of Rome".
Francis held his papal inauguration on 19 March 2013 in St. Peter's Square in the Vatican. He celebrated Mass in the presence of various political and religious leaders from around the world. In his homily Francis focused on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph, the liturgical day on which the Mass was celebrated.
At his first audience on 16 March 2013, Francis told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor. He explained that, as it was becoming clear during the conclave voting that he would be elected the new bishop of Rome, the Brazilian Cardinal Cláudio Hummes had embraced him and whispered, "Don't forget the poor", which had made Bergoglio think of the saint. Bergoglio had previously expressed his admiration for St. Francis, explaining that "He brought to Christianity an idea of poverty against the luxury, pride, vanity of the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the time. He changed history."
This is the first time that a pope has been named Francis. On the day of his election, the Vatican clarified that his official papal name was "Francis", not "Francis I", i.e. no regnal number is used for him. A Vatican spokesman said that the name would become Francis I if and when there is a Francis II. It is the first time since Lando's 913–914 pontificate that a serving pope holds a name not used by a predecessor.[d]
Francis also said that some cardinal electors had jokingly suggested to him that he should choose either "Adrian", since Adrian VI had been a reformer of the church, or "Clement" to settle the score with Clement XIV, who had suppressed the Jesuit order. In February 2014, it was reported that Bergoglio, had he been elected in 2005, would have chosen the pontifical name of "John XXIV" in honor of John XXIII. It was said that he told Cardinal Francesco Marchisano: "John, I would have called myself John, like the Good Pope; I would have been completely inspired by him".
On 16 March 2013, Francis asked all those in senior positions of the Roman Curia to provisionally continue in office. He named Alfred Xuereb as his personal secretary. On 6 April he named José Rodríguez Carballo as secretary for the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, a position that had been vacant for several months. Francis abolished the bonuses paid to Vatican employees upon the election of a new pope, amounting to several million Euros, opting instead to donate the money to charity. He also abolished the €25,000 annual bonus paid to the cardinals serving on the Board of Supervisors for the Vatican bank.
On 13 April 2013, he named eight cardinals to a new Council of Cardinal Advisers to advise him on revising the organizational structure of the Roman Curia. The group included several known as critics of Vatican operations and only one member of the Curia. They are Giuseppe Bertello, president of the Vatican City State governorate; Francisco Javier Errazuriz Ossa from Chile; Oswald Gracias from India; Reinhard Marx from Germany; Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; George Pell from Australia; Seán O'Malley from the United States; and Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga from Honduras. He appointed Bishop Marcello Semeraro secretary for the group and scheduled its first meeting for 1–3 October.
In March 2013, 21 British Catholic peers and members of Parliament from all parties asked Francis to allow married men in Great Britain to be ordained as priests, keeping celibacy as the rule for bishops. They asked it on the grounds that it would be anomalous that married Anglican priests can be received into the Catholic Church and ordained as priests, by means of either the Pastoral Provision of 20 June 1980 or the 2009 Anglican ordinariate, but married Catholic men cannot do the same.
Fouad Twal, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, included a call in his 2013 Easter homily for the pope to visit Jerusalem. Louis Raphael I, the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch, asked the pope to visit the "embattled Christian community" in Iraq. In March 2021, Pope Francis went to Iraq on a first-ever papal visit to the diminishing Christian communities of Mesopotamia fallen apart after years of conflict.
On the first Holy Thursday following his election, Francis washed and kissed the feet of ten male and two female juvenile offenders, not all Catholic, aged from 14 to 21, imprisoned at Rome's Casal del Marmo detention facility, telling them the ritual of foot washing is a sign that he is at their service. This was the first time that a pope had included women in this ritual; although he had already done so when he was archbishop. One of the male and one of the female prisoners were Muslim.
On 31 March 2013, Francis used his first Easter homily to make a plea for peace throughout the world, specifically mentioning the Middle East, Africa, and North and South Korea. He also spoke out against those who give in to "easy gain" in a world filled with greed, and made a plea for humanity to become a better guardian of creation by protecting the environment. He said that "[w]e ask the risen Jesus, who turns death into life, to change hatred into love, vengeance into forgiveness, war into peace." Although the Vatican had prepared greetings in 65 languages, Francis chose not to read them. According to the Vatican, the pope "at least for now, feels at ease using Italian, the everyday language of the Holy See".
In 2013, Francis initially reaffirmed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's program to reform the U.S. Leadership Conference of Women Religious, initiated under his predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI. The New York Times reported that the Vatican had formed the opinion in 2012 that the sisters' group was tinged with feminist influences, focused too much on ending social and economic injustice and not enough on stopping abortion, and permitted speakers at its meetings who questioned church doctrine. However, in April 2015 the investigation was brought to a close. While the timing of the closure may have anticipated a visit by Francis to the U.S. in September 2015, it was noted that the sisters' emphasis is close to that of Francis.
On 12 May, Francis carried out his first canonizations of candidates approved for sainthood during the reign of Benedict XVI: the first Colombian saint, Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena, the second female Mexican saint, María Guadalupe García Zavala, both of the 20th century, and the 813 15th-century Martyrs of Otranto. He said: "While we venerate the martyrs of Otranto, ask God to support the many Christians who still suffer from violence and give them the courage and fate and respond to evil with goodness."
Francis has overseen synods on the family (2014), on youth (2018), and on the Church in the Amazon region (2019). In 2019 Francis' apostolic constitution Episcopalis communio allowed that the final document of a synod may become magisterial teaching simply with papal approval. The constitution also allowed for laity to contribute input directly to the synod's secretary general. Some analysts see the creation of a truly synodal church as likely to become the greatest contribution of Francis' papacy.
Consultation with Catholic laity
A February 2014 survey by the World Values Survey cited in The Washington Post and Time shows how the unity Francis had created could be challenged. Although views about Francis personally were favorable, many Catholics disagreed with at least some of his teachings. The survey found that members of the Catholic Church are deeply divided over abortion, artificial contraception, divorce, the ordination of women, and married priests. In the same month Francis asked parishes to provide answers to an official questionnaire described as a "much broader consultation than just a survey" regarding opinions among the laity. He continued to assert Catholic doctrine, in less dramatic tone than his recent predecessors, who maintained that the Catholic Church is not a democracy of popular opinion.
Linda Woodhead of Lancaster University wrote of the survey Francis initiated, "it's not a survey in any sense that a social scientist would recognize." Woodhead said that many ordinary Catholics would have difficulty understanding theological jargon there. Nonetheless, she suspected the survey might be influential.
The Catholic Church in England and Wales as of April 2014[update] had refused to publish results of this survey; a Church spokesman said a senior Vatican official had expressly asked for summaries to remain confidential, and that orders had come from the pope that the information should not be made public until after October. This disappointed many reformers who hoped the laity would be more involved in decision-making. Some other Catholic churches, for example in Germany and Austria, published summaries of the responses to the survey, which showed a wide gap between Church teaching and the behavior of ordinary Catholics.
In a column he wrote for the Vatican's semi-official newspaper L'Osservatore Romano, the then-Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, American cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, who has a long-standing reputation as one of the church's most vocal conservative hard-liners, said that Francis opposed both abortion and gay marriage. The Vatican's chief spokesman, Father Federico Lombardi, also noted in the Vatican press office during the 2014 consistory meetings that Francis and Cardinal Walter Kasper would not change or redefine any dogmas pertaining to Church theology on doctrinal matters.
Institute for the Works of Religion
In the first months of Francis's papacy, the Institute for the Works of Religion, informally known as the Vatican Bank, said that it would become more transparent in its financial dealings There had long been allegations of corruption and money laundering connected with the bank. Francis appointed a commission to advise him about reform of the Bank, and the finance consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was assigned to carry out a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the bank on these facts. Because of this affair the Promoter of Justice at the Vatican Tribunal applied a letter rogatory for the first time in the history of the Republic of Italy at the beginning of August 2013. In January 2014, Francis replaced four of the five cardinal overseers of the Vatican Bank, who had been confirmed in their positions in the final days of Benedict XVI's papacy. Lay experts and clerics were looking into how the bank was run. Ernst von Freyberg was put in charge. Moneyval feels more reform is needed, and Francis may be willing to close the bank if the reforms prove too difficult. There is uncertainty how far reforms can succeed.
On 29 June 2013, Francis published the encyclical Lumen fidei, which was largely the work of Benedict XVI but awaiting a final draft at his retirement. On 24 November 2013, Francis published his first major letter as pope, the apostolic exhortation Evangelii gaudium, which he described as the programmatic of his papacy, On 18 June 2015, he published his first own, original encyclical Laudato si' concerning care for the planet. On 8 April 2016, Francis published his second apostolic exhortation, Amoris laetitia, remarking on love within the family. Controversy arose at the end of 2016 when four cardinals formally asked Francis for clarifications, particularly on the issue of giving communion to divorced and civilly remarried Catholics.
He established two new Secretariats (top-level departments) in the Roman Curia: the Secretariat for the Economy, and the Secretariat for Communications. He simplified the process for declaring matrimonial nullity.
A further Apostolic Exhortation, Gaudete et exsultate (Rejoice and be glad), was published on 19 March 2018, dealing with "the call to holiness in today's world" for all persons. He counters contemporary versions of the gnostic and Pelagian heresies and describes how Jesus' beatitudes call people to "go against the flow".
In February 2019, Francis acknowledged that priests and bishops were sexually abusing religious sisters. He addressed this and the clergy sex abuse scandal by convening a summit on clergy sexual abuse in Rome 21–24 February 2019. As a follow-up to that summit, on 9 May 2019 Francis promulgated the motu proprio Vos estis lux mundi which specified responsibilities, including reporting directly to the Holy See on bishops and on one's superior, while simultaneously involving another bishop in the archdiocese of the accused bishop.
On 4 October 2020 on the feast of St. Francis of Assisi, Francis published the encyclical Fratelli tutti on fraternity and social friendship, using St. Francis' own words to describe our universal brotherhood and sisterhood.
On 8 December 2020 on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, Pope Francis published the apostolic letter Patris corde ("With a Father's Heart"). To mark the occasion, the Pope proclaimed a "Year of Saint Joseph" from 8 December 2020, to 8 December 2021 on the 150th Anniversary of the Proclamation of Saint Joseph as Patron of the Universal Church.
Pope Francis issued the motu proprio Traditionis custodes on 16 July 2021. The document abrogated the permissions for the celebration of the Tridentine Mass previously established by Benedict XVI in the 2007 Summorum Pontificum, with Traditionis custodes instituting increased restrictions on the use of the 1962 Roman Missal. Pope Francis stated in a letter accompanying the motu proprio that emphasizing the Mass of Paul VI would bring "unity I intend to re-establish throughout the Church of the Roman Rite."
Ecumenism and interreligious dialogue
Pope Francis continued in the tradition of the Second Vatican Council and of the papacies since the Council in promoting ecumenism with other Christian denominations, as well as encouraging dialogue with leaders of other religions; he has also supported peace with those claiming no religious belief.
In January 2014, Francis said that he would appoint fewer monsignors and only assign those honored to the lowest of the three surviving ranks of monsignor, chaplain of His Holiness. It would be awarded only to diocesan priests at least 65 years old. During his 15 years as archbishop of Buenos Aires, Francis never sought the title for any of his priests. It is believed he associates it with clerical careerism and hierarchy, though he did not apply this restriction to clergy working in the Roman Curia or diplomatic corps, where careerism is an even greater concern.
Canonizations and beatifications
Francis presided over the first canonizations of his pontificate on 12 May 2013 in which he canonized the Martyrs of Otranto. Antonio Primaldo and his 812 companions who had been executed by the Ottomans in 1480, as well as the religious sisters Laura of St. Catherine of Siena and María Guadalupe García Zavala – in this first canonization he surpassed the record of Pope John Paul II in canonizing the most saints in a pontificate. Francis approved the equipollent canonization of Angela of Foligno the following 9 October and then the Jesuit Peter Faber the following 17 December.
