Pope John XXIII
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||28 October 1958|
|Papacy ended||3 June 1963|
|Ordination||10 August 1904|
by Giuseppe Ceppetelli
|Consecration||19 March 1925|
by Giovanni Tacci Porcelli
|Created cardinal||12 January 1953|
by Pius XII
|Birth name||Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli|
|Born||25 November 1881|
Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Kingdom of Italy
|Died||3 June 1963 (aged 81)|
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
|Motto||Oboedientia et Pax (Obedience and Peace)|
|Coat of arms|
|Beatified||3 September 2000|
Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City
by Pope John Paul II
|Canonized||27 April 2014|
Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City
by Pope Francis
|Other popes named John|
Pope John XXIII (Latin: Ioannes; Italian: Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Italian pronunciation: [ˈandʒelo dʒuˈzɛppe roŋˈkalli]; 25 November 1881 – 3 June 1963) was Bishop of Rome and hence head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was one of thirteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy. He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, as nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice. Roncalli was unexpectedly elected pope on 28 October 1958 at age 76 after 11 ballots. Pope John XXIII surprised those who expected him to be a caretaker pope by calling the historic Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), the first session opening on 11 October 1962.
John XXIII made many passionate speeches during his pontificate. His views on equality were summed up in his statement, "We were all made in God's image, and thus, we are all Godly alike." He made a major impact on the Catholic Church, opening it up to dramatic unexpected changes promulgated at the Vatican Council and by his own dealings with other churches and nations. In Italian politics, he prohibited bishops from interfering with local elections, and he helped the Christian Democratic Party to cooperate with the socialists. In international affairs, his "Ostpolitik" engaged in dialogue with the Communist countries of Eastern Europe. He especially reached out to the Eastern Orthodox churches. His overall goal was to modernize the Church by emphasizing its pastoral role, and its necessary involvement with affairs of state. He dropped the traditional rule of 70 cardinals, increasing the size to 85. He used the opportunity to name the first cardinals from Africa, Japan, and the Philippines. He promoted ecumenical movements in cooperation with other Christian faiths. In doctrinal matters, he was a traditionalist, but he ended the practice of automatically formulating social and political policies on the basis of old theological propositions.
He did not live to see the Vatican Council to completion. His cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by his successor, Pope Paul VI, who declared him a Servant of God. On 5 July 2013, Pope Francis – bypassing the traditionally required second miracle – declared John XXIII a saint, based on his virtuous, model lifestyle, and because of the good which had come from his having opened the Second Vatican Council. He was canonised alongside Pope John Paul II on 27 April 2014. John XXIII today is affectionately known as the "Good Pope" and in Italian, "il Papa buono".
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was born on 25 November 1881 in Sotto il Monte, a small country village in the Bergamo province of the Lombardy region of Italy. He was the eldest son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli (1854 – July 1935) and his wife Marianna Giulia Mazzolla (1855 – 20 February 1939), and fourth in a family of 13. His siblings were:
- Maria Caterina (1877–1883)
- Teresa (1879–1954), who in 1899 married Michele Ghisleni
- Ancilla (1880 – 11 November 1953)
- Francesco Zaverio (1883–1976), who in 1907 married Maria Carrara
- Maria Elisa (1884–1955)
- Assunta Casilda (1886 – 23 March 1980), who in 1907 married Giovanni Battista Marchesi
- Domenico Giuseppe (22 February 1888 – 14 March 1888)
- Alfredo (1889–1972)
- Giovanni Francesco (1891–1956), who in 1919 married Caterina Formenti
- Enrica (1893–1918)
- Giuseppe Luigi (1894–1981), who in 1922 married Ida Biffi
- Luigi (1896–1898)
His family worked as sharecroppers, as did most of the people of Sotto il Monte – a striking contrast to that of his predecessor, Eugenio Pacelli (Pope Pius XII), who came from an ancient aristocratic family long connected to the papacy. Roncalli was nonetheless a descendant of an Italian noble family, albeit from a secondary and impoverished branch; "(he) derived from no mean origins but from worthy and respected folk who can be traced right back to the beginning of the fifteenth century". The Roncallis maintained a vineyard and cornfields, and kept cattle.
In 1904, Roncalli completed his doctorate in Canon Law and was ordained a priest in the Catholic Church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo in Piazza del Popolo in Rome on 10 August. Shortly after that, while still in Rome, Roncalli was taken to Saint Peter's Basilica to meet Pope Pius X. After this, he would return to his town to celebrate mass for the Assumption.
In 1905, Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, the new Bishop of Bergamo, appointed Roncalli as his secretary. Roncalli worked for Radini-Tedeschi until the bishop's death on 22 August 1914, two days after the death of Pope Pius X. Radini-Tedeschi's last words to Roncalli were "Angelo, pray for peace". The death of Radini-Tedeschi had a deep effect on Roncalli.  During this period Roncalli was also a lecturer in the diocesan seminary in Bergamo.
During World War I, Roncalli was drafted into the Royal Italian Army as a sergeant, serving in the medical corps as a stretcher-bearer and as a chaplain. After being discharged from the army in early 1919, he was named spiritual director of the seminary.
On 6 November 1921, Roncalli travelled to Rome where he was scheduled to meet the Pope. After their meeting, Pope Benedict XV appointed him as the Italian president of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. Roncalli would recall Benedict XV as being the most sympathetic of the popes he had met.
