Pope Peter V of Alexandria
Peter V of Alexandria
|Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark|
|Papacy began||2 Jan 1340 AD|
|Papacy ended||6 Jul 1348 AD|
|Consecration||2 Jan 1340 AD|
|Died||6 Jul 1348 AD|
|Buried||Church of the Holy Virgin (Babylon El-Darag)|
|Denomination||Coptic Orthodox Christian|
|Residence||Saint Mercurius Church in Coptic Cairo|
Pope Peter V of Alexandria was the 83rd Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
His episcopate lasted for 8 years, 6 months and 6 days from 2 January 1340 AD (6 Tobi 1056 AM) to 6 July 1348 AD (14 Abib 1064 AM). Upon his death, he was buried in the Church of the Holy Virgin (in Babylon El-Darag – aka Deir Al-Habash دير الحبش بمصر القديمة). The See of St Mark remained vacant for 60 days after his death, until his successor, Pope Mark IV, the 84th Patriarch, was elevated to the episcopal see on 5 September 1348 AD (8 Thout 1064 AM).
In his time, the Papal Residence was at the Church of The Holy Virgin Mary and St Mercurius in Haret Zuweila (حارة زويلة) in Coptic Cairo.
Contemporary Rulers of Egypt During His Episcopate
His time in the Patriarchate coincided with a series of Mamluke leaders (Sultans):
Al-Malik (Sultan) an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (third time) (1309-1340) - (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون)- commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad ( الناصر محمد), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341). He was the ninth Mamluk sultan (Bahri Mamluk Sultan) of Egypt who ruled for three reigns: December 1293–December 1294, 1299–1309, and 1310 until his death in 1341.
Al-Malik (Sultan) al-Mansur Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr (1340-1341) - (الملك المنصور سيف الدين أبو بكر) - better known as al-Mansur Abu Bakr (أبو بكر المنصور/ المنصور أبو بكر), (b. ca. 1321 – d. November 1341). He was the tenth Bahri Mamluk sultan who reigned briefly in 1340- 1341. His father was Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad (r. 1310–41). In June 1341, he became sultan, the first of several sons of an-Nasir Muhammad to accede the throne. However, his reign was short-lived; in August, Abu Bakr was deposed and arrested by his father's senior emir, Qawsun. Abu Bakr was imprisoned in the Upper Egyptian city of Qus, along with several of his brothers, and executed on Qawsun's orders two months later. He was formally succeeded by his younger half-brother, al-Ashraf Kujuk, but Qawsun was left as the strongman of the sultanate.
Sultan al-Ashraf Kujuk Alladin Ben Mohamed (1341-1342) - علاء الدين الأشرف -
Sultan Nasser Shahab El-Dein Ben Mohamed (1342)- أحمد الناصر -
Sultan Saleh Emad Eddin Ben Mohamed (1342-1345) - إسماعيل الصالح -
Sultan Kamil Seif Eddin Ben Mohamed (1345-1346) - شعبان الكامل -
Sultan Muzafar Zein Eddin Ben Mohamed (1346-1347) - ابن نثر المظفر -
Sultan Nasser Hassan Ben Mohamed (first time)(1347-1351) - السلطان حسن
After the repose of his Predecessor Pope Benjamin II (the 82nd Patriarch of Alexandria) on 6 January 1339 AD, the Episcopal Seat remained vacant for about a year (11 months and 26 days). Finally, Boutros ibn Dawood (Peter son of David بطرس ابن داود) was chosen as patriarch under the name Pope Peter V of Alexandria.
His name at birth was Boutros ibn Dawood. He was a monk at the monastery of St Macarius (دير أبى مقار) in the Scetis in the Nitrian Desert who then became a priest of the monastery of Shahran (دير شهران) and finally, he became the 83rd Patriarch on 2 January 1340 AD, towards the end of the reign of Al-Sultan Al-Nasir ibn Qalawun (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون).
Pope Peter V was renowned for his piety and knowledge.
The entire period from the seventh century to the nineteenth century was a period of continual persecution of the Egyptian Church at the hands of various Muslim rulers. This would be punctured with short periods of peace in which the persecution would temporarily drop in intensity.
In his days, as characteristic of the entire period, the Copts suffered from a great deal of persecution. However, the time of Pope Peter V was a time of relative peace compared to the general atmosphere of the era.
In one incidence, in May 1341, in the last days of the reign of Al-Sultan Al-Nasser (he died 7 June 1341 AD), the Sultan ordered a ban on a celebration that the Christians held annually on the 8th of Bashans (May) in the Shubra district. The celebration was known as the feast of the Martyr.
In another incidence, an Islamic judge in one of the cities had imprisoned a Copt, claiming that his grandfather was not a Christian and he wanted him to convert to Islam. He refused and the Copts stormed the prison and brought him out. The city became violent against the Copts. The rioters desecrated the tombs of the Copts and burned the bodies of the dead. As the city descended into disarray, its governor lodged a complaint with the Sultan of Egypt, who removed the Islamic judge.
Also in the final two years of the episcopate of Pope Peter V, in June 1348 AD, a persecution of the Christians broke out in Cairo.
Pope Peter V consecrated the Holy Oil of Chrismation (Miron) twice.
In the third year of his episcopate (1342 AD, 1058 AM), Pope Peter V consecrated the Holy Oil (Miron) in the monastery of St Macarius in the Nitrian Desert (the monastery of Abu Makar) with twelve bishops. As with the Coptic Custom of the day, the consecration of the Holy Oil was held at the Monastery of St Macarius in the final days of Lent (April 1342 AD). The bishops consecrated the Holy Miron on the Great Thursday (April 1342, Baramhat 1058 AD). Among those who attended the consecration with the twelve bishops were a priest named Rev. father Assaad Faraj Allah (القس الأسعد فرج الله ابن القس الأكرم قسيس المعلقة الشيخ المعلم يوحنا بن أخ البابا يوأنس الثامن البطريرك). Another priest and monk who also attended the consecration of the Chrismation Oil were Rev Fr. Gabriel who later succeeded Pope Peter V to the episcopal throne as Pope Mark IV (Episcopate 1348-1363).
In the seventh year of his episcopate (1346 AD, 1062 AM), Pope Peter V consecrated the Oil of Chrismation (Miron) for the second time.
After the pope's return from the Scetis to Cairo following the consecration of the Holy Oil in April 1346 AD, a persecution of the Christians broke out in Cairo, and it lasted for about two years until Pope Peter V departed this world on 6 July 1348 AD.
| Coptic Pope