The pope approved further equipollent canonizations on 3 April 2014 for the Jesuit José de Anchieta as well as the Ursuline nun Marie of the Incarnation and bishop François de Laval. Francis canonized his two predecessors John XXIII and John Paul II on 27 April 2014 and canonized six additional saints the following 23 November. The pope canonized Joseph Vaz on his visit to Sri Lanka on 14 January 2015 and canonized a further four saints on the following 17 May; he canonized Junípero Serra on 23 September while visiting the United States and then canonized four saints on 18 October including the first married couple to be named as saints. Francis canonized Maria Elisabeth Hesselblad and Stanislaus Papczyński on 5 June 2016 and then canonized Teresa of Calcutta on 4 September; he canonized seven additional saints on 16 October. The pope canonized the two child visionaries Francisco and Jacinta Marto during his visit to Fátima in mid-2017 and canonized 35 additional saints on 15 October. Francis recognized seven saints on 14 October 2018, chief among them, his predecessor Pope Paul VI and Óscar Romero. Francis later confirmed the equipollent canonization for Bartholomew of Braga in mid-2019 while he canonized five new saints, including Cardinal John Henry Newman, on 13 October 2019. The pope confirmed the equipollent canonization for Margherita della Metola on 24 April 2021.
The pope has also continued the practice of having beatifications celebrated in the place of the individual's origin though has presided over beatifications himself on three occasions: for Paul Yun Ji-Chung and 123 companions on 16 August 2014, his predecessor Pope Paul VI on 19 October 2014, and two Colombian martyrs on 8 September 2017. The pope has approved beatifications for a range of men and women including the likes of Álvaro del Portillo of Opus Dei (27 September 2014), the martyred archbishop Óscar Romero (23 May 2015) and several large groups of Spanish martyrs.
On 21 February 2015, Francis signed a decree naming Saint Gregory of Narek as the 36th Doctor of the Church; he formally conferred the title upon the saint at a ceremony held in Saint Peter's Basilica on 12 April 2015 with delegations from the Armenian Catholic Church and the Armenian Apostolic Church present.
At the first consistory of his papacy, held on 22 February 2014, Francis created 19 new cardinals. At the time of their elevation to that rank, 16 of these new cardinals were under eighty years of age and thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave. The new appointees included prelates from South America, Africa, and Asia, including appointees in some of the world's poorest countries, such as Chibly Langlois from Haiti and Philippe Nakellentuba Ouedraogo from Burkina Faso. The consistory was a rare occasion in which Francis and his predecessor, Benedict XVI, appeared together in public.
Benedict XVI also attended the second consistory on 14 February 2015, at which Francis elevated 20 new cardinals, with 15 under the age of eighty and five over the age of eighty. The pope continued his practice of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, such as Charles Maung Bo of Myanmar and Soane Patita Paini Mafi of Tonga.
Francis presided over the third consistory of his papacy on 19 November 2016, elevating 17 new cardinals. Of that total number at the time of their elevation, 13 were under the age of eighty and four were over the age of eighty. Francis continued his previous practice of elevating cardinals from the peripheries with an emphasis again on Asia and Africa, such as Patrick D'Rozario from Bangladesh and Dieudonné Nzapalainga from the Central African Republic, while also naming the first three American cardinals of his papacy and only one Curial appointment.
The pope presided over a fourth consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on the afternoon of 28 June 2017. Each of the five were under the age of eighty, and were thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave. This consistory was noteworthy for the fact that, with the pope continuing the trend of elevating cardinals from a diverse range of areas, no cardinals elevated are of the Roman Curia, and one was a mere auxiliary bishop.
Francis presided over his fifth consistory for the elevation of 14 new cardinals on 28 June 2018. The first eleven were under the age of eighty, and therefore, were eligible to vote in a future papal conclave while the last three were over the age of eighty, and thus, ineligible to vote in a papal conclave. The pope continued the practice of naming the Vicar of Rome and a curial prefect as cardinals, while naming his substitute for the Secretariat of State in anticipation of his transferral to a curial department. The pope also continued his practice of bestowing the red hat on those from peripheries such as Madagascar, Pakistan, and Iraq, and like in 2016, created a priest as a cardinal. The consistory was also noteworthy for the fact that Francis named the papal almoner Konrad Krajewski as a cardinal, marking the consistory the first occasion where the almoner was made a cardinal. Francis himself later said that he wanted the office of almoner to receive the red hat going forward as it was an important arm of the Vatican.
On 1 September 2019, following his weekly Sunday Angelus address, Francis unexpectedly announced the appointment of 13 new cardinals. Of these, 10 appointees were under the age of 80 and would therefore become cardinal electors, besides three over 80. The new cardinals were formally installed at the consistory celebrated on 5 October 2019. Most of the new cardinals come from the peripheries of the church and developing countries. Two new appointees were from Muslim majority countries (Morocco and Indonesia), while two others were known for their work on refugee and migration issues. This action took the number of cardinal electors appointed by Francis to the College of Cardinals to about 70 out of nearly 130.
Francis created thirteen new cardinals on 28 November 2020; nine appointees were under the age of 80, therefore, could vote in a future papal conclave. The pope also nominated four cardinals over the age of 80. Most of these new appointees continued the trend that Francis adhered to, appointing the first cardinals to represent Brunei and Rwanda. Francis also nominated the first African American cardinal (Gregory), while naming the first Conventual Franciscan (Gambetti) in almost 160 years, and the first from Siena (Lojudice) since 1801. Three of his appointees were only priests upon their nomination, therefore, two (Gambetti and Feroci) received their episcopal consecration, while one (Cantalamessa) was granted a papal dispensation from it.
Year of Mercy
With his April 2015 papal bull of indiction, Misericordiae Vultus (Latin: "The Face of Mercy"), Francis inaugurated a Special Jubilee Year of Mercy, to run from 8 December 2015, Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, to the last Sunday before Advent and the Solemnity of the Feast of Christ the King of the Universe on 20 November 2016.
The Holy Doors of the major basilicas of Rome (including the Great Door of St. Peter's) were opened, and special "Doors of Mercy" were opened at cathedrals and other major churches around the world, where the faithful can earn indulgences by fulfilling the usual conditions of prayer for the pope's intentions, confession, and detachment from sin, and communion. During Lent of that year, special 24-hour penance services will be celebrated, and during the year, special qualified and experienced priests called "Missionaries of Mercy" will be available in every diocese to forgive even severe, special-case sins normally reserved to the Holy See's Apostolic Penitentiary.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, Francis canceled his regular general audiences at St. Peter's Square to prevent crowds from gathering and spreading the virus, which seriously affected Italy. He encouraged priests to visit patients and health workers; urged the faithful not to forget the poor during the time of crisis; offered prayers for victims of the virus in China; and invoked the Blessed Virgin Mary under her title Salus Populi Romani, as the Diocese of Rome observed a period of prayer and fasting in recognition of the victims. The pontiff reacted with displeasure on 13 March 2020, at the news that the Vicar General had closed all churches in the Diocese of Rome. Despite Italy being under a quarantine lockdown, Francis pleaded "not to leave the ... people alone" and worked to partially reverse the closures.
On 20 March 2020, Francis asked the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development (DPIHD) to create a Vatican COVID-19 Commission to express the Church's concern for the crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and propose responses to the potential socio-economic challenges deriving from it.
On 27 March, Francis gave an extraordinary benediction Urbi et Orbi. In his homily on calming the storm in the Gospel of Mark, Francis described the setting: "Dense darkness has thickened on our squares, streets and cities; it looks over our lives filling everything with a deafening silence and a desolate void that paralyzes everything in its passage: you can feel it in the air, you can feel it in your gestures. ...In the face of suffering, where the true development of our peoples is measured, we discover and experience the priestly prayer of Jesus: 'may all be one'."
Role of women
On 11 January 2021, Francis allowed bishops to institute women to the ministries of acolyte and lector. While these instituted ministries were previously reserved to men, Catholic women already carry out these duties without institution in most of the world. Francis wrote that these ministries are fundamentally distinct from those reserved to ordained clergy.
In February 2021, Francis announced back-to-back appointments of women to take positions that were only held by men in the past. He appointed France’s member of the Xaviere Missionary Sisters, Nathalie Becquart as the first co-undersecretary of the Synod of Bishops. Besides, an Italian magistrate, Catia Summaria also became the first woman Promoter of Justice in the Vatican’s Court of Appeals.
Francis was mandated by electing cardinals to sort out Vatican finances following scandals during the papacies of Pope Benedict and Pope John Paul II. He stated he is determined to end corruption in the Catholic Church but is not very optimistic due to a human problem dating back centuries.
In Evangelii gaudium Francis revealed what would be the emphases of his pontificate: a missionary impulse among all Catholics, sharing the faith more actively, avoiding worldliness and more visibly living the gospel of God's mercy, and helping the poor and working for social justice.
From his first major letter Evangelii gaudium (Joy to the World), Francis called for "a missionary and pastoral conversion" whereby the laity would fully share in the missionary task of the church. Then in his letter on the call of all to the same holiness, Gaudete et exsultate, Fancis describes holiness as "an impulse to evangelize and to leave a mark in this world".
Francis called for decentralization of governance away from Rome, and for a synodal manner of decision making in dialogue with the people. He strongly opposed clericalism and made women full members of the Church's dicasteries in Rome.
Francis' naming of himself after Francis of Assisi was an early indication of how he shared Francis' care for all of creation. This was followed in May 2015 with his major encyclical on the environment, Laudato si' (Praise be to you).
Option for the poor
Francis has highly extolled "popular movements", which demonstrate the "strength of us", serve as a remedy to the "culture of the self", and are based on solidarity with the poor and the common good.
Cardinal Walter Kasper has called mercy "the key word of his pontificate.":31–32 His papal motto Miserando atque eligendo ("by having mercy and by choosing") contains a central theme of his papacy, God's mercy, While maintaining the Church's traditional teaching against abortion, Francis, has referred to the "obsession" of some Catholics with a few issues like "abortion, gay marriage and the use of contraceptive methods" which "do not show the heart of the message of Jesus Christ.”
In June 2013, Francis stated:
If a person is gay and seeks God and has good will, who am I to judge?
In 2015, Francis declared that:
The family is threatened by growing efforts on the part of some to redefine the very institution of marriage.
And suggested that same-sex marriage:
Disfigures God's plan for creation.
He stated that he supports legally recognising same-sex civil unions in a statement from an interview published in October 2020; this passage was from an interview from 2019, but this passage had been cut from public releases at the time. The statement was also interpreted as supportive of LGBT adoption.
What we have to create is a civil union law. That way they are legally covered. They're children of God and have a right to a family. Nobody should be thrown out or be made miserable because of it.
However, Vatican later clarified that his comments were taken out of context with two comments to two different questions at different times spliced together in a very misleading way. Francis has never officially pronounced support for gay civil unions. Francis also endorsed the 2015 Slovak same-sex marriage referendum which would have banned same-sex adoptions in the country.
Francis supported the use of force to stop Islamic militants from attacking religious minorities in Iraq. In January 2018, Francis met with a group of Yazidi refugees in Europe and expressed his support for their right to freely profess their own faith without limitations. In the meeting, he also urged the international community "not to remain a silent and unresponsive spectator in the face of [your] tragedy."
Since 2016, criticism against Francis by theological conservatives has intensified. One commentator has described the conservative resistance against Francis as "unique in its visibility" in recent Church history. Some have explained the level of disagreement as due to his going beyond theoretical principles to pastoral discernment.
Sexual abuse response
As cardinal, Bergoglio commissioned a study that concluded Father Julio Grassi, a priest convicted of child sexual abuse, was innocent, that his victims were lying, and that the case against him never should have gone to trial. The Supreme Court of Argentina upheld the conviction. Francis has admitted that the Church "arrived late" in dealing with sexual abuse cases. During his papacy, a number of abuse survivors have expressed disappointment in Francis's response to sex abuse in the Church while others have praised him for his actions.
