Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria

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Pope Tawadros II
Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Mark the Evangelist of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Tawadros II of Alexandria.jpg
Pope Tawadros II
Native name
Tawadros II
Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲑⲉⲟ́ⲇⲱⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩ ⲃ̅
البابا تواضروس الثانى
ChurchCoptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
ArchdioceseAlexandria and all of Africa and Asia
ProvinceAlexandria
SeeAlexandria
Papacy began18 November 2012[1]
(9 Hathor 1729)
PredecessorShenouda III
Orders
Ordination1989[1]
(1705–1706)
Consecration15 June 1997[2]
(8 Paoni 1713)
by Shenouda III
Personal details
Birth nameWagih Subhi Baqi Sulayman
وجيه صبحى باقى سليمان
Born (1952-11-04) 4 November 1952 (age 68)[3]
Mansoura, Kingdom of Egypt[3]
NationalityEgyptian
DenominationCoptic Orthodox Christian
ResidenceCoptic Orthodox Patriarchal Residence[4]
Alma materUniversity of Alexandria

Pope Tawadros II (Coptic: Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲑⲉⲟ́ⲇⲱⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩ ⲃ̅', romanized: Papa Abba Theódōrōs II ; Arabic: البابا تواضروس الثاني‎, romanizedal-Bābā Tawāḍurūs al-ṯhānī, lit. 'Pope Theodore II') (born 4 November 1952; 25 Paopi 1668) is the 118th and current pope of Alexandria and patriarch of the See of St. Mark, succeeding the late Pope Shenouda III as leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. He took office on 18 November 2012 (9 Hathor 1729), two weeks after being selected.[5]

Early life[edit]

Pope Tawadros II was born Waǧīh Ṣubḥī Bāqī Sulaymān (Coptic: Ⲟⲩⲁⲅⲓϩ Ⲥ̣ⲟⲩⲃ̣ϩ̣ⲓ Ⲃ̣ⲁⲕ̣ⲓ Ⲥⲟⲗⲟⲙⲱⲛ, Arabic: وجيه صبحى باقى سليمان‎) on 4 November 1952 (25 Paopi 1668) in the city of Mansoura in Egypt.[3] He studied at the University of Alexandria, where he received a degree in pharmacy in 1975.[6] After a few years of managing a state-owned pharmaceutical factory, he joined the Monastery of Saint Pishoy in Wadi Natrun to study theology for two years. He was ordained a priest in 1989 (1705–1706).[1]

Bishop[edit]

On 15 June 1997 (8 Paoni 1713), he was consecrated as a general bishop by his predecessor as pope, Shenouda III, with the Greek name of Theodoros, which translates to Tawadros in Coptic or Theodore in English. Arabic spelling: تاوضروس. He was assigned to serve in the Eparchy of Behira in the northwestern Delta.[7]

Papal selection[edit]

The papal selection process began several weeks before the 18 November/9 Hathor selection. About 2,400 clergymen and others shortlisted three candidates: Bishop Tawadros, former aide to Metropolitan Pachomios; Bishop Raphael, General Bishop in Downtown Cairo; and Father Raphael Ava Mina, a monk in a monastery near Alexandria and disciple of the 116th pope, Cyril VI.[8]

The ceremony to choose the pope from the three consensus candidates was held at Cairo's St. Mark's Cathedral at about noon, with a marked police presence. Metropolitan Pachomios, locum tenens of the Church, put slips bearing the candidates' names in a sealed chalice which was set upon the altar, then led the Divine Liturgy. He told the congregation to "pray that God will choose the good shepherd", and a blindfolded boy took a slip—Tawadros—from the chalice.[5]

Bishop Pachomius formally announced that the sixty-year-old Bishop Tawadros was to be the 118th Pope, and would be Pope Tawadros II, after Pope Tawadros I (r. 730–742), who was consecrated 45th Coptic Patriarch and Pope[9] during Egypt's Umayyad Period (658–750). Tawadros II said, from the monastery at Wadi Natrun, "[We] will start by organising the house from within. It is a responsibility. Most important is ... that the church, as an institution, serves the community".[10] Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi congratulated Tawadros and called for Egyptian "unity" and "brotherly love" between Copts and Muslims.[1] Bishop Raphael, who came first in the election stage of papal selection,[11] was appointed general secretary of the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church.[12]

Papacy[edit]

Ordination history of
Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria
History
Priestly ordination
Date1989
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byPope Shenouda III of Alexandria
Date15 June 1997