In February 1925, the Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri summoned him to the Vatican and informed him of Pope Pius XI's decision to appoint him the Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria (1925–1935). On 3 March, Pius XI also appointed him titular archbishop of Areopolis, Jordan. Roncalli was initially reluctant about a mission to Bulgaria, but he soon relented. His nomination as apostolic visitor was made official on 19 March. Roncalli was consecrated a bishop by Giovanni Tacci Porcelli in the church of San Carlo alla Corso in Rome.
On 30 November 1934, he was appointed Apostolic Delegate to Turkey and Greece and titular archbishop of Mesembria, Bulgaria. He became known in Turkey's predominantly Muslim society as "the Turcophile Pope". Roncalli took up this post in 1935 and used his office to help the Jewish underground in saving thousands of refugees in Europe, leading some to consider him to be a Righteous Gentile (see Pope John XXIII and Judaism). In October 1935, he led Bulgarian pilgrims to Rome and introduced them to Pope Pius XI on 14 October.
In February 1939, he received news from his sisters that his mother was dying. On 10 February 1939, Pope Pius XI died. Roncalli was unable to see his mother for the end as the death of a pontiff meant that he would have to stay at his post until the election of a new pontiff. Unfortunately, she died on 20 February 1939, during the nine days of mourning for the late Pius XI. He was sent a letter by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, and Roncalli later recalled that it was probably the last letter Pacelli sent until his election as Pope Pius XII on 2 March 1939. Roncalli expressed happiness that Pacelli was elected, and, on radio, listened to the coronation of the new pontiff. In 1939, Roncalli was made head of the Vatican Jewish Agency in Geneva.
Roncalli remained in Bulgaria at the time that World War II commenced, optimistically writing in his journal in April 1939, "I don't believe we will have a war". At the time that the war did in fact commence, he was in Rome, meeting with Pope Pius XII on 5 September 1939. In 1940, Roncalli was asked by the Vatican to devote more of his time to Greece; therefore, he made several visits there in January and May that year. The same year, Roncalli departed as head of the Vatican Jewish Agency and migrated to Turkey. However, Roncalli still maintained close relations with the Jews and also intervened to convince Bulgaria King Boris III to cancel deportations of Greek Jews during the Nazi occupation of Greece.
Efforts during the Holocaust
- Delivery of "immigration certificates" to Palestine through the Nunciature diplomatic courier.
- Rescue of Jews by means of certificates of "baptism of convenience" sent by Monsignor Roncalli to priests in Europe.
- Children managed to leave Slovakia due to his interventions.
- Jewish refugees whose names were included on a list submitted by Rabbi Markus of Istanbul to Nuncio Roncalli.
- Jews held at Jasenovac concentration camp, near Stara Gradiška, were liberated as a result of his intervention.
- Bulgarian Jews who left Bulgaria, a result of his request to King Boris III of Bulgaria.
- Romanian Jews from Transnistria left Romania as a result of his intervention.
- Italian Jews helped by the Vatican as a result of his interventions.
- Orphaned children of Transnistria on board a refugee ship that weighed anchor from Constanța to Istanbul, and later arriving in Palestine as a result of his interventions.
- Jews held at the Sereď concentration camp who were spared from being deported to German death camps as a result of his intervention.
- Hungarian Jews who saved themselves through their conversions to Christianity through the baptismal certificates sent by Nuncio Roncalli to the Hungarian Nuncio, Monsignor Angelo Rota.
In 1965, the Catholic Herald newspaper quoted Pope John XXIII as saying:
We are conscious today that many, many centuries of blindness have cloaked our eyes so that we can no longer see the beauty of Thy chosen people nor recognise in their faces the features of our privileged brethren. We realize that the mark of Cain stands upon our foreheads. Across the centuries our brother Abel has lain in blood which we drew, or shed tears we caused by forgetting Thy love. Forgive us for the curse we falsely attached to their name as Jews. Forgive us for crucifying Thee a second time in their flesh. For we know not what we did.
On 7 September 2000, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation launched the International Campaign for the Acknowledgement of the humanitarian actions undertaken by Vatican Nuncio Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli for people, most of whom were Jewish, persecuted by the Nazi regime. The launching took place at the Permanent Observation Mission of the Vatican to the United Nations, in the presence of Vatican State Secretary Cardinal Angelo Sodano.
The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation has carried out exhaustive historical research related to different events connected with interventions of Nuncio Roncalli in favour of Jewish refugees during the Holocaust. As of September 2000 three reports have been published compiling different studies and materials of historical research about the humanitarian actions carried out by Roncalli when he was nuncio.
In 2011, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation submitted a massive file (the Roncalli Dossier) to Yad Vashem, with a strong petition and recommendation to bestow upon him the title of Righteous among the Nations.
Relations with Israel
After 1944 he played an active role in gaining Catholic Church support for the establishment of the state of Israel. His support for Zionism and the establishment of Israel was the result of his cultural and religious openness toward other faiths and cultures, and especially concern with the fate of Jews after the war. He was one of the Vatican's most sympathetic diplomats toward Jewish immigration to Palestine, which he saw as a humanitarian issue, and not a matter of Biblical theology.
On 22 December 1944, during World War II, Pope Pius XII named him to be the new Apostolic Nuncio to recently liberated France. In this capacity he had to negotiate the retirement of bishops who had collaborated with the German occupying power.
Roncalli was chosen among several other candidates, one of whom was Archbishop Joseph Fietta. Roncalli met with Domenico Tardini to discuss his new appointment, and their conversation suggested that Tardini did not approve of it. One curial prelate referred to Roncalli as an "old fogey" while speaking with a journalist.