In 2015, Francis was criticized for supporting Chilean bishop Juan Barros, who was accused of covering up sex crimes committed against minors. In 2018, Francis acknowledged he had made "grave errors" in judgment about Barros, apologized to the victims and launched a Vatican investigation that resulted in the resignation of Barros and two other Chilean bishops. In 2018, Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò published an open letter denouncing Francis's handling of sexual abuse allegations against Theodore McCarrick, accusing him of knowing about allegations that McCarrick had committed sexual abuse and failing to take action. Viganò called on the Pope to resign.
Amoris laetitia and the communion to the divorced and civilly remarried
On a theological level, controversy arose after the publication of the apostolic exhortation Amoris laetitia, especially regarding whether the exhortation had changed the Catholic Church's sacramental discipline concerning access to the sacraments of Penance and the Eucharist for divorced couples who have civilly remarried. Francis had written that "It is important that the divorced who have entered a new union should be made to feel part of the Church." He called not for "a new set of general rules, canonical in nature and applicable to all cases," but "a responsible personal and pastoral discernment of particular cases." He went on to say: “It is true that general rules set forth a good which can never be disregarded or neglected, but in their formulation they cannot provide absolutely for all particular situations.”
Four cardinals (Raymond Leo Burke, Carlo Caffarra, Walter Brandmüller, and Joachim Meisner) formally asked Francis for clarifications, particularly on the issue of giving communion to divorced and civilly remarried Catholics. They submitted five "dubia" (doubts), and requested a yes or no answer. Francis has not publicly replied. The exhortation has been implemented in different ways by various bishops around the world.
Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, maintained that Amoris Laetitia should only be interpreted in line with previous doctrine. Therefore, according to Cardinal Müller, divorced and civilly remarried can have access to the Sacraments of Reconciliation and the Eucharist only if they take on the duty of living in complete continence. Francis subsequently announced that dicastery prefects would be appointed for a single five-year term, and replaced Müller at the end of his term in 2017 with Luis Ladaria Ferrer. Cardinal Carlo Caffarra, one of the authors of the dubia, maintains that after Amoris laetitia "only a blind man could deny there's great confusion, uncertainty and insecurity in the Church."
In July 2017 a group of conservative clergy, academics and laymen signed a document labeled as a "Filial Correction" of Francis. The 25-page document, which was made public in September after it received no reply, criticized the pope for promoting what it described as seven heretical propositions through various words, actions and omissions during his pontificate. Capuchin Father Thomas Weinandy, ex-doctrine chief of US Bishops, wrote a letter to Francis on 31 July 2017, which he subsequently made public, in which he charged that Francis is fostering "chronic confusion", "demeaning" the importance of doctrine, appointing bishops who "scandalize" believers with dubious "teaching and pastoral practice", giving prelates who object the impression they will be "marginalized or worse" if they speak out, and causing faithful Catholics to "lose confidence in their supreme shepherd".
Document on Human Fraternity
The Document on Human Fraternity for World Peace and Living Together is a joint statement signed by Francis and Sheikh Ahmed el-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, on 4 February 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This joint statement is concerned with how different faiths can live peaceably in the same world and areas. Criticisms focused particularly on the passage about God's will with regard to the diversity of religions, claiming that the "pluralism and the diversity of religions, colour, sex, race and language are willed by God in His wisdom, through which He created human beings". Catholic theologian Chad Pecknold wrote that this sentence was "puzzling, and potentially problematic". Some Catholic observers tried to understand it as an allusion to the "permissive will" of God, allowing evil on earth. Pecknold wrote that the diversity of religions might also be "evidence of our natural desire to know God". On 8 February 2019 Bishop Athanasius Schneider released a document entitled "The Gift of Filial Adoption, the Christian Faith: the only valid and the only God-willed religion".
Traditionis custodes and the restriction of the Tridentine Mass
In July 2021, Francis issued, motu proprio, the apostolic letter titled Traditionis custodes, which reversed the decision of his immediate predecessor Benedict XVI in Summorum Pontificum and imposed new restrictions on the use of the Traditional Latin Mass. The letter returned to the bishops the power to grant or suppress the Latin Mass in their particular dioceses, and requires newly ordained priests to first request permission before performing the old rite, among other changes. "Traditionis Custodes, which Pope Francis published and came into immediate effect on July 16, has been criticized by prelates such as Cardinals Raymond Burke, Gerhard Müller and Joseph Zen, as well as many lay faithful who attend the traditional Latin Mass, also called Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite. The most general criticism is that the restrictions are unnecessary, needlessly harsh, and implemented in an unjustifiably swift fashion."
Francis has regularly been accused by conservatives of having a "soft spot" for leftist populist movements. After Francis's visit to Cuba in 2015, Catholic Yale historian Carlos Eire said Francis had a "preferential option for the oppressors" in Cuba. Nevertheless, Francis remained hostile to right-wing populism.
Francis has supported the Vatican-China agreement, intended to normalize the situation of China's Catholics, which was criticized by Cardinal Joseph Zen as a step towards the "annihilation" of the Catholic Church in China. U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said cooperating with the Chinese Communist Party puts the pope's moral authority at risk. In September 2020, Pompeo urged Francis to stand against China's human rights violations. In November, Francis named China's Uyghur minority among a list of the world's persecuted peoples. He wrote: "I think often of persecuted peoples: the Rohingya [Muslims in Myanmar], the poor Uighurs, the Yazidi—what ISIS did to them was truly cruel—or Christians in Egypt and Pakistan killed by bombs that went off while they prayed in church." Zhao Lijian, the spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of China, said Francis’ remarks had "no factual basis at all".
Since 2016, Francis has also been contrasted with US President Donald Trump, elected that year, with some conservative critics drawing comparisons between the two. During the 2016 United States presidential election, Francis said of Trump, "A person who only thinks about building walls, wherever they may be, and not building bridges, is not Christian. That is not the gospel." Trump responded, "For a religious leader to question a person's faith is disgraceful." Federico Lombardi said that Francis' comments were not "a personal attack, nor an indication of who to vote for".
In response to criticism from Venezuela's bishops, President Nicolás Maduro said in 2017 that he had the support of Francis. Francis met with the country's bishops in June 2017, and the Venezuelan bishops' conference president stated, "There is no distance between the episcopal conference and the Holy See." In January 2019, 20 former presidents in Latin America wrote a letter to Francis criticizing his Christmas address regarding the ongoing Venezuelan crisis for being too simplistic and for not acknowledging what they believed to be the causes of the suffering of the victims of the crisis. Francis has sought peace in the crisis without picking a side.
International diplomatic role
Francis played a key role in the talks toward restoring full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba. The restoration was jointly announced by U.S. President Barack Obama and Cuban President Raúl Castro on 17 December 2014. The headline in the Los Angeles Times on 19 December was "Bridge to Cuba via Vatican," with the further lead "In a rare and crucial role, Francis helped keep U.S. talks with Havana on track and guided final deal." The pope, along with the Government of Canada, was a behind-the-scenes broker of the agreement, taking the role following President Obama's request during his visit to the pope in March 2014. The success of the negotiations was credited to Francis because "as a religious leader with the confidence of both sides, he was able to convince the Obama and Castro administrations that the other side would live up to the deal". En route to the United States for a visit in September 2015, the pope stopped in Cuba. "The plan comes amid a breakthrough for which Francis has received much credit." The Cuba visit "seals that accomplishment, in which he served as a bridge between two erstwhile enemies". According to one expert on religion in Latin America, Mario Paredes, the pope's visit to Cuba was consistent with his aim to promote an understanding of the role of the Cuban Revolution and that of the Catholic Church. When Francis was archbishop of Buenos Aires, he authored a text entitled "Dialogues Between John Paul II and Fidel Castro". John Paul was the first pope to visit Cuba. In May 2015, Francis met with Cuban leader Raúl Castro. After the meeting in Vatican City on 10 May 2015, Castro said that he was considering returning to the Catholic Church. He said in a televised news conference, "I read all the speeches of the pope, his commentaries, and if the pope continues this way, I will go back to praying and go back to the [Catholic] church. I am not joking." Castro said that, when the pope came, "I promise to go to all his Masses and with satisfaction".
In May 2014, his visit to the State of Israel, where he delivered 13 speeches, was heavily publicized. Protests against his visit resulted in an alleged arson attempt at the Dormition Abbey. The cave under the Church of the Nativity caught fire the night after his visit.
In May 2015, Francis welcomed Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas to the Vatican. Several media outlets reported that Francis praised Abbas as "an angel of peace", though his actual words were the following: "The angel of peace destroys the evil spirit of war. I thought about you: may you be an angel of peace." The Vatican signed a treaty recognizing the state of Palestine. The Vatican issued statements concerning the hope that the peace talks could resume between Israel and Palestine. Abbas' visit was on the occasion of the canonization of two Palestinian nuns.
On 25 September 2015, Francis addressed the United Nations in New York City.
On 16 April 2016, he visited, together with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew and Archbishop Ieronimos II of Athens, the Moria Refugee Camp on the Greek island of Lesbos, to call the attention of the world to the refugee issue. There the three Christian leaders signed a joint declaration.
In January 2017, Francis demanded the resignation of Matthew Festing, the 79th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The Pope's demand came as a response to Festing and Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke firing Baron Albrecht von Boeselager from his position in the Order of Malta. The Order, in May 2017, appointed a new leader in the person of Fra' Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto.
On 24 May 2017, Francis met with U.S. President Donald Trump in Vatican City, where they discussed the contributions of Catholics to the United States and to the world. They discussed issues of mutual concern, including how religious communities can combat human suffering in crisis regions, such as Syria, Libya, and ISIS-controlled territory. They also discussed terrorism and the radicalization of young people. The Vatican's secretary of state, Pietro Parolin, raised the issue of climate change and encouraged Trump to remain in the Paris Agreement. At the 2017 World Food Day ceremony, Francis reiterated that "we see the consequences [of climate change] every day" and that we "know how the problems are to be faced ... [t]hanks to scientific knowledge." He said that "the international community has drawn up the necessary legal instruments, such as the Paris Agreement, from which however some are withdrawing. There is a re-emergence of the nonchalance towards the delicate balances of ecosystems, the presumption of being able to manipulate and control the planet's limited resources, and greed for profit."
Francis visited Ireland in 2018, in what was the first papal tour of the country since John Paul II's historic trip in 1979. While in Ireland he apologized for abuses by clergy in the United States and Ireland.
In February 2019, Francis visited Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, on the invitation of Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan. Francis became the first pope to hold a papal Mass on the Arabian Peninsula, with more than 120,000 attendees in the Zayed Sports City Stadium.
Francis made the plight of refugees and migrants "a core component of his pastoral work", and has defended their rights in dialogue both with Europe and with the United States. He went on to place a statue in St. Peter's Square to bring attention to the Christian imperative involved in their situation (Hebrews 13:2).
In March 2021, Pope Francis held a historic meeting with Iraq's top Shi'ite cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, and visited the birthplace of the Prophet Abraham, Ur. Giving a message of peaceful coexistence, he and the Iraqi cleric urged the Muslim and Christian communities to work together in unity for peace.
|Why the only future worth building includes everyone, TED talks, April 2017, 17:51, in Italian with subtitles in 22 languages|
Popular mainstream media frequently portray Francis either as a progressive papal reformer or with liberal, moderate values. The Vatican has claimed that Western news outlets often seek to portray his message with a less-doctrinal tone of papacy, in hopes of extrapolating his words to convey a more merciful and tolerant message. In the news media, both faithful and non-believers often refer to a "honeymoon" phase in which the pope has changed the tone on Catholic doctrines and supposedly initiated ecclesiastical reform in the Vatican. Media systems differ, too, not only in their coverage of Francis's stances but also in how individual events are portrayed. His 2015 trip to Cuba is a prime example. During this trip, American-based AP and British-based Reuters highlighted the religious aspect of the pope's journey while Prensa Latina, the official state media agency, depicted it as a diplomatic visit. American and British media were also more likely during this trip to show Francis interacting with regular Cubans compared to the official Cuban media, which showed Francis interacting with elites most often.