Pope Tawadros II started his papacy amid multiple changes in Egypt, saying that the Orthodox Church is committed to keeping Article 2 of Egypt's draft constitution intact, as it was in the old constitution.[13] He later supported the withdrawal of the Egyptian churches from Egypt's Constituent Assembly despite efforts by the presidency to convince them to return.[14]

On Palm Sunday in 2017, Pope Tawadros II celebrated the Divine Liturgy mass at the Cathedral of St. Mark in Alexandria just before the cathedral was bombed. The pope escaped unharmed. The ISIS took responsibility for the attack, killing at least 13 people and injuring at least 21.[15]

Child Sexual Abuse Scandal[edit]

On the 14 of July 2020, Sally Zakhari began a series of posts on Facebook and Instagram (@Sallyzeee & @copticsurvivor) accusing Pope Tawadros of taking part in the systematic coverup of child sexual abuse within the Coptic Church.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] She accused the now defrocked Hegomen priest Reweis Aziz Khalil ( now Youssef Aziz Khalil) of sexual assault. Claiming that she had been assaulted around the age of 11-12 (1998-1999) and that she had reported the incident to many higher members of the church community of St. Mary and Archangel Michael's Coptic Orthodox Church in Orlando Florida.[18]

An investigation was conducted by Fr. Samuel Thabet in Chicago. A leaked redacted report included summaries of interviews from 3 priests and 2 medical doctors, corroborated the claims of Sally. Two priest claimed that they had independently notified Bishop Youssef of the Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States and the Papal Office. They claimed that Bishop Youssef was already aware of 4 other instances involving Khalil. Another priest indicated that he was aware of an incident where Khalil had raped a married woman during confession and also abused several young girls. No legal action or reporting to authorities occurred. The Doctors claimed that they had been put in contact with the victims of Khalil in order to give them psychological councillling. They indicated that they asked the victims not to report the incident in order to not defame the church and to prevent Khalil from being imprisoned and experiencing violence leading to his death in prison.[23]

After receiving the internal church report of Khalil's actions Pope Tawadros did not defrock him. Khalil was sent to Egypt for a few years and returned to serve in North America until the allegations emerged. He was promoted to the title of Hegomen in the meantime.[23]

Within 4 days of Sally's posting on social media, on 18 July 2020, Pope Tawadros finally defrocked Khalil from the priesthood. He refused to excommunicate Khalil because he was repentant.[16]

Sally Zakhari has posted concerning several priests whom she has accused of sexually assaulting minors in the Coptic Church.

  • Priest Shenouda Nawar was suspended from his service in England for sexually assaulting children in Australia on September 3, the day Sally brought the accusations to light[24]
  • Priest Samuel Salah Boulos was put on administrative leave from his service in the Virgin Islands, The public statement stated that considering the allegations and "previous substantiated misconduct" a new investigation would be launched. Again he was not reported to authorities. The report was issued on September 16, 32 days after Sally first accused him of misconduct.
  • Priest Youssef Chehata was accused of assaulting 10 minors. Bishop Karas suspended him after year long investigation in January 2020. He was barred rom serving In the diocese of Pennsylvania following the investigation. He is still a priest and still served in North America. The assaults were not reported to the police.
  • Priest Ishak Solomon and the Southern diocese of the United States were sued by a survivor under the pseudonym Stephanie M. for sexual assault and the coverup thereof in 2011[25]
  • Priest Antonios Baky, the Papal Secretary of the Coptic Orthodox Archdiocese of Northern California and the Western U.S. (ANCW), who was assigned to St. Mary and St. John Coptic Orthodox Church in Pleasanton, CA was put on administrative leave on October 20, 2020 following accusations of misconducts on the Archdiocese's Sexual Misconduct and Physical Abuse and Neglect Policy. Following a request for the notice to be removed from the website by the Baky's lawyers, the request was accepted Bishop David and the order was removed from the website on the same day.[26]

On November 19, 2020, the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP), where they disagreed with the handling of sexual abuse within the Coptic Church, calling on Bishop David and Pope Tawadros to be transparent with their flock. Further they addressed the church's approach to the allegations against Priest Antonios Baky saying "The Church investigation should only be conducted by someone outside of Fr. Baky’s diocese, and that the priest should be removed from ministry pending the outcome."