Roncalli left Ankara on 27 December 1944 on a series of short-haul flights that took him to several places, such as Beirut, Cairo and Naples. He ventured to Rome on 28 December and met with both Tardini and his friend Giovanni Battista Montini. He left for France the next day to commence his newest role.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Roncalli received a message from Mgr. Montini on 14 November 1952 asking him if he would want to become the new Patriarch of Venice in light of the nearing death of Carlo Agostini. Furthermore, Montini said to him via letter on 29 November 1952 that Pius XII had decided to raise him to the cardinalate. Roncalli knew that he would be appointed to lead the patriarchy of Venice due to the death of Agostini, who was to have been raised to the rank of cardinal.
On 12 January 1953, he was appointed Patriarch of Venice and raised to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca by Pope Pius XII. Roncalli left France for Venice on 23 February 1953 stopping briefly in Milan and then to Rome. On 15 March 1953, he took possession of his new diocese in Venice. As a sign of his esteem, the President of France, Vincent Auriol, claimed the ancient privilege possessed by French monarchs and bestowed the red biretta on Roncalli at a ceremony in the Élysée Palace. It was around this time that he, with the aid of Monsignor Bruno Heim, formed his coat of arms with a lion of Saint Mark on a white ground. Auriol also awarded Roncalli three months later with the award of Commander of the Legion of Honour.
Roncalli decided to live on the second floor of the residence reserved for the patriarch, choosing not to live in the first floor room once resided in by Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, who later became Pope Pius X. On 29 May 1954, the late Pius X was canonized and Roncalli ensured that the late pontiff's patriarchal room was remodelled into a 1903 (the year of the new saint's papal election) look in his honor. With Pius X's few surviving relatives, Roncalli celebrated a mass in his honor.
His sister Ancilla would soon be diagnosed with stomach cancer in the early 1950s. Roncalli's last letter to her was dated on 8 November 1953 where he promised to visit her within the next week. He could not keep that promise, as Ancilla died on 11 November 1953 at the time when he was consecrating a new church in Venice. He attended her funeral back in his hometown. In his will around this time, he mentioned that he wished to be buried in the crypt of Saint Mark's in Venice with some of his predecessors rather than with the family in Sotto il Monte.
|Papal styles of|
Pope John XXIII
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Ordination history of
Pope John XXIII
Following the death of Pope Pius XII on 9 October 1958, Roncalli watched the live funeral on his last full day in Venice on 11 October. His journal was specifically concerned with the funeral and the abused state of the late pontiff's corpse. Roncalli left Venice for the conclave in Rome well aware that he was papabile,[a] and after eleven ballots, was elected to succeed the late Pius XII, so it came as no surprise to him, though he had arrived at the Vatican with a return train ticket to Venice.
Many had considered Giovanni Battista Montini, the Archbishop of Milan, a possible candidate, but, although he was the archbishop of one of the most ancient and prominent sees in Italy, he had not yet been made a cardinal. Though his absence from the 1958 conclave did not make him ineligible – under Canon Law any Catholic male who is capable of receiving priestly ordination and episcopal consecration may be elected – the College of Cardinals usually chose the new pontiff from among the Cardinals who attend the papal conclave. At the time, as opposed to modern practice, the participating Cardinals did not have to be below age 80 to vote, there were few Eastern-rite Cardinals,[b] and some Cardinals were just priests at the time of their elevation.[c]
Roncalli was summoned to the final ballot of the conclave at 4:00 pm. He was elected pope at 4:30 pm with a total of 38 votes. After the long pontificate of Pope Pius XII, the cardinals chose a man who – it was presumed because of his advanced age – would be a short-term or "stop-gap" pope. They wished to choose a candidate who would do little during the new pontificate. Upon his election, Cardinal Eugène Tisserant asked him the ritual questions of whether he would accept and if so, what name he would take for himself. Roncalli gave the first of his many surprises when he chose "John" as his regnal name. Roncalli's exact words were "I will be called John". This was the first time in over 500 years that this name had been chosen; previous popes had avoided its use since the time of the Antipope John XXIII during the Western Schism several centuries before.
On the choice of his papal name, Pope John XXIII said to the cardinals:
I choose John... a name sweet to us because it is the name of our father, dear to me because it is the name of the humble parish church where I was baptized, the solemn name of numberless cathedrals scattered throughout the world, including our own basilica [St. John Lateran]. Twenty-two Johns of indisputable legitimacy have [been Pope], and almost all had a brief pontificate. We have preferred to hide the smallness of our name behind this magnificent succession of Roman Popes.
Upon his choosing the name, there was some confusion as to whether he would be known as John XXIII or John XXIV; in response, he declared that he was John XXIII, thus affirming the antipapal status of antipope John XXIII.
Before this antipope, the most recent popes called John were John XXII (1316–1334) and John XXI (1276–1277). However, there was no Pope John XX, owing to confusion caused by medieval historians misreading the Liber Pontificalis to refer to another Pope John between John XIV and John XV.
After he answered the two ritual questions, the traditional Habemus Papam announcement was delivered by Cardinal Nicola Canali to the people at 6:08 pm, an exact hour after the white smoke appeared. A short while later, he appeared on the balcony and gave his first Urbi et Orbi blessing to the crowds of the faithful below in Saint Peter's Square. That same night, he appointed Domenico Tardini as his Secretary of State. Of the three cassocks prepared for whomever the new pope was, even the largest was not enough to fit his five-foot-two, 200-plus-pound frame, which had to be let out in certain places and only to be held together with great effort by bobby pins. When he first saw himself in the mirror in his new vestments, he said with an apprising and critical look that "this man will be a disaster on television!", while later saying he felt his first appearance before the globe was as if he were a "newborn babe in swaddling clothes".
His coronation took place on 4 November 1958, on the feast of Saint Charles Borromeo, and it occurred on the central loggia of the Vatican. He was crowned with the 1877 Palatine Tiara. His coronation ran for the traditional five hours.
In John XXIII's first consistory on 15 December of that same year, Montini was created a cardinal and would become John XXIII's successor in 1963, taking the name of Paul VI. That consistory was notable for being the first to expand the Sacred College membership beyond the then-traditional 70.
Following his election the new pope told the tale of how in his first weeks he was walking when he heard a woman exclaim in a loud voice: "My God, he's so fat!" The new pope casually remarked: "Madame, the holy conclave isn't exactly a beauty contest!"
Visits around Rome
On 25 December 1958, he became the first pope since 1870 to make pastoral visits in his Diocese of Rome, when he visited children infected with polio at the Bambino Gesù Hospital and then visited Santo Spirito Hospital. The following day, he visited Rome's Regina Coeli prison, where he told the inmates: "You could not come to me, so I came to you." These gestures created a sensation, and he wrote in his diary: "... great astonishment in the Roman, Italian and international press. I was hemmed in on all sides: authorities, photographers, prisoners, warders..."
During these visits, John XXIII put aside the normal papal use of the formal "we" when referring to himself, such as when he visited a reformatory school for juvenile delinquents in Rome telling them "I have wanted to come here for some time". The media noticed this and reported that "He talked to the youths in their own language".
"Ostpolitik" and Eastern Europe
In international affairs, his "Ostpolitik" ["Eastern policy"] engaged in dialogue with the Communist countries of Eastern Europe. He worked to reconcile the Vatican with the Russian Orthodox Church to settle tensions between the local churches. The Second Vatican Council did not condemn Communism and did not even mention it, in what some have called a secret agreement between the Holy See and the Soviet Union. In Pacem in terris, John XXIII also sought to prevent nuclear war and tried to improve relations between the Soviet Union and the United States. He began a policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders in order to seek conditions in which Eastern Catholics could find relief from persecution.
Relations with Jews
One of the first acts of Pope John XXIII, in 1960, was to eliminate the description of Jews as perfidius (Latin for "perfidious" or "faithless") in the prayer for the conversion of the Jews in the Good Friday liturgy. He interrupted the first Good Friday liturgy in his pontificate to address this issue when he first heard a celebrant refer to the Jews with that word. He also made a confession for the Church of the sin of anti-semitism through the centuries.
While Vatican II was being held, John XXIII tasked Cardinal Augustin Bea with the creation of several important documents that pertained to reconciliation with Jewish people.
Calling the Council
Far from being a mere "stopgap" pope, to great excitement, John XXIII called for an ecumenical council fewer than ninety years after the First Vatican Council (Vatican I's predecessor, the Council of Trent, had been held in the 16th century). This decision was announced on 25 January 1959 at the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who later became Pope Paul VI, remarked to Giulio Bevilacqua that "this holy old boy doesn't realise what a hornet's nest he's stirring up". From the Second Vatican Council came changes that reshaped the face of Catholicism: a comprehensively revised liturgy, a stronger emphasis on ecumenism, and a new approach to the world.
Prior to the first session of the council, John XXIII visited Assisi and Loreto on 4 October 1962 to pray for the new upcoming council as well as to mark the feast day of St. Francis of Assisi. He was the first pope to travel outside of Rome since Pope Pius IX. Along the way, there were several halts at Orte, Narni, Terni, Spoleto, Foligno, Fabriano, Iesi, Falconara and Ancona where the crowds greeted him.
John XXIII was an advocate for human rights which included the unborn and the elderly. He wrote about human rights in his Pacem in terris. He wrote, "Man has the right to live. He has the right to bodily integrity and to the means necessary for the proper development of life, particularly food, clothing, shelter, medical care, rest, and, finally, the necessary social services. In consequence, he has the right to be looked after in the event of ill health; disability stemming from his work; widowhood; old age; enforced unemployment; or whenever through no fault of his own he is deprived of the means of livelihood."
In regards to the topic of divorce, John XXIII said that human life is transmitted through the family which is founded on the sacrament of marriage and is both one and indissoluble as a union in God, therefore, it is against the teachings of the church for a married couple to divorce.
Pope John XXIII and papal ceremonial
Pope John XXIII was the last pope to use full papal ceremony, some of which was abolished after Vatican II, while the rest fell into disuse. His papal coronation ran for the traditional five hours (Pope Paul VI, by contrast, opted for a shorter ceremony, while later popes declined to be crowned). Pope John XXIII, like his predecessor Pius XII, chose to have the coronation itself take place on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica, in view of the crowds assembled in Saint Peter's Square below.
He wore a number of papal tiaras during his papacy. On the most formal of occasions would he don the 1877 Palatine tiara he received at his coronation, but on other occasions, he used the 1922 tiara of Pope Pius XI, which was used so often that it was associated with him quite strongly. The people of Bergamo gave him an expensive silver tiara, but he requested that the number of jewels used be halved and that the money be given to the poor.
Maintaining continuity with his predecessors, John XXIII continued the gradual reform of the Roman liturgy, and published changes that resulted in the 1962 Roman Missal, the last typical edition containing the Tridentine Mass established in 1570 by Pope Pius V at the request of the Council of Trent.