In December 2013, both Time and The Advocate magazines named the Pontiff as their "Person of the Year" in praise and hopes of reforming the Roman Curia while hoping to change the Catholic Church's doctrine on various controversial issues. In addition, Esquire magazine named him as the "Best-dressed man" for 2013 for his simpler vestments often in tune with a modern simplistic design on sartorial fashion. Rolling Stone magazine followed in January 2014 by making the Pontiff their featured front cover. Fortune magazine also ranked Francis as number one in their list of 50 greatest leaders. On 5 November 2014, he was ranked by Forbes as the fourth most powerful person in the world and was the only non-political figure in the top ranking. In December 2016, Francis yet made Forbes's list of "The World's Most Powerful People", ranking fifth.
In March 2013, a new song was dedicated to Francis and released in Brazilian Portuguese, European Portuguese, and Italian, titled Come Puoi ("How You Can"). Also in March, Pablo Buera, the mayor of La Plata, Argentina, announced that the city had renamed a section of a street leading up to a local cathedral Papa Francisco. There are already efforts to name other streets after him, as well as a school where he studied as a child. A proposal to create a commemorative coin as a tribute to Francis was made in Argentina's lower house on 28 November 2013. On the coins it would read, "Tribute from the Argentine People to Pope Francis." beneath his face. As of May 2013, sales of papal souvenirs, a sign of popularity, were up.
Francis presided over his first joint public wedding ceremony in a Nuptial Mass for 20 couples from the Archdiocese of Rome on 14 September 2014, just a few weeks before the start of the 5–19 October Extraordinary Synod of Bishops on the Family.[e]
On 19 March 2016, Francis became the first pope to create an Instagram account. He broke records after having gained over one million followers in under twelve hours of the account being up. In 2019 Francis held a conference on the World Day of Social Communications highlighting the pros and cons of social media and urging users to use it as a source that liberates rather than enslaves. On 26 November 2020 Francis became the first pope to write an op-ed for The New York Times, addressing issues such as the coronavirus and the need for global solidarity. The Pontiff also used his op-ed to strongly critique those protesting COVID-19 restrictions.
Titles and styles
- Bolivia: : Grand Collar of the Order of the Condor of the Andes (9 July 2015)
- Bolivia: Order of Merit "Father Luis Espinal Camps" (9 July 2015)
- Poland: : Order of the Smile (26 April 2016)
- Germany: International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen 2016.
- "Person of the Year" by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2015) for his request that all Catholics be kind to animals.
- Was made an honorary Harlem Globetrotter on 7 May 2015.
- Zayed Award for Human Fraternity in October 2020 for significant contributions to the service of humanity from around the world.
Honorific eponyms and dedications
- Philippines: The Pope Francis Center for the Poor – Palo, Leyte (12 July 2015)
- Ennio Morricone composed a Mass setting (Missa Papae Francisci) named after the pope, for the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the restoration of the Jesuit order. The performance aired on Rai 5 and was attended by former Italian President Giorgio Napolitano and other dignitaries.
- The composer Ludger Stühlmeyer dedicated his work Klangrede – Sonnengesang des Franziskus, for choir (SATB) and instruments – to Pope Francis (Suae Sanctitati Papae Francisci dedicat.). First performance: Capella Mariana 4 October 2015.
In the oratorio Laudato si' by Peter Reulein (music) written on a libretto by Helmut Schlegel OFM, the figure of Francis appears next to Mary, Francis of Assisi and Clare of Assisi. In the oratorio, Pope Franziskus suggests a bridge from the crucifixion scene on Golgotha to the suffering of the present. He emphasizes the female talent and the importance of the charism of women for church and society. The texts of the encyclical Laudato si' and Evangelii gaudium were used. The motto of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy also plays a central role. The oratorio was premiered on 6 November 2016 in the Limburg Cathedral.
Coat of arms
|Library resources about |
|By Pope Francis|
- Bergoglio, Jorge (1982). Meditaciones para religiosos [Meditations for the Religious] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Diego de Torres. OCLC 644781822.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (1992). Reflexiones en esperanza [Reflections of Hope] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ediciones Universidad del Salvador. OCLC 36380521.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2003). Educar: exigencia y pasión: desafíos para educadores cristianos [To Educate: Exactingness and Passion: Challenges for Christian Educators] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505124572.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2003). Ponerse la patria al hombro: memoria y camino de esperanza [Putting the Motherland on One's Shoulders: Memoir and Path of Hope] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125111.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2005). La nación por construir: utopía, pensamiento y compromiso: VIII Jornada de Pastoral Social [The Nation to Be Built: Utopia, Thought, and Commitment] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125463.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2006). Corrupción y pecado: algunas reflexiones en torno al tema de la corrupción [Corruption and Sin: Some Thoughts on Corruption] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125722.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2006). Sobre la acusación de sí mismo [On Self-Accusation, (or from the Italian, Humility: The Road towards God)] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 978-950-512-549-4.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2007). El verdadero poder es el servicio [True Power Is Service] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. OCLC 688511686.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2009). Seminario: las deudas sociales de nuestro tiempo: la deuda social según la doctrina de la iglesia [Seminar: the Social Debts of Our Time: Social Debt According to Church Doctrine] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EPOCA-USAL. ISBN 9788493741235.
- Bergoglio, Jorge; Skorka, Abraham (2010). Sobre el cielo y la tierra [On Heaven and Earth] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. ISBN 9789500732932.; Bergoglio, Jorge; Skorka, Abraham (2013). On Heaven and Earth: Pope Francis on Faith, Family, and the Church in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-7704-3506-6.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2010). Seminario Internacional: consenso para el desarrollo: reflexiones sobre solidaridad y desarrollo [International seminar: Consensus about Development: Reflexions on Solidarity and development] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EPOCA. ISBN 9789875073524.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2011). Nosotros como ciudadanos, nosotros como pueblo: hacia un bicentenario en justicia y solidaridad [Ourselves as Citizens, Ourselves as a People: towards a Bicentenary in Justice and Solidarity] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505127443.
- Pope Francis (2013). Open Mind, Faithful Heart: Reflections On Following Jesus. Translated by Joseph V. Owens, SJ. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8245-1997-1.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (1995). La vida sagrada y su misión en la Iglesia y en el mundo (PDF) (in Spanish). Argentina Catholic University: Faculty of Theology. OCLC 806712655.
- Egan, Edward Michael; Bergoglio, Jorge (2001). Episcopus minister Evangelii Iesu Christi propter spem mundi: relatio post disceptationem. The Catholic Church. The Synod of Bishops. Ordinary General Assembly. E Civitate Vaticana. OCLC 749998123.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2003). "For Man". In Buzzi, Elisa (ed.). A Generative Thought: An Introduction to the Works of Luigi Giussani. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 79–83. ISBN 978-0-7735-2612-9.
- John Paul, Pope; Castro, Fidel (2004). Bergoglio, Jorge (ed.). Diálogos entre Juan Pablo II y Fidel Castro [Dialogues Between John Paul II and Fidel Castro] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ciudad Argentina. ISBN 9789875070745.
- Bergoglio, Jorge (2007). "Buscar el camino hacia el futuro, llevando consigo la memoria de las raíces". Humanitas (in Spanish). National Humanities Institute (47): 468–483. OCLC 176911626.
- Castiñeira de Dios, José María (2007). El santito Ceferino Namuncurá: relato en verso (in Spanish). Foreword by Jorge Bergoglio. Buenos Aires: Lumen. ISBN 9789870007340.
- Spadaro, Antonio, SJ (interviewer) (2013). A Big Heart Open to God: A Conversation with Pope Francis. New York: HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-233377-3.
- Official Vatican transcript in English of IEC Catechesis The Eucharist: Gift from God for the life of the world (2008) (originally given in Spanish), 49th International Eucharistic Congress, Quebec, Canada
- Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina (1999–2012). Documentos de los obispos: Homilías y documentos del cardenal Bergoglio (in Spanish)
Pope Francis: A Man of His Word is a documentary film with Swiss-Italian-French-German co-production, co-written and directed by Wim Wenders. It premiered at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival and was released in the United States on 18 May 2018. It includes extensive sections of interviews as well as stock footage from archives.
Portrayal in film
- List of current Christian leaders
- List of current heads of state and government
- List of people beatified by Pope Francis
- List of popes
- Press reports have provided a variety of translations for the phrase. According to Vatican Radio: "Pope Francis has chosen the motto Miserando atque eligendo, meaning lowly but chosen; literally in Latin by having mercy, by choosing him. The motto is one Francis used as bishop. It is taken from the homilies of the Venerable Bede on Saint Matthew's Gospel relating to his vocation: 'Jesus saw the tax collector and by having mercy chose him as an apostle saying to him: Follow me.'"
- Pronunciation: [ˈxoɾxe ˈmaɾjo βeɾˈɣoɣljo] (Spanish); [berˈɡɔʎʎo] (Italian)
- This devotion has since spread to Brazil; it "attracts people with small problems." Bergoglio had an image of Mary Untier of Knots inscribed on a chalice he presented to Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.
- John Paul I, elected in 1978, took a new combination of already used names, in honor of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI.
- Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI did not do this during his eight-year reign from 2005 to 2013; his predecessor, Pope John Paul II, married a group of couples from all over the world in 2000, as part of the Jubilee for Families, and before that in 1994 during the Church's Year of the Family, as well as presiding over a number of private marriages as pope.
- Scarisbrick, Veronica (18 March 2013). "Pope Francis: "Miserando atque eligendo"..." Vatican Radio. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Ardrey, Taylor. "Pope Francis said same-sex couples should be covered by a civil union law". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- Pullella, Philip (22 October 2020). "Pope says same-sex couples should be covered by civil union laws". Reuters. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- Rocca, Francis X. (22 October 2020). "Pope Francis Backs Civil Unions for Gay Couples, in Shift for Vatican". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Pope says he is not a Marxist, but defends criticism of capitalism". The Guardian. 15 December 2013.
- "Pope says popular movements are 'antidote' to populism". Crux. 20 August 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- Momigliano, Anna (23 May 2017). "Catholic Populists Have to Respect the Pope, but They Love Trump". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- Mills, Curt (31 October 2016). U.S. News & World Report https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2016-10-31/on-reformation-day-catholics-and-lutheran-sign-joint-declaration. Retrieved 15 April 2021. Missing or empty
- "Direttorju Ekklezjastiku 2016" (PDF) (in Maltese and English). The Church in Malta. 30 June 2016. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2016.
- Claudio Iván Remeseira: Pope Francis: A humble and outspoken man, and technically also Italian NBCLatino, 14 March 2013
- Garrido, J. (16 March 2013). "Vida y trayectoria de Bergoglio en seis capítulos". La Tercera. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Vatican Web site, from L'Osservatore Romano, Year LXIII, number 12: biography of the Holy Father Francis". Holy See. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Regina María Sívori, su mamá". La Nación. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Rice-Oxley, Mark (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty". London: The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Donovan, Jeffrey (13 March 2013). "Argentina's Cardinal Bergoglio Is Elected Pope Francis". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Henderson, Barney (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis elected leader of Catholic Church: latest". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Rosales & Olivera 2013, p. 5.
- "Jorge is against regimes. It is because of fascism that our father emigrated". La Stampa. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Los Bergoglio, la familia más sorprendida" [The Bergoglio, the most surprised family]. La Nación (in Spanish). 14 March 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Holanda, Helládio. People's Pope (in Portuguese). Clube de Autores (managed).
- "3 relatives of pope killed in crash in Argentina – Chicago Tribune". Chicago Tribune. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "CNS STORY: Pope asks prayers after great nephews, their mother die in car crash". Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "La sobrina 'artista' del Papa presenta su obra en Madrid". El Mundo. 3 March 2015.
- "'Escribir con el pincel', el documental sobre la obra pictórica de Cristina Bergoglio, la sobrina del Papa Francisco". Se Estrena, Antena 3. 27 June 2019.
- "Jorge Bergoglio, un sacerdote jesuita de carrera" [Jorge Bergoglio, a career Jesuit priest]. La Nación (in Spanish). 13 March 2013.
- "Biography: who is Jorge Mario Bergoglio?". News.va. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Reese, Thomas (3 June 2015), "Does Pope Francis have a MA in chemistry?", National Catholic Reporter, retrieved 3 June 2015
- "Does Pope Francis have a master's degree in chemistry?". National Catholic Reporter. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Fact Check: False: Pope Francis Has a Master's Degree in Chemistry". Snopes.com. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Su etapa de laboratorista". Clarín. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Burke, Daniel (3 December 2013). "Pope: I was once a bar bouncer". CNN. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Chua, Howard (11 December 2013). "TIME's Person of the Year 2013 Pope Francis, The People's Pope". Time. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Lifschitz, Alejandro (13 March 2013). "Argentina's pope a modest man focused on the poor". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagro (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis is a card-carrying San Lorenzo supporter".
- "Bergoglio, sobre todo 'pastor', tanguero y simpatizante de San Lorenzo" (in Spanish). Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Sergio Rubin; Francesca Ambrogetti, Pope Francis – Conversations with Jorge Bergoglio. pp. 45–46
- "Pope Francis Spoke of Being 'Dazzled' by Girl, Possible Change of Celibacy Rule". Balitang America. NBC News. 20 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019.
- "En 1958, Bergoglio hizo su noviciado en Chile". La Segunda (in Spanish). 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Lanser, p. 96
- Rosales & Olivera, p. 42
- "Biography of the Holy Father Francis". The Holy See. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Biografía: ¿Quién es Jorge Bergoglio?". Vatican. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographies – A". Florida International University. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Why Bergoglio travels so little". Vatican Insider. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- The Vatican Today, 13 March 2013, Biography: who is Jorge Mario Bergoglio?. Retrieved 6 April 2013
- The Irish Independent, 30 March 2013, . Retrieved 10 November 2013
- Austen Ivereigh, The Great Reformer: Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope, Henry Holt 2014
- "Neuigkeiten 14.03". Hochschule. Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
...einige Monate in Sankt Georgen verbrachte, um sich mit einzelnen Professoren über ein Dissertationsprojekt zu beraten. Zu einem Abschluss in Sankt Georgen ist es nicht gekommen.
- "Biografía de Jorge Bergoglio" (in Spanish). El Litoral. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Baumann, Andrea (15 March 2013). "Was Papst Franziskus in Augsburg machte" (in German). Augsburger Allgemeine. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Bellos, Alex (23 December 2001). "Virgin painting ties Brazilians in knots". London: The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Jiménez, Pablo (14 March 2013). "The Pope's chalice: silver-made, austere and featuring Our Lady of Luján". Buenos Aires Herald. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Paul Vallely, Pope Francis: Untying the Knots, Bloomsbury, 2013
- Shkodziska, Oksana (13 March 2013). "Patriarch Sviatoslav: Newly Elected Pope Knows Ukrainian Catholic Church, its Liturgy and Spirituality". Religious Information Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "To understand Pope Francis, look to the Jesuits". ncronline.org. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Setting the Record Straight on Pope Francis: A Reply to Frank Brennan". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 January 2015.
- Vallely, Paul (2013). Pope Francis. ISBN 978-1-4729-0372-3.
- "Is Pope Francis still a Jesuit?". National Catholic Reporter. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- The titular see of Auca, established in 1969, is seated at Villafranca Montes de Oca, Spain: Titular See of Auca, Spain.
- "Bergoglio, Jorge Mario". Breve biografía de obispos (in Spanish). La Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Francis Toughened by Argentine Politics Ready for Papal Test". Bloomberg. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Glatz, Carol (15 March 2013). "Pope's episcopal motto comes from homily by English doctor of church". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Jesuit Argentine Cardinal Bergoglio elected pope, takes name Francis". jesuit.org. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Haley Cohen, "Slum Priest: Pope Francis' Early Year", The Atlantic, 20 March 2013". The Atlantic. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Puella, Phillip (9 May 2014). "U.N. should encourage redistribution of wealth, pope says". Reuters. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- Coday, Dennis (4 April 2013). "John Allen, "Former aide says Francis may close Vatican Bank"". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Magister, Sandro (2 December 2002). "Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Profession: Servant of the Servants of God". L'espresso. Rome, Italy: Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Hebblethwaite, Margaret (14 March 2013). "The Pope Francis I know". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
Luro talked to me at length about her friend, of whom she has the highest opinion, and told me how she would write to him almost weekly, and he would always reply by ringing her up and having a short chat. When Podesta was dying, Bergoglio was the only Catholic cleric who went to visit him in hospital, and, when he died, the only one who showed public recognition of his great contribution to the Argentinian church.
- Calloni, Stella (13 March 2013). "Acusado de tener vínculos con la dictadura; la derecha lo defiende". La Jornada (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: Desarrollo de Medios S.A. de C.V. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Magister, Sandro (2 December 2002). "Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Profession: Servant of the Servants of God". L'espresso. Rome, Italy: Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Pullella, Philip (21 March 2013). "Pope to hold major Holy Week service in youth jail". Reuters. London. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Sergio Rubin, "Regresó la misa en latín, con mujeres cubiertas por mantillas." Clarin.(17 September 2007). Archived..
- "El latín volvió a las misas" (in Spanish). Línea Capital. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Elige Sus Nuevas Autoridades La Conferencia Episcopal". Mercedes Ya. 7 November 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "El cardenal Bergoglio fue reelegido frente a la Conferencia Episcopal". DERF. 11 November 2008. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Speciale, Alessandro (15 March 2013). "Vatican defends Pope Francis' actions during Argentina's 'Dirty War'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Bergoglio presenta su renuncia como arzobispo de Buenos Aires, aunque seguirá en el cargo". Terra Noticias. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "X Ordinary General Assembly (30 September – 27 October 2001)". Synod of Bishops. Holy See. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Poirier, José Maria (13 March 2013). "Features Quiet thunder in Argentina". Catholic Herald. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Synodus Episcoporum Bulletin 30 September – 27 October 2001". Holy See Press Office. 27 October 2001. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Allen Jr., John L. (3 March 2013). "Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Rubin, Sergio (14 March 2013). "'El Jesuita,' biography of Jorge Bergoglio, tells of Pope Francis' humble beginnings in the church that he maintained throughout his cardinalship". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Falasca, Sefania (November 2007). "What I would have said at the Consistory". 30 Giorni. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Maureen O'Riordan. "Saint Therese of Lisieux – "Saint Therese of Lisieux: A Gateway" Blog – Pope Francis and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux: "To depend solely on the tenderness of God"". Thérèse of Lisieux. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit". Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (14 April 2005). "Handicapping the conclave". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Cardinal breaks conclave vow of secrecy". CNN. Associated Press. 23 September 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Wooden, Cindy (23 September 2005). "Article based on diary says German cardinal became pope with 84 votes". Catholic News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2005. Article gives numbers for the four votes; Ratzinger had most votes, followed by Bergoglio.
- Rubin, p. 13
- Tosatti, Marco. "Ecco come andò davvero il Conclave del 2005". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 30 January 2017. According to the source, Cardinal Bergoglio begged "almost in tears" ("quasi in lacrime" in Italian)
- Rubin, p. 15
- Manson, Jamie (15 March 2013). "One of Pope Francis' allegiances might tell us something about the church's future". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Sánchez Alvarado, Gretta (20 March 2013). "Francisco: 'El verdadero poder es el servicio'". El Nacional. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- McMahon, Colin (12 August 2005). "Sainthood effort for 5 slain recalls Argentine 'dirty war'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Schmall, Emily; Rother, Larry (13 March 2013). "A Conservative With a Common Touch". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Coday, Dennis (17 March 2013). "Thomas Reese, "Francis, the Jesuits and the Dirty War", National Catholic Reporter, 17 March 2013". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit". Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis Is Known For Simplicity And Humility". Associated Press. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
Bergoglio—who ran Argentina's Jesuit order during the dictatorship—told Rubin that he regularly hid people on church property during the dictatorship, and once gave his identity papers to a man with similar features, enabling him to escape across the border.
- Miroff, Nick (17 March 2013). "Pope's activity in Dirty War Draws Scrutiny". Chicago Tribune. p. 27.
- "Pope Francis: A look at the life of the first South American pontiff". The Star-Ledger. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Declaration of Father Franz Jalics SJ" (in German). German Jesuit Web site. 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Watts, Jonathan (21 March 2013). "Pope Francis did not denounce me to Argentinian junta, says priest". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Second Declaration of Father Franz Jalics SJ" (in German). German Jesuit Web site. 20 March 2013. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis Is Known For Simplicity And Humility". Associated Press. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
both men were freed after Bergoglio took extraordinary, behind-the-scenes action to save them—including persuading dictator Jorge Videla's family priest to call in sick so that he could say Mass in the junta leader's home, where he privately appealed for mercy.
- Pablo Javier Blanco (17 March 2013). "Dias inolvidables para su biógrafo" [Unforgettable days for his biographer]. El Papa del fin del mundo (in Spanish). Clarín. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Indart, Ramón (15 March 2013). "Alicia Oliveira: "Garré sabe todo lo que hizo Bergoglio"". Perfil (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Yo pensaba si el padre éste era consciente de lo que se estaba jugando". La Nacion. 23 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Un cura español dice que el Papa evitó que lo mataran durante la dictadura argentina". El País. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Hernandez, Vladimir (15 March 2013). "Argentina 'Dirty War' accusations haunt Pope Francis". BBC News. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Watts, Jonathan; Goni, Uki (15 March 2013). "Pope Francis: role during Argentina's military era disputed". The Guardian.
- "'Bergoglio had no links with the dictatorship,' Peace Nobel Prize winner". Buenos Aires Herald. 14 March 2013.
- Fioriti, Santiago. "Atacan a Bergoglio porque Cristina no quería que fuera Papa" (PDF). Clarín (in Spanish).
- ""Bergoglio is completely innocent," says Argentina's Supreme Court". Vatican Insider. 18 March 2013. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Goñi, Uki (19 March 2013). "Pope Francis: what did he really do in Argentina in the 1970s?". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Cifuentes, Pedro (15 March 2013). "Bergoglio: la verdadera historia del Papa Francisco y la dictadura de Videla" [Bergoglio: the true story of Pope Francis and Videla's dictatorship] (in Spanish). Zoom News. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- Joaquín Garau & Pablo Martín Fernández (19 March 2013). "The fake viral photo of pope Francis: who is the priest that gives the communion to Videla". Info Technology. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Rubin, p. 19
- Reato, p. 160
- Reato, pp. 222–223
- Rubin, pp. 18–19
- Obarrio, Mariano (27 May 2004). "El mensaje de la Iglesia era para Kirchner" [The message of the church was for Kirchner]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Colonna, Lucas (24 May 2005). "Suspendió la Iglesia el tedeum en la Capital" [The church suspended the tedeum in the capital]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Reato, pp. 224–225
- "Jorge Bergoglio y los Kirchner: años de una relación tensa" [Jorge Bergoglio and the Kirchners: years of a tense relation]. La Nación (in Spanish). 14 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Associated Press in Buenos Aires (27 March 2013). "Cristina Fernández de Kirchner turns Pope Francis from foe to friend". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Pope's diplomacy put to test as leaders flock to Rome". CP24. Associated Press. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Gilbert, Jonathan (18 March 2013). "Making nice? Argentina's Kirchner and Pope Francis meet in Rome". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Página 12 sacó notas de Verbitsky sobre Bergoglio y la dictadura" [Página 12 removed Verbitsky's articles about Bergoglio and the dictatorship] (in Spanish). Perfil. 18 November 2014. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- "Vatican releases Pope Francis' coat of arms, motto and ring". The Daily Telegraph. London. 18 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Lo Stemma di Papa Francesco". L'Osservatore Romano (Vatican website). Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope stresses simplicity, ecumenism in inaugural Mass plans". National Catholic Reporter. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis's missing lung should not be a problem, say doctors". The Guardian. London. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013.