Views and issues[edit]

Pope Tawadros II has stated that the 2011 Egyptian revolution was a turning point in the Coptic Church's relations with its youth. Amongst his first tasks is the issue of Egypt's changing political landscape, given the new constitution and more independent-minded congregants who seek their demands outside the church in dealing with the state.[1]

In a short televised speech in July 2013 (Paoni 1729), Pope Tawadros II supported the removal of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi and institution of a transitional government dominated by the president of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, Adly Mansour who acted as a temporary president at the time.[27]

Travels[edit]

Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria of the Coptic Orthodox Church received Ignatius Aphrem II Patriarch of Antioch and All East of the Syriac Orthodox Church Aram I Catholicose of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church in Lebanon.

On 8 May 2013 (30 Parmouti 1729), Pope Tawadros II met with Pope Francis, bishop of Rome and supreme pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church, in Vatican City. This was the first meeting of the two recently elected church leaders and only the second gathering of popes in Italy in 1,500 years. The last visit of a Coptic pope to the Vatican occurred on 10 May 1973 (2 Pashons 1689) when then-Pope Shenouda III met with then-Pope Paul VI where they signed an important Christological declaration with the ambition to initiate ecumenical dialogue between the two ancient churches.[28] On 10 May/2 Pashons, Pope Tawadros II and Pope Francis held a shared prayer followed by a reception with the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and other dicasteries of the Roman Curia. Pope Tawadros II also visited the tombs of the Apostle Peter, the first bishop of Antioch, who Roman Catholics hold to be the first pope of the Roman Catholic Church, and the Apostle Paul.[29] Additionally, Pope Tawadros II visited Copts in Rome.[citation needed]

On 27 November 2015 (17 Hathor 1732), Pope Tawadros II made the first Coptic papal visit to Jerusalem since 1832 (1548–1549), especially controversial as Pope Shenouda III had boycotted Jerusalem for four decades over the Arab–Israeli conflict. The purpose of the visit was the funeral of Archbishop Anba Abraham,[30] rather than to formally end the boycott.[31]

On 4 September 2016 (29 Mesori 1732), Pope Tawadros II visited King Abdullah of Jordan at the Royal Palace in Amman, his first visit to Jordan, before attending the general assembly of the Middle East Council of Churches on 6–8 September (1–3 Pi Kogi Enavot). The pope also visited Mount Nebo and the baptism site of John the Baptist, and praised King Abdullah and Jordan for encouraging religious tolerance and protecting holy sites.[32]

In 2017, Pope Tawadros visited the United Kingdom and Ireland.[33]

In September 2017, Pope Tawadros II visited Sydney, Australia for the first time as Pope. On 10 September 2017 (8 Mesori 1733), Pope Tawadros II visited Melbourne to officially open Eporo Tower[34] in the diocese of Melbourne and Affiliated Regions.

Saints[edit]

On 21 February 2015 (Meshir 14, 1731), Pope Tawadros II announced that 21 Copts murdered by the Islamic State in Libya would be commemorated as martyr saints on the 8th of Meshir of the Coptic calendar (15 February of the Gregorian calendar). The commemoration falls on the feast day of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple.[35]

Episcopal genealogy[edit]

Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria, ordained bishop on 15 June 1997 by :

Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, ordained bishop on 30 September 1962 by:[36]

Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria, ordained bishop on 10 May 1959 by:[37]

Bishop Athanasious, Metropolitan of Bany Sweif, ordained bishop in 1925 by:[38]

Pope Cyril V of Alexandria, ordained bishop on 1 November 1874 by:[39]

Bishop Isak, Bishop of Bahnasa, Fayoum and El-Giza, ordained bishop before 1842 by:[40]

Pope Peter VII of Alexandria, ordained bishop in 1809 by:[41]

Pope Mark VIII of Alexandria, ordained bishop on 2 October 1796 by:[42]

Bishop Boutrous, Metropolitan of Gerga and Akhmim, ordained in 1751 by:[43]

Pope Mark VII of Alexandria, ordained on 30 May 1745 by:[44]

Bishop Athanasius, Bishop of Jerusalem, ordained in 1720 by:[45]

Pope Peter VI of Alexandria, ordained bishop in 21 August 1718 by:[46]

Bishop Khristotholos, Metropolitan of Ethiopia, ordained bishop in 1665 by:[47]

Pope Matthew IV of Alexandria, ordained bishop on 6 December 1660 by:[48]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Egypt's Copts choose new pope for uncertain times". The Associated Press. 4 November 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  2. ^ "His Holiness Pope Tawadros II". Coptic Orthodox Diocese of Los Angeles. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "L'évêque Tawadros, nouveau patriarche copte d'Egypte" (in French). Le Parisien. 4 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  4. ^ Link: