Pope John IX
- Pope John IX can also refer to Pope John IX of Alexandria.
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|Papacy began||January 898|
|Papacy ended||January 900|
Tivoli, Papal States
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named John|
Little is known about John IX before he became Pope. Born in Tivoli in an unknown year, he was ordained as a Benedictine priest by Pope Formosus. With the support of the powerful House of Spoleto he was elected Pontiff in early 898 following the sudden death of Pope Theodore II.
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With a view to diminish the violence of faction in Rome, John held several synods in Rome and elsewhere in 898. They not only confirmed the judgment of Pope Theodore II in granting Christian burial to Pope Formosus, but also at a council held at Ravenna decreed that the records of the synod held by Pope Stephen VI which had condemned him should be burned. Re-ordinations were forbidden, and those of the clergy who had been degraded by Stephen were restored to the ranks from which he had deposed them.
To keep their independence, which was threatened by the Germans, the Slavs of Moravia appealed to John to let them have a hierarchy of their own. Ignoring the complaints of the German hierarchy, John sanctioned the consecration of a metropolitan and three bishops for the Church of the Moravians.
Finding that it was advisable to cement the ties between the empire and the papacy, John IX gave unhesitating support to Lambert in preference to Arnulf during the Synod of Rome, and also induced the council to determine that henceforth the consecration of the Popes should take place only in the presence of the imperial legates. The sudden death of Lambert shattered the hopes which this alliance seemed to promise.
John IX died in the year 900 and was succeeded by Pope Benedict IV (900–903).
- Platina, Bartolomeo (1479), The Lives of the Popes From The Time Of Our Saviour Jesus Christ to the Accession of Gregory VII, I, London: Griffith Farran & Co., pp. 240–241, retrieved 2013-04-25
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Gnocchi, Claudia (2000). "Giovanni IX, papa". In Caravale, Mario. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI) (in Italian). 55. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.
- Claudia Gnocchi: Giovanni IX. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 2 (Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV), Rome, 2000, OCLC 313581688, pp. 52–52.
- Rudolf Schieffer: Johannes IX in: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (Lexikon des Mittelalters, LexMA). Vol. 5, Artemis & Winkler, Munich/Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-7608-8905-0, Col. 540.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John IX.|
- Pope John IX at Find a Grave
- Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
- John IX. In: Salvador Miranda: The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, online at fiu.edu, Website of Florida International University, retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Literature by and about John IX in the German National Library catalogue
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