- Park, Alice (13 March 2013). "Why Pope Francis Only Has One Lung". Time. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013.
- Caleb K. Bell (14 March 2013). "Why the first Jesuit pope is a big deal". Religion News Service. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- "Cardinal Spills Secrets from Conclave". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 23 September 2005. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Howard Chua-Eoan (13 March 2013). "Pope of the Americas". TIME. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- Fisher, Max (13 March 2013). "Sorry, Jorge Mario Bergoglio is not the first non-European pope". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- "Pope Francis brings no-frills style to papacy", CBS News, 28 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013
- "Pope Francis wants a 'poor Church for the poor'". Reuters. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Pope visits ailing Argentine cardinal in hospital". ABC News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Audience to Representatives of the Communications Media – Address of the Holy Father Pope Francis – vatican.va – Paul VI Audience Hall Saturday, 16 March 2013
- "Pope Francis: 13 key facts about the new pontiff". The Guardian. London. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Briefing di padre Lombardi". The Vatican Today. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Francis and those humble gestures by the Pope, he does not sit on a throne, paying the bill at the hotel" (in Italian). Corriere Della Sera. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Peter Walker, Paul Owen & David Batty (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis, first day after election". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Willey, David, News analysis sidebar to "Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace", BBC News, 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
- Glatz, Carol (2 April 2013). "Can't chant, can't speak English? Pope says it's because he's tone-deaf". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- Wooden, Cindy (26 March 2013). "Pope Francis to live in Vatican guesthouse, not papal apartments". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Speciale, Alessandro, "Pope Francis opts for Vatican guesthouse instead of spacious papal apartment", Religion News Service, 26 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013
- "FRANCISCUS". Holy See. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013.
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus Papam: Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Georgium MariumSanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem Bergoglio qui sibi nomen imposuit Franciscum
- "Habemus Papam! Cardinal Bergoglio Elected Pope Francis". Official Vatican Network. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina Named as New Pope of the Roman Catholic Church". CNBC. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "White smoke: Cardinals elect new pope on fifth ballot". The Catholic Sun. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Suarez, Ray. "A New Pope, and Maybe a New Era". PBS. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Bingham, John (14 May 2013). "Pope Francis elected after supernatural 'signs' in the Conclave, says Cardinal". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013.
- "Habemus Papam: New Pope, new lifestyle in the Vatican". New Europe. 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Uebbing, David. "Pope Francis' personality begins to change routines". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Philippi, Dieter. "The Mozzetta of the Pope". Philippi Collection. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis delivers first blessing, asks world for prayers | Reuters". Reuters. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis in plea for poor as inauguration Mass held". BBC News. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Pope Francis (19 March 2013). "Homily of Pope Francis". Holy See. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis explains decision to take St Francis of Assisi's name". The Guardian. London. 16 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013.
- "New Pope Francis visits St. Mary Major, collects suitcases and pays bill at hotel". The Vatican Today. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013.
- Michael Martinez, CNN Vatican analyst: Pope Francis' name choice 'precedent shattering', CNN (13 March 2013). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Laura Smith-Spark et al. : Pope Francis explains name, calls for church 'for the poor' CNN,16 March 2013
- "Pope Francis wants 'poor Church for the poor'". BBC News. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Bethune, Brian, "Pope Francis: How the first New World pontiff could save the church", Maclean's, 26 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013
- Alpert, Emily (13 March 2013). "Vatican: It's Pope Francis, not Pope Francis I". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013.
- Knowles, Leo (2003). Modern Heroes of the Church. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-931709-46-0.
- Marco R. della Cava, Pope Francis charms media in first press address, USA Today (16 March 2013). Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Francis once thought of taking the name John, after Pope John XXIII". National Catholic Reporter. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (16 March 2013). "Francis drops first hint that reform may be real". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Stagno-Navarra, Karl (18 March 2013). "Gozitan Mgr Alfred Xuereb appointed Pope's official secretary". Malta Today. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (6 April 2013). "Pope appoints Franciscan to religious congregation". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Pope scraps Vatican staff bonuses, directs money to charity". United Press International. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Galeazi, Giacomo (19 April 2013). "Ior: Cuts to the cardinals' "earnings"". Las Stampa: Vatican Insider. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (13 April 2013). "Pope taps eight cardinals to lead reform". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- O'Connell, Gerard (13 April 2013). "Pope Francis sets up a group of eight cardinals to advise him". La Stampa: Vatican Insider. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Teahan, Madeleine, "Catholic MPs urge Pope Francis to allow ordination of married men", The Catholic Herald, 27 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013
- "Jerusalem prelate urges pope to visit holy city", GlobalPost (from Agence France-Presse), 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Chaldean prelate invites pope to visit Iraq", catholicculture.org, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
- Bibbo, Barbara. "Pope arrives in Baghdad for the first ever papal visit to Iraq". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Speciale, Alessandro, "Pope washes feet of two girls, two Muslims at youth prison", The Washington Post (On Faith), 29 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013
- Lymon, Eric J., "Pope Francis makes pleas for peace on Easter Sunday", USA Today, 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace", BBC News, 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
- "Pope Francis makes an Easter plea for peace", Los Angeles Times (from AP), 31 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013
- Uebbing, David (15 April 2013). "Pope backs reform of US sisters' leadership conference". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Goodstein, Laurie (15 April 2013). "Pope Upholds Reprimand of American Nuns' Group". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "David Uebbing, "Pope backs reform of US sisters' leadership conference", Catholic News Agency, 15 April 2013". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Vatican Ends Battle With U.S. Catholic Nuns' Group The New York Times, 16 April 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015
- "Francis canonises first saints of his papacy". Al Jazeera. 12 May 2013.
- Brockhaus, Hannah (18 September 2018). "Pope Francis approves new constitution for Synod of Bishops". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Mitchell, Charlotte. "Pope Francis, everyman pontiff: Profile". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- Boorstein, Michelle (9 February 2014). "Pope Francis faces church divided over doctrine, global poll of Catholics finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Frizell, Sam (9 February 2014). "Poll: Catholic Beliefs at Odds With Vatican Doctrine". Time. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Vatican: Synod of Bishops – Extraordinary General Assembly – Pastoral Challenges to the Family in the Context of Evangelization – Preparatory Document, Vatican City 2013. Includes questionnaire to be circulated to Churches.
- "Roman Catholic Church refuses survey request". BBC News. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Clement, Scott (23 February 2014). "Pope Francis faces church divided over doctrine, global poll of Catholics finds". National News Service. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "New Poll: 'Faithful Catholics' an Endangered Species". University of Southern California. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Gibson, David (21 February 2014). "U.S. Cardinal Raymond Burke: Pope Francis opposes abortion and gay marriage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- "Lombardi: No cardinal believes in changing Church doctrine". Rome Reports. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Pope Francis condemns global 'cult of money'". Al Jazeera. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- Davies, Lizzy (26 June 2013). "Vatican bank faces review by Pope Francis commission". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Willey, David (28 June 2013). "BBC News – Monsignor Nunzio Scarano held in Vatican bank inquiry". BBC News. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Update on the case of Mons. Nunzio Scarano". Justice and Peace. Vatican Radio. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Monsignor Scarano: Vatican forwards request to Italy". Justice and Peace. Vatican Radio. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Glatz, Carol (15 January 2014). "Pope replaces cardinals serving on Vatican bank oversight commission". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Davies, Lizzy (13 March 2014). "12 months a pope: Francis's report card after a year at the top". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Vallely, Paul (13 August 2015). "Can Pope Francis clean up God's bank?". The Guardian.
- "Lumen Fidei (29 June 2013) | Francis". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- "Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium of the Holy Father Francis to the Bishops, Clergy, Consecrated Persons and the Lay Faithful on the Proclamation of the Gospel in Today's World". Holy See. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "'Evangelii Gaudium' amounts to Francis' 'I Have a Dream' speech". National Catholic Reporter. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Jim Yardley & Laurie Goodstein (18 June 2015). "Pope Francis, in Sweeping Encyclical, Calls for Swift Action on Climate Change". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- Pope Francis (8 April 2016), Amoris laetitia. The Holy See. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- McElwee, Josh (14 November 2016). "Four cardinals openly challenge Francis over 'Amoris Laetitia'". Vatican Insider.
- Pope Francis reforms Church law in marital nullity trials, Vatican Radio. Retrieved 8 September 2015
- Pope revamps ecclesiastical universities in new apostolic constitution, Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Pope Francis, Gaudete et exsultate, 19 March 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018
-  The New York Times, "Pope Acknowledges Nuns Were Sexually Abused by Priests and Bishops", 5 February 2019
- "'A Life Destroyed': Survivors And Pope Address Clergy Sex Abuse at Vatican Summit". NPR. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- "Pope Francis Signs Motu Proprio to Prevent and Denounce Abuses in the Catholic Church". NCR. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "New Apostolic Letter highlights St Jerome's love of Scripture". Vatican News. 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- Esteves, Junno Arocho (30 September 2020). "Pope releases apostolic letter on Sacred Scripture". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- Pentin, Edward (4 October 2020). "Pope's New Encyclical 'Fratelli Tutti' Outlines Vision for a Better World". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
- "Apostolic Letter Patris Corde of the Holy Father Francis on the 150th Anniversary of the proclamation of Saint Joseph as Patron of the Universal Church (8 December 2020) | Francis". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Pope Francis proclaims "Year of St Joseph" - Vatican News". www.vaticannews.va. 8 December 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/pope-francis-issues-long-awaited-reform-of-vatican-penal-law/2021/06/01/fb957d84-c320-11eb-89a4-b7ae22aa193e_story.html[bare URL]
- Pope Francis (16 July 2021). "Lettera del Santo Padre Francesco ai Vescovi di tutto il mondo per presentare il Motu Proprio «Traditionis Custodes» sull'uso della Liturgia Romana anteriore alla Riforma del 1970, 16.07.2021". Rome. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- O'Connell, Gerard (4 January 2014). "Pope abolishes honorary title of monsignor for diocesan priests under the age of 65". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "L'addio di papa Ratzinger: "Lascio per il bene della Chiesa". Il fratello Georg: "Lo sapevo da mesi"".
- "Vatican cardinal explains why Pope Francis canonized St. Angela of Foligno". Catholic Culture. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Francis declares sainthood of early Jesuit, Peter Faber". Catholic News Agency. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Francis canonizes three new saints of the Americas". Catholic World Report. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Sainthood for John Paul II, John XXIII in canonization ceremony". CNN. 27 April 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope declares sainthood of two Indians, four Italians". Reuters. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Canonization of Saint Joseph Vaz, the first Sri Lankan Saint". News.lk. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Francis canonizes two Palestinian nuns". Reuters. 17 May 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Francis canonizes controversial saint". CNN. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Francis canonises Louis and Zélie Martin". Catholic Herald. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Proclaims 2 New Saints in Canonization Mass". VOA News. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Mother Teresa officially becomes a saint at canonization ceremony in Vatican City". ABC News Australia. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope Francis makes Argentina's "gaucho priest" and 6 others saints". CBS News. 16 October 2016.