Beatifications and canonization ceremonies
He also canonized a small number of individuals: he canonized Charles of Sezze and Joaquina Vedruna de Mas on 12 April 1959, Gregorio Barbarigo on 26 May 1960, Juan de Ribera on 12 June 1960, Maria Bertilla Boscardin on 11 May 1961, Martin de Porres on 6 May 1962, and Antonio Maria Pucci, Francis Mary of Camporosso and Peter Julian Eymard on 9 December 1962. His final canonization was that of Vincent Pallotti on 20 January 1963.
Doctor of the Church
The pope created 52 cardinals in five consistories that included his successor Pope Paul VI. John XXIII decided to expand the size of the College of Cardinals beyond its limit of seventy that Pope Sixtus V established in 1586. The pope also reserved three additional cardinals in pectore which meant he secretly named cardinals without revealing their identities. The pope died before he could reveal these names, therefore meaning that these appointments were never legitimized.
John XXIII also issued a rule in 1962 mandating that all cardinals should be bishops; he himself consecrated the twelve non-bishop cardinals himself in April 1962.
Vatican II: The first session
On 11 October 1962, the first session of the Second Vatican Council was held in the Vatican. He gave the Gaudet Mater Ecclesia speech, which served as the opening address for the council. The day was basically electing members for several council commissions that would work on the issues presented in the council. On that same night following the conclusion of the first session, the people in Saint Peter's Square chanted and yelled with the sole objective of getting John XXIII to appear at the window to address them.
Pope John XXIII did indeed appear at the window and delivered a speech to the people below, and told them to return home and hug their children, telling them that it came from the pope. This speech would later become known as the so-called 'Speech of the Moon'.
The first session ended in a solemn ceremony on 8 December 1962 with the next session scheduled to occur in 1963 from 12 May to 29 June – this was announced on 12 November 1962. John XXIII's closing speech made subtle references to Pope Pius IX, and he had expressed the desire to see Pius IX beatified and eventually canonized. In his journal in 1959 during a spiritual retreat, John XXIII made this remark: "I always think of Pius IX of holy and glorious memory, and by imitating him in his sacrifices, I would like to be worthy to celebrate his canonization".
Final months and death
On 23 September 1962, Pope John XXIII was diagnosed with stomach cancer. The diagnosis, which was kept from the public, followed nearly eight months of occasional stomach hemorrhages, and reduced the pontiff's appearances. Looking pale and drawn during these events, he gave a hint to his ultimate fate in April 1963, when he said to visitors, "That which happens to all men perhaps will happen soon to the Pope who speaks to you today."
Pope John XXIII offered to mediate between US President John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev during the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962. Both men applauded the pope for his deep commitment to peace. Khrushchev would later send a message via Norman Cousins and the letter expressed his best wishes for the pontiff's ailing health. John XXIII personally typed and sent a message back to him, thanking him for his letter. Cousins, meanwhile, travelled to New York City and ensured that John would become Time magazine's 'Man of the Year'. John XXIII became the first Pope to receive the title, followed by John Paul II in 1994 and Francis in 2013.
On 10 February 1963, John XXIII officially opened the process of beatification for the late Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, Archbishop of Milan from 1894 to 1921. This conferred upon him the title of Servant of God.
On 7 March 1963, the feast of the University's patron Saint Thomas Aquinas, Pope John XXIII visited the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum and with the motu proprio Dominicanus Ordo, raised the Angelicum to the rank of Pontifical University. Thereafter it would be known as the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas in the City.
On 10 May 1963, John XXIII received the Balzan Prize in private at the Vatican but deflected achievements of himself to the five popes of his lifetime, Pope Leo XIII to Pius XII. On 11 May, the Italian President Antonio Segni officially awarded Pope John XXIII with the Balzan Prize for his engagement for peace. While in the car en route to the official ceremony, he suffered great stomach pains but insisted on meeting with Segni to receive the award in the Quirinal Palace, refusing to do so within the Vatican. He stated that it would have been an insult to honour a pontiff on the remains of the crucified Saint Peter. It was the pope's last public appearance.
On 25 May 1963, the pope suffered another haemorrhage and required several blood transfusions, but the cancer had perforated the stomach wall and peritonitis soon set in. The doctors conferred in a decision regarding this matter and John XXIII's aide Loris F. Capovilla broke the news to him saying that the cancer had done its work and nothing could be done for him. Around this time, his remaining siblings arrived to be with him. By 31 May, it had become clear that the cancer had overcome the resistance of John XXIII – it had left him confined to his bed.
"At 11 am Petrus Canisius Van Lierde as Papal Sacristan was at the bedside of the dying pope, ready to anoint him. The pope began to speak for the last time: "I had the great grace to be born into a Christian family, modest and poor, but with the fear of the Lord. My time on earth is drawing to a close. But Christ lives on and continues his work in the Church. Souls, souls, ut omnes unum sint."[d] Van Lierde then anointed his eyes, ears, mouth, hands and feet. Overcome by emotion, Van Lierde forgot the right order of anointing. John XXIII gently helped him before bidding those present a last farewell.
John XXIII died of peritonitis caused by a perforated stomach at 19:49 local time on 3 June 1963 at the age of 81, ending a historic pontificate of four years and seven months. He died just as a Mass for him finished in Saint Peter's Square below, celebrated by Luigi Traglia. After he died, his brow was ritually tapped to see if he was dead, and those with him in the room said prayers. Then the room was illuminated, thus informing the people of what had happened. He was buried on 6 June in the Vatican grottos. Two wreaths, placed on the two sides of his tomb, were donated by the prisoners of the Regina Coeli prison and the Mantova jail in Verona. On 22 June 1963, one day after his friend and successor Pope Paul VI was elected, the latter prayed at his tomb.
On 3 December 1963, US President Lyndon B. Johnson posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian award, in recognition of the good relationship between Pope John XXIII and the United States of America. In his speech on 6 December 1963, Johnson said: "I have also determined to confer the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously on another noble man whose death we mourned 6 months ago: His Holiness, Pope John XXIII. He was a man of simple origins, of simple faith, of simple charity. In this exalted office he was still the gentle pastor. He believed in discussion and persuasion. He profoundly respected the dignity of man. He gave the world immortal statements of the rights of man, of the obligations of men to each other, of their duty to strive for a world community in which all can live in peace and fraternal friendship. His goodness reached across temporal boundaries to warm the hearts of men of all nations and of all faiths".
The citation for the medal reads:
His Holiness Pope John XXIII, dedicated servant of God. He brought to all citizens of the planet a heightened sense of the dignity of the individual, of the brotherhood of man, and of the common duty to build an environment of peace for all human kind.
Beatification and canonization
He was known affectionately as the "Good Pope". His cause for canonization was opened under Pope Paul VI during the final session of the Second Vatican Council on 18 November 1965, along with the cause of Pope Pius XII. On 3 September 2000, John XXIII was declared "Blessed" alongside Pope Pius IX by Pope John Paul II, the penultimate step on the road to sainthood after a miracle of curing an ill woman was discovered. He was the first pope since Pope Pius X to receive this honour. Following his beatification, his body was moved from its original burial place in the grottoes below the Vatican to the altar of St. Jerome and displayed for the veneration of the faithful.
At the time, the body was observed to be extremely well preserved—a condition which the Church ascribes to embalming and the lack of air flow in his sealed triple coffin rather than a miracle. When John XXIII's body was moved in 2001, it was once again treated to prevent deterioration. The original vault above the floor was removed and a new one built beneath the ground; it was here that the body of Pope John Paul II was entombed from 9 April 2005 to April 2011, before being moved for his beatification on 1 May 2011.
The 50th anniversary of his death was celebrated on 3 June 2013 by Pope Francis, who visited his tomb and prayed there, then addressing the gathered crowd and spoke about the late pope. The people that gathered there at the tomb were from Bergamo, the province where the late pope came from. A month later, on 5 July 2013, Francis approved Pope John XXIII for canonization, along with Pope John Paul II without the traditional second miracle required. Instead, Francis based this decision on John XXIII's merits for the Second Vatican Council. On Sunday, 27 April 2014, John XXIII and Pope John Paul II were declared saints on Divine Mercy Sunday.
The date assigned for the liturgical celebration of John XXIII is not 3 June, the anniversary of his death as would be usual, but 11 October, the anniversary of his opening of the Second Vatican Council. He is also commemorated in the Anglican Church of Canada, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and some other organizations with a feast day of 4 June, changed originally from 3 June.
From his teens when he entered the seminary, he maintained a diary of spiritual reflections that was subsequently published as the Journal of a Soul. The collection of writings charts Roncalli's goals and his efforts as a young man to "grow in holiness" and continues after his election to the papacy; it remains widely read.
John XXIII College (Perth) in Western Australia is a Catholic school named after John XXIII, Pope John Senior High School and Junior Seminary in Koforidua, Ghana and the Catholic Learning Community of John XXIII, a primary school in Sydney. Roncalli College is located in Timaru, New Zealand. There are also Roncalli High Schools in Indianapolis, Indiana, Aberdeen, South Dakota, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and Omaha, Nebraska.
- Cardinals created by John XXIII
- Central Preparatory Commission
- Eastern Catholic Churches
- Eastern Orthodox Church
- List of Catholic saints
- List of encyclicals of Pope John XXIII
- List of meetings between the Pope and the President of the United States
- List of popes
- List of Righteous Among the Nations by country
- William Doino is one of the commentators who claim that Roncalli was papabile and argue that "[b]y the time of Pius XII’s death, in 1958, Cardinal Roncalli 'contrary to the idea he came out of nowhere to become pope' was actually one of those favored to be elected. He was well known, well liked and trusted."
- At the 1958 conclave, the two Eastern Catholic cardinal-electors were Gregorio Pietro Agagianian, Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenian Catholic Church and Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Patriarch of Antioch of the Syrian Catholic Church
- At the 1958 conclave, Nicola Canali the Cardinal protodeacon was only an ordained priest and Alfredo Ottaviani, the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica had not yet been consecrated as a bishop.
- ‘...that all may be one.’
- "Patrons of Papal Delegates", Saints, SQPN
- "St. John XXIII, patron saint of Christian unity?". Vatican Insider. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "On October 12, in memory of St. John XXIII dedication of the church hospital". Diocese of Bergamo. 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Saint John XXIII for the first time becomes the patron". Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Marco Roncalli (6 September 2017). "San Giovanni XXIII sarà patrono dell'Esercito". La Stampa. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- "Pope John XXIII". IT: Vatican. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Canonisation of Blessed John Paul II and Blessed John XXIII, The National Catholic Church of the United Kingdom and Ireland, 4 July 2013, archived from the original on 7 April 2014
- Gormley, Beatrice (26 September 2017). Pope Francis : the people's pope. New York: Aladdin. ISBN 148148141X. OCLC 973067191.
- David Wilsford. ed., Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe: A Biographical Dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 203–207.
- Popes John Paul II, John XXIII to be declared saints in April, Fox News, 30 September 2013
- Antonimuthu, Rajamanickam (27 April 2014). "Pope Francis declares Popes John Paul II and John XXIII Saints" (YouTube). Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Spokane Daily Chronicle – Google News Archive Search".
- "Pope John XXIII". Rome, IT: Vatican. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- Kerdreux, Michel de (1970). Jean XXIII. Books. ISBN 978-2-7010-0404-4. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- Journal of a Soul, Pope John XXIII, tr. Dorothy White, Geoffrey Chapman (a Continuum imprint), 1965 (2000), p. xxxv, "Chronology 1881-1963"
- Armas e Troféus [Arms & trophies] (in Portuguese), PT: Instituto Português de Heráldica, 1990s
- Journal of a Soul, Pope John XXIII, tr. Dorothy White, Geoffrey Chapman (a Continuum imprint), 1965 (2000), pp. 409-410
- "Biography of John XXIII". Holy See. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- "Rito della Canonizzazione e Celebrazione Eucaristica" [Rite of Canonization and Eucharistic Celebration] (PDF) (in Italian). Holy See. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Pope John XXIII". The Papal Library (biography). Saint Mike. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 46
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, pp. 76–77
- "Pope John XXIII". Liturgy (news). Rome, IT: Vatican. 3 September 2000. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 96
- "Provisio ecclesiarum" [Ecclesiastical provision] (PDF), Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin), Rome, IT, 17: 140, 1925
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Areopolis". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- "Sacra congregatio pro ecclesia orientali: Nominationes" [Congregation for the Oriental Churches: nominations] (PDF), Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin), Rome, IT, 17: 204, 1925
- "Provisio ecclesiarum" [Ecclesiastical provision] (PDF), Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin), Rome, IT, 27: 10, 1935
- Doino, William. "Pope John XXIII: Conserver of Tradition | Web Exclusives | Daily Writings From Our Top Writers". First Things. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- "Papa Françesko'nun Türkiye ziyaretinin programı". 28 November 2014.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 121
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, pp. 156–159
- "An Incomparable Pope - John XXIII and the Jews (Extended)". April 2014.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, pp. 159–162
- ""Humanitarian actions of Monsignor Angelo Roncalli", The International Raoul Wallenburg Foundation". Raoulwallenberg.net. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Klinghoffer, David (3 November 2005). "Hitler's Pope Story a Myth, Rabbi Finds – Arts". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- conVistaAlMar.com.ar. "Two Italian productions about the "Turkish Pope" who saved Jewish lives". The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Hume, Brit (18 August 2006). "Hitler's Pope?". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Our Eyes Have Been Cloaked". Catholic Herald. 14 May 1965. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Lapide, Pinchas (1967), Three Popes and the Jews, Hawthorn[page needed]
- Summary of the research work of the International Angelo Roncalli Committee, The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation
- Synopsis of the Angelo Roncalli Dossier, The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, 1 February 2011, submitted to Yad Vashem.
- Eurnekian, Eduardo (3 June 2013). "Good Pope 'Joseph'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Zanini, Paolo (Fall 2017). "Angelo Roncalli Nuncio to Paris and the Establishment of the State of Israel". Israel Studies. 22 (3): 117. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Paolo Zanini, "Angelo Roncalli Nuncio to Paris and the Establishment of the State of Israel." Israel Studies 22.3 (2017): 102–124. online
- "Segretaria di stato: Nomina" [State secretary: names] (PDF), Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Italian), Rome, IT, 36: 342, 1944
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, pp. 200–201
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 200
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, pp. 232–233
- Doino, William Jr. (2 July 2012). "Pope John XXIII: Conserver of Tradition". First Things. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Pope Paul VI: 1963–1978 (biography), Rome, IT: Vatican, retrieved 28 February 2006
- "I Choose John...", Time, 10 November 1958
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 220
- "When Pope John and Ike Laughed It up in the Vatican". 16 September 2015.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1987). "Pope John XXIII: Shepherd of the Modern World". Image Books: 303. Cite journal requires
- "Look Ahead, Pontiff Advises Young Inmates". St Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 12 November 1962.
- Dennis J. Dunn "The Vatican's Ostpolitik: Past and Present." Journal of International Affairs (1982) 36#2 : 247–255. online
- Schulweis, Harold. "Catholic-Jewish Relations: Post-Holocaust Yom Kippur, 1999". VBS. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Weigel, George (June–July 2001), "Thinking Through Vatican II", First Things, archived from the original on 9 June 2011
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 425
- Shannon, William Henry (1970). "VII. The Papal Commission on Birth Control". The lively debate: response to Humanae vitae. New York: Sheed & Ward. pp. 76–104. ISBN 978-0-8362-0374-5.
- McClory, Robert (1995). Turning point: the inside story of the Papal Birth Control Commission, and how Humanae vitae changed the life of Patty Crowley and the future of the church. New York: Crossroad. ISBN 978-0-8245-1458-7.
- "Encyclical Pacem in terris of John XXIII, 11 April 1963". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Mater et magistra, 193
- Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Ethos. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-40278730-0.
- "Catholic Cardinals Now Are All Bishops" (PDF). New York Times. 20 April 1962. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
From today therefore, perhaps for the first time in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, all Cardinals are Bishops.
- Bokenkotter, Thomas (2005). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. New York: Image. p. 413. ISBN 978-0-385-51613-6.
- "John XXIII: the speech to the moon above ..." Vatican Radio. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Acta Ioannis Pp. XXIII" (PDF), Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Rome, IT, 55: 205–8, 1963, retrieved 9 September 2012
- Interviste [Interviews] (in Italian), 83, Rome, IT: Vatican, 2008, c. 1, retrieved 5 February 2013
- Meneghetti, Antonio ‘Tonino’, "Io bloggo", Ontospychology, retrieved 5 February 2013,
On 8 March 1963, Pope Giovanni XXIII came to the Angelicum to celebrate the passage from Ateneo Angelicum to University: Pontificia Universitas Studiorum Sancti Tomae Aquinatis in Urbe.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 502
- Weinfeld, Nicole (30 September 2013). "Popes John Paul II, John XXIII canonized April 27". Associated Press. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Penultima sessione generale del Concilio". Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "Pope John XXIII's exhumed remains at St Peter's". RTE News. 3 June 2001. Retrieved 28 April 2014. Cite journal requires
- Tomov, Nikola. "Preserving the Pontiff: an Account of the Body Preservation Methods Used by the Roman Catholic Church" (PDF). Acta Morphologica et Anthropologica. 25 (1–2): 117–121.
- "Blessed John XXIII's Remains Are Now On View At St Peter's". Christianity Today. 1 June 2001.
- "Vatican announces canonisation of popes John Paul II and John XXIII", Irish Times, 6 July 2013
- Vatican declares Popes John Paul II and John XXIII saints, UK: BBC News, 27 April 2014
- "Saint of the Day". American Catholic. Archived from the original on 22 April 2005. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "Angelo (John XXIII) Roncalli, Bishop". Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Lutheran Book of Worship. Augsburg Fortress Press. 1978.
- "John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli)". Satucket.com. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- "[John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli), Bishop of Rome, 1963] | Standing Commission on Liturgy and Music". Liturgyandmusic.wordpress.com. 4 June 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- 'Journal of a Soul' Reflects John XXIII's Generous Service accessdate=25 June 2015.
- Pasolini, Pier Paolo (30 September 2011) . "The Gospel According to St. Matthew" (YouTube). Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Pope Francis says First Communion Mass in Bulgaria".
- "Pope in Bulgaria prays for peace according to the example of St Francis - Vatican News". 6 May 2019.
- Bonnot, Bernard R. Pope John XXIII. An Astute, Pastoral Leader (1980), 316pp.
- Cahill, Thomas. Pope John XXIII: A Penguin Life (2002), 241pp.
- Dunn, Dennis J. "The Vatican's Ostpolitik: Past and Present." Journal of International Affairs (1982) 36#2 : 247–255. online
- Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John XXIII, Shepherd of the Modern World (1985). 550pp.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter & Hebblethwaite, Margaret (2000). John XXIII: Pope of the Council. Continuum International. ISBN 978-0-8264-4995-5.
- Martin, Malachi (1972), Three Popes and the Cardinal: The Church of Pius, John and Paul in its Encounter with Human History', Farrar, Straus & Giroux, ISBN 978-0-374-27675-1.
- ——— (1986). Vatican: a novel. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-015478-3.
- ——— (1990). The Keys of this Blood. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-69174-5.
- Riebs, Gunnar (2011). John XXIII Simple and Humble A Blessed Man. Privileged testimonies. ISBN 978-93-5015-077-1.
- Williams, Paul L. (2003). The Vatican Exposed. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-065-3.
- Wilsford, David. ed., Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe: A Biographical Dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 203–207.
- Zizola, Giancarlo; Barolini, Helen. Utopia of Pope John XXIII (1979), 379pp.
- Coppa, Frank J. "The National Edition of the Diaries of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli/Pope John XXIII: A Bibliographical Essay." The Catholic Historical Review 97#1 (2011), pp. 81–92 online
- Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe (1965), Giovanni XXIII Il Giornale dell' Anima [Journal of a Soul], White, Dorothy trans, Geoffrey Chapman, ISBN 978-0-225-66895-7. excerpt; his spiritual diary.
- Works by or about Pope John XXIII at Internet Archive
- Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe, Opera Omnia [Complete works] (in Latin), EU: Documenta catholica omnia.
- Rockwell, Lew, John XXIII was embalmed; Vatican denies he is subject of miracle of incorruptibility.
- Wojtyła, Karol Józef (3 September 2000), Pope John XXIII beatification mass (homily), Rome, IT: Vatican, archived from the original on 26 October 2006.
- "John XXIII", Pope John XXIII (biography), Rome, IT: Vatican.
- "John XXIII", Everything2.
- "Pope John XXIII", Atheism (biography), About.
- "John XXIII (pope)", Britannica (encyclopedia) (online ed.).
- Advocating John XXIII as Righteous Among the Nations, Raoul Wallenberg.
- "John XXIII", Monuments, St Peter’s basilica.
- John XXIII (memorial), Find a grave.
- Pope John XXIII, Intra text: text with concordances and frequency list.
- "Saint of the Day", American Catholic, 11 October 2016.
- Pope John XXIII (news archive), UK: Pathé.
- "Pope John XXIII", Time (magazine), 4 January 1963.
- Texts for the Liturgy of the Hours for the Optional Memorial of St. John XXIII (Latin – English tr. still not published)
President of the Republic of Korea
| The oldest current head of state
April 26, 1960 — June 3, 1963
Acting Head of the Vatican
Benedetto Aloisi Masella
|Catholic Church titles|
| Apostolic Nuncio to France
23 December 1944 – 12 January 1953
| Patriarch of Venice
15 January 1953 – 28 October 1958
28 October 1958 – 3 June 1963