- Gerard O'Connell (13 May 2017). "Pope Francis makes history and canonizes Jacinta and Francisco, two child saints". America Magazine. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- Inés San Martín (16 October 2017). "Pope canonizes 35 new saints including a 'feminist' priest". Crux. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Philip Pullella (14 October 2018). "Slain Salvadoran bishop Romero and Pope Paul VI become saints". Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- "A new saint for the Church and Fulton Sheen soon to be Blessed". The Leader. 6 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- Courtney Mares (13 October 2019). "'Lead, kindly light' – Pope Francis names Newman a saint". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- "Pope Francis declares blind 14th-century lay Dominican a saint". Catholic News Agency. 24 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "Pope beatifies 124 South Korean Catholic martyrs". BBC News. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- Elisabetta Povoledo (19 October 2014). "Pope Francis Beatifies an Earlier Reformer, Paul VI". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Pope in Colombia at Beatification Mass: 'Reconciliation is not an abstract word'". Vatican Radio. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Oscar Romero beatification draws huge El Salvador crowds". BBC News. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Newest Doctor of the Church: St. Gregory of Narek". Vatican Radio. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Junno Arocho Esteves (9 November 2017). "Pope Francis officially declares John Paul I 'venerable'". Catholic Herald. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- Pope Francis appoints 19 new cardinals in Rome ceremony, BBC News, 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014
- Pope Francis inducts new cardinals as predecessor Benedict looks on, Reuters, 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014
- "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" NEWS.VA Official Vatican Network. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "Pope Francis: Allocution at Consistory for Creation of Cardinals". Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- "Francis' Fifth: A Synod, Humanae Vitae Milestone and More Decentralized Church". m.ncregister.com. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- Crispian Balmer (20 May 2018). "Pope Francis names 14 new cardinals from five continents". Reuters. Retrieved 23 December 2018.[dead link]
- Philip Pullella (22 June 2018). "Pope to make Vatican changes in push for reform, transparency". Reuters. Retrieved 23 December 2018.[dead link]
- Pullella, Philip (1 September 2019). "Pope picks new cardinals, putting his stamp on Church's future". Reuters, via Yahoo.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Freed from elevator, pope names new cardinals from Muslim, developing countries". Deutsche Welle. 1 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Pope announces a consistory for the creation of 13 new cardinals". Vatican News. 25 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- Mickens, Robert (31 October 2020). "The pope's 13 new cardinals and the next conclave". La Croix. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- San Martín, Inés (8 December 2015). "Opening the Holy Year, Francis says mercy always trumps judgment". Crux. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "The Gift Of The Indulgence (29 January 2000)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- Misericordiae Vultus – Bull of indiction of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy (11 April 2015). The Holy See. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Pope Francis: Now is the time for mercy :: Catholic News Agency (CNA). (11 April 2015). Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "World Day of the Poor". Justice and Peace Office. Justice and Peace Office. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "Card Ranjith calls for prayers and practical action on World Day of the Poor". Herald Malaysia Online. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- Philip Pullella (7 March 2020). "Pope cancels main public appearances to stop crowds gathering amid coronavirus". Reuters.
- "Pope tells priests to go out and meet the coronavirus sick". Agence France-Presse. 10 March 2020.
- "Pope Francis: Do Not Forget the Poor During the Coronavirus Pandemic". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "Pope Francis Prays for Coronavirus Victims in China". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "Pope Francis Asks for Mary's Protection of Rome Against Coronavirus". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "We must think of the aftermath of COVID-19 so we are not unprepared". Vatican News.
- "Vatican Covid-19 Commission - Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development". www.humandevelopment.va.
- "Pope Francis to give extraordinary benediction urbi et orbi". Catholic Herald. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- "Papa Francesco prega nella piazza San Pietro vuota: "Fitte tenebre si sono addensate, scenda la benedizione di Dio"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 27 March 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- "Lettera Apostolica in forma di Motu proprio, sulla modifica del can. 230 § 1 del Codice di Diritto Canonico circa l'accesso delle persone di sesso femminile al ministero istituito del Lettorato e dell'Accolitato (10 gennaio 2021) | Francesco". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
- Mares, Courtney (11 January 2021). "Pope Francis admits women to ministries of lector and acolyte in new motu proprio". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
- "Pope Francis: Ministries of lector and acolyte to be open to women". Vatican News. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
- "Pope Francis appoints more women to Vatican posts previously held only by men". NBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- Pope shakes up running of Vatican funds after London property scandal Reuters
- Cindy Wooden (26 November 2013) "A summary of the key issues raised by Pope in Evangelii Gaudium",.Catholic Herald. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- AsiaNews.it. "Pope: A missionary and pastoral conversion for a Church open to changing its structures". asianews.it. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Aleteia, I. Media for (9 April 2018). "The pope's new doc on holiness: Gaudete et Exultate in 15 key words". Retrieved 1 October 2020.
- "Church reform requires decentralization, synodality". National Catholic Reporter. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "Pope: Warns that Poorly Trained Priests Can Become 'Little Monsters'". America Magazine. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "Theologians praise pope's historic appointment of women as members of Vatican congregation". National Catholic Reporter. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Burton, Tara Isabella (11 July 2014). "Pope Francis's Radical Environmentalism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
- "Pope says popular movements are antidote to populism". cruxnow.com. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Austen, Ivereigh (2015). The great reformer : Francis and the making of a radical pope (First ed.). New York. ISBN 978-1-250-07499-7. OCLC 889324005.
- "Pope Francis explains name, calls for church 'for the poor' – CNN.com". 17 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "The Coat of Arms of Pope Francis". The Holy See. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- "A Big Heart Open to God: An interview with Pope Francis". America Magazine. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "Pope Francis: Who am I to judge gay people?". BBC News. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Pope Francis insists same-sex marriage 'disfigures God's plan for creation'". The Independent. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- Winfield, Nicole (22 October 2020). "Plot thickens over origins of pope's civil union endorsement". AP NEWS. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- Winfield, Nicole; Verza, Maria (22 October 2020). "Mexico broadcaster: Pope's civil union quote not broadcast". AP NEWS. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- "The Irish Times view on the pope and same-sex civil unions: a welcome shift in tone". The Irish Times. 22 October 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
The context of his comments also makes clear that he approves of same-sex adoption. That is a timely affirmation – in 10 days the US supreme court will hear arguments involving the refusal of a Catholic social service agency in Philadelphia to place foster children with same-sex couples.
- "Pope Francis Calls for Civil Union Law for Same-Sex Couples, in Shift From Vatican Stance". NCR. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- James, Lee. "Vatican breaks silence, explains Pope Francis' civil union comments". nbcnews.com. NBC News. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Trudy Ring (5 February 2015). "Pope Has Kind Words for Backers of Anti-Equality Measures in Slovakia". The Advocate.
- KAREL JANICEK. "In value clash with West, Slovakia votes on gay rights curb". AP Bigstory. Associated Press.
- J Lester Feder. "Pope Endorses Referendum Denying Marriage And Adoption Rights To Same-Sex Couples". Buzzfeed.
- Winfield, Nicole (18 August 2014). "Pope Francis Endorses Use Of Force Against ISIS In Iraq". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Bordoni, Linda (24 January 2018). "Pope Francis calls for respect for the rights of the Yazidis". Vatican News.
- Pepinster, Catherine (4 March 2017). "Civil war in the Vatican as conservatives battle Francis for the soul of Catholicism". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Winfield, Nicole (4 February 2017). "Conservative criticism intensifies against Pope Francis". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Schneider, Matthew (5 March 2017). "How Pope Francis and his conservative critics may both be right". Crux. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Brown, Andrew (27 October 2017). "The war against Pope Francis". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Willan, Philip (2 March 2017). "Anti-reform cardinals 'want the Pope to quit'". Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Weir, Bill. "Why Pope Francis scares some conservatives". CNN. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Codina, Victor (12 September 2019). "Why do some Catholics oppose Pope Francis?". America Magazine. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
- "Pope's role in study of Argentine sex abuse case draws fire". Crux Now. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC. Associated Press. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
- Pullella, Philip (21 September 2017). "Pope candidly admits Church 'arrived late' in confronting abuse". Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Nugent, Ciara (28 February 2019). "Why the Pope's Summit on Abuse Disappointed Some Survivors". Time. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Pope Francis lifts 'pontifical secret' in clergy sex abuse cases used to protect pedophiles, silence victims | Fox News Channel". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- Kirchgaessner, Stephanie (31 March 2015). "Vatican supports Chilean bishop despite allegations of sex abuse cover-up". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Chappell, Bill. "Pope acknowledges 'grave errors' in Chilean sex abuse scandal". NPR. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Viganò's accusations: What we know and what questions they raise". America. 26 August 2018.
- Oullet, Marc (21 November 2017), "Accompanying, Discerning, Integrating Weakness", L'Osservatore Romano, retrieved 29 November 2017
- Carroll, James (8 April 2016). "The New Morality of Pope Francis". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- "Four Cardinals Formally Ask Pope for Clarity on 'Amoris Laetitia'". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- "Pope Francis still hasn't responded to the dubia. He has good reason not to". America. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Keenan, James (1 March 2017). "Receiving 'Amoris Laetitia'". Theological Studies. 78: 193–212. doi:10.1177/0040563916681995. S2CID 171761624.
- "Cardinal Müller on Communion for Divorced & Remarried: Can't Change Church Teaching". National Catholic Register. Irondale, Alabama: EWTN. 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- "Cardinal Müller: Communion for the remarried is against God's law". Catholic Herald. London, England: Sir Rocco Forte, Lord Black of Crossharbour. 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Pentin, Edward (3 June 2017). "Pope Francis Appoints Spanish Jesuit Ladaria to Succeed Cardinal Müller". National Catholic Register. Irondale, AL: EWTN. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "Cardinal says 'only blind man' could deny confusion caused by Pope". Crux Now. Boston, MA: Boston Globe Partners LLC. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Gallagher, Delia; Burke, Daniel (26 September 2017). "Conservatives accuse the Pope of spreading heresy". CNN. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
- ""Filial Correction" of Pope Francis, 24 September 2017". Google Docs.
- "Ex-bishops' doctrine chief says darkness coming to light under Francis". Crux Now. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Globe Partners LLC. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Pope Francis; Al-Tayyeb, Ahmad (4 February 2019). "Document on "Human Fraternity for World Peace and Living Together" signed by His Holiness Pope Francis and the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Ahamad al-Tayyib (Abu Dhabi, 4 February 2019)". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- Reynolds, Gabriel (12 April 2019). "After Abu Dhabi | Commonweal Magazine". www.commonwealmagazine.org. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- Farrow, Mary (4 February 2019). "Pope Francis signs peace declaration on 'Human Fraternity' with Grand Imam". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- "Pope Francis renews restrictions on old Latin Mass, reversing Benedict XVI". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- Horowitz, Jason (16 July 2021). "Pope Francis Restricts Use of Old Latin Mass, in a Blow to Conservatives". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- Pentin, Edward. "Latin Mass Society: 'Traditionis Custodes' Regulates Not Abrogrates Older Liturgy". NCR. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- Mahoney, Daniel (6 February 2020). "Pope Francis, Wayward Shepherd". National Review. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Eire, Carlos (24 September 2015). "When Francis Came to Cuba | Carlos Eire". First Things. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- De Souza, Raymond (28 November 2019). "Why did Evo Morales find such favour at the Vatican?". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- "China Is Already Breaking Its Vatican Deal". Foreign Policy. 17 September 2020.
- "cardinal-zen-the-vatican-is-badly-mishandling-china-situation". cruxnow.com. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Sainsbury, Michael (9 December 2019). "Cardinal Zen targets Vatican silence on China, Hong Kong – La Croix International". La Croix. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- "Pompeo Calls On Pope Francis to Defend Religious Freedom in China". The Wall Street Journal. 30 September 2020.
- "Rebuffed by Vatican, Pompeo Assails China and Aligns With Pope's Critics". The New York Times. 30 September 2020.
- "China dismisses Pope Francis's comments about persecution of Uighurs". The Guardian. 25 November 2020.
- Ivereigh, Austen (4 March 2017). "Is the Pope the Anti-Trump?". The New York Times. New York City. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Schmitz, Matthew (19 February 2016). "What Donald Trump and Pope Francis actually have in common". The Washington Post. Washington, DC: Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Douthat, Ross (15 February 2017). "The Trump Era's Catholic Mirror". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Lauter, David; Bierman, Noah (18 February 2016). "Trump and Pope Francis clash over immigration, another extraordinary campaign twist". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Vale, Paul (19 February 2016). "Donald Trump Stares Down The Pope As Vatican Back Peddles On 'Not A Christian' Attack". The Huffington Post UK. London: Huffington Post Media Group. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- San Martin, Ines (15 May 2017). "Venezuelan president accuses bishops of ignoring Pope Francis". Crux. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Allen Jr., John (19 May 2017). "Pope Francis has a plan for Venezuela: Give it time to work". Crux. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Wooden, Cindy (8 June 2017). "Amid nation's crisis, Venezuelan bishops meet pope". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Jenner, Frances (10 January 2019). "Latin American former leaders criticise Pope's Christmas message". Andes Times. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Winfield, Nicole; Zamorano, Juan (27 January 2019). "Pope seeks peace in Venezuela crisis but doesn't pick sides". Associated Press. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Richter, Paul; Kington, Tom (19 December 2014). "Bridge to Cuba Via Vatican". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Nadeau, Barbie Latza (17 December 2014). "The Pope's Diplomatic Miracle: Ending the U.S.–Cuba Cold War". The Daily Beast. New York City: IAC. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Wilkinson, Tracy (22 April 2015). "Pope Francis to stop in Cuba en route to U.S., Vatican announces". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- McLaughlin, Eliott C. (14 May 2015). "Raul Castro may join Catholic Church, he says after Pope Francis meeting". Atlanta, Georgia: CNN. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Yardley, Jim (10 May 2015). "Praising Pope, Cuban President Says He might return to church". The New York Times. New York City. p. A4. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Willey, David (23 May 2014). "Pope Francis to tread careful path on Mid-East visit". BBC News. London, England: BBC. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Holy Land: Vandal tries to set fire to Dormition Abbey". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Fire breaks out at Nativity Church shortly after Francis visits Bethlehem". Novus Ordo Watch. 2014.
- Pentin, Edward (18 May 2015). "The Pope, Mahmoud Abbas, and the 'Angel of Peace'". National Catholic Register. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Globe Media Partners LLC. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "Vatican signs treaty recognizing State of Palestine". The Times of Israel. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (17 May 2015). "At Vatican, Abbas is Praised as 'Angel of Peace'". The New York Times.
- Robertson, Nic; Smith-Spark, Laura; Karimi, Faith (6 June 2015). "Pope Francis urges peace on visit to Sarajevo, 'Jerusalem of Europe'". Atlanta, Georgia: CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Pope Francis Addresses the U.N.: Live Updates". The New York Times. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Pope Francis visits Lesbos". The Guardian. London, England. 16 April 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Josephine McKenna (1 May 2017). "Ancient Order of Malta faces era of change as interim leader is elected". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Trump: Meeting Pope Francis 'the honor of a lifetime'". New York City: Fox News Channel. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- "Visit of the Holy Father Francis to the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in Rome for World Food Day". Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- McDonald Ireland, Henry (28 November 2016). "Pope Francis to visit Ireland in 2018". The Guardian. London, England. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Ortiz, Erik (20 August 2018). "Pope apologizes for priest sex abuse scandal with 'sorrow and shame'". New York City: NBC News. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Tens of thousands pack stadium for first papal mass on Arabian Peninsula". Reuters. 5 February 2019.
- "Don't build walls, Pope Francis says". Reuters. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Friedman, Uri (16 April 2016). "'The Globalization of Indifference': How Pope Francis Sees the Refugee Crisis". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Kuruvilla, Carol (1 October 2019). "New Vatican Statue Proclaims Pope Francis' Concern For Refugees". HuffPost. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- "Pope Francis meets Iraq's top Shi'ite cleric, visits birthplace of Prophet Abraham". Reuters. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- "Pope, top Iraq Shiite cleric hold historic, symbolic meeting". ABC News. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- Mares, Courtney (11 May 2021). "Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem says violence requires 'an urgent intervention'". Catholic News Agency.
- O'Connell, Gerard (9 May 2021). "Pope Francis calls for an end to clashes in Jerusalem". America Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021.
- Waters, John (20 July 2014). "Does Pope Francis have a cunning plan?". Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Binelli, Mark (28 January 2014). "Pope Francis Cover Story: The Times They Are A-Changin'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Vatican spokesman: media manipulated Pope's family comments". Catholic News Agency. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Saletan, William (19 September 2013). "Pope Francis Is a Liberal". Slate. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Coppen, Luke (11 January 2014). "Sorry – but Pope Francis is no liberal". The Spectator. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- O'Loughlin, Michael (28 January 2014). "Catholics Urge Pope Francis to Speak Out for LGBT Rights". Advocate. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Thomson, T. J.; Perreault, Gregory; Duffy, Margaret (17 January 2017). "Politicians, Photographers, and a Pope" (PDF). Journalism Studies. 19 (9): 1313–1330. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2016.1268929. ISSN 1461-670X. S2CID 152110990.
- McGough, Michael (1 January 2014). "Pope Francis named Esquire's 'Best Dressed Man of 2013' – but why?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Pope Francis' Gentle Revolution: Inside Rolling Stone's New Issue". Rolling Stone. 28 January 2014.
- "Person of the Year 2013". Time. 11 December 2013.
- Colvin, Geoff (20 March 2014). "Fortune ranks the World's 50 Greatest Leaders". CNN. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014.
- Communications, Corporate (11 May 2014). "2014 Ranking of the World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- M. Ewalt, David. "The World's Most Powerful People 2016". Forbes. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- Ho, Erica, "Argentina: Town renames street after Pope Francis", Time, 28 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013
- Catherine E. Shoichet (28 November 2013). "Argentina weighs putting Pope Francis' face on a coin". CNN. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Donadio, Rachel (25 May 2013). "Francis' Humility and Emphasis on the Poor Strike a New Tone at the Vatican". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
It was so hard to sell anything under Benedict. This pope attracts huge crowds, and they all want to bring back home something with his smiling face on it.
- "Pope marries 20 cohabiting couples in sign of papacy shift". BBC News. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Glatz, Carol (29 August 2014). "Pope Francis to preside over joint September wedding at Vatican". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- Stack, Liam (19 March 2016). "Get Ready, Internet. The Pope Has Joined Instagram". NY Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Ahiza Garcia (19 March 2016). "Pope Francis gains 1 million Instagram followers in under 12 hours". CNNMoney. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Pope highlights pros and cons of internet and social media use – Vatican News". www.vaticannews.va. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- Francis, Pope (26 November 2020). "Opinion | Pope Francis: A Crisis Reveals What Is in Our Hearts". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- Choi, Joseph (26 November 2020). "Pope Francis swipes at groups protesting COVID-19 restrictions in NYT op-ed". TheHill. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- Kirche., Katholische. Annuario pontificio. Libr. Ed. Vaticana. OCLC 894991536.
- "Presidente Evo Morales distingue con el Cóndor de Los Andes al Papa Francisco". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "Photographic image". D2jkk5z9de9jwi.cloudfront.net. Archived from the original (JPG) on 8 October 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- SA, PAP. "Pope Francis receives Order of the Smile – Francis – Catholic Church – Faith – Pope in Poland 2016 – press center". pope2016.com. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Pope Francis to be awarded Charlemagne Prize on 6 May". European Parliament. 2 May 2016 – via www.europarl.europa.eu.
- White, Daniel (1 December 2015). "Pope Francis Is PETA's Person of the Year". Time Magazine.
- "Pope Francis got a new gig this week...as a basketball player". The Independent. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "Pope meets with Zayed Award judging panel". Vatican News. 23 October 2020.
- "Nominations open for 2021 Zayed Award for Human Fraternity". Vatican News. 20 October 2020.
- "3 Italian Red Wines to Drink to Pope Francis, the World's First Papal Sommelier". FWx. Editors. 22 January 2015 – via www.foodandwine.com.
- "Palo's Pope Francis Center now houses abandoned elderly, orphans". Catholic's Bishop Conference of the Philippines.
- "Oscar-winning composer pens Mass for the Pope". EWTN. Published: 12 June 2015.
- "Oscar award winner, Ennio Morricone composes 'Mass' for Pope". Rome Reports. Published: 12 June 2015.
- Missa Papae Francisci (Morricone). RAI 5. (Napolitano appears at 32:41 and greets Morricone at 33:07) (in Italian)
- In: Offenbarungen – Tage Neuer Kirchenmusik. Begleitheft, München 2015, S. 15.
- Reulein, Peter; Schlegel, Helmut (2016). Laudato si' / Ein franziskanisches Magnificat. Limburg an der Lahn: Dehm Verlag. p. 230. ISBN 978-3-943302-34-9. ISMN 979-0-50226-047-7.
- "Festkonzert zum Jubiläum des Referates Kirchenmusik / Laudato si' – Oratorium von Peter Reulein (Uraufführung)" (in German). Liebfrauen, Frankfurt. 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- "Wedvick of Jarlsby – Religious/Francis, H. H. Pope 3". Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- "Lo Stemma di Papa Francesco" (in Italian). L'Osservatore Romano. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis: "Miserando atque eligendo"..." Vatican Information Service. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Pope Francis: "Wake Up!"". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- "Pope Francis has released a rock album". BBC News. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- "Pope Francis Wake Up! Music Album with His Words and Prayers". Popefranciswakeup.believedigital.com. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Vivarelli, Nick (13 January 2015). "Battle of the Pope Francis Biopics Begins With Two Films Shooting in Buenos Aires". Variety. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Thompson, Anne (18 May 2018). "'Pope Francis: A Man of His Word': Wim Wenders Grilled the Pontiff and Left Amazed". Indie Wire. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Barker, Andrew (13 May 2018). "Film Review: 'Pope Francis: A Man of His Word'". Variety.com. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Elie, Paul (21 May 2018). "The Spiritual Nearness of Wim Wenders's "Pope Francis: Man of His Word"". New Yorker. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- ""Francesco": new documentary on the life and teaching of Pope Francis". Vatican News. 21 October 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- Winfield, Nicole (21 October 2020). "Francis becomes 1st pope to endorse same-sex civil unions". AP NEWS. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- Donnlly, Gabrielle (19 December 2019). "'You couldn't help but be moved spiritually': Anthony Hopkins and Jonathan Pryce interviewed". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Allen, John L. (2015). The Francis Miracle: Inside the Transformation of the Pope and the Church. New York: Time. ISBN 978-1-61893-131-3.
- Borghesi, Massimo (2018) [Italian original, 2017]. The Mind of Pope Francis: Jorge Mario Bergoglio's Intellectual Journey. Translated by Hudock, Barry. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-8790-1.
- Castagnaro, Mauro; Eugenio, Ludovica (2013). Il Dissenso Soffocato: un'agenda per Papa Francesco [Dissent Stifled: an agenda for Pope Francis]. Molfetta: La Meridiana. ISBN 978-8861533240.
- Colonna, Marcantonio (2018). The Dictator Pope: The Inside Story of the Francis Papacy. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62157-832-1.
- Douthat, Ross (2018). To Change the Church: Pope Francis and the Future of Catholicism. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5011-4692-3.
- Ivereigh, Austen (2014). The Great Reformer: Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-1-62779-157-1.
- Lawler, Philip F. (2018). Lost Shepherd: How Pope Francis is Misleading His Flock. Washington DC: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-1-62157-722-5.
- Reato, Ceferino (2015). Doce noches [Twelve nights] (in Spanish). Argentina: Sudamericana. ISBN 978-950-07-5203-9.
- Rosales, Luis; Olivera, Daniel (2013). Francis: A pope for our time. United States: Umanix Books. ISBN 978-1-63006-002-2. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Rubin, Sergio; Ambrogetti, Francesca (2010). El Jesuita [The jesuit] (in Spanish) (1 ed.). Argentina: Vergara Editor. ISBN 978-950-15-2450-5.
- Vallely, Paul (2015). Pope Francis: Untying the Knots: The Struggle for the Soul of Catholicism (Revised and expanded ed.). London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4729-0370-9.
- Willey, David (2015). The Promise of Francis: The Man, the Pope, and the Challenge of Change. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4767-8905-7.
|White smoke after election|
- Vatican: the Holy See – Vatican web site
- Vatican Web site: Official biography of Jorge Mario Bergoglio (published on the occasion of the Conclave by the Holy See Press Office, with the information provided by the cardinals themselves)
- Pope Francis on Twitter (Official Twitter account)
- Pope Francis on Instagram (Official Instagram account)
- on 's channelYouTube (Official Vatican YouTube page, covering the pope and related interests)
- Pope Francis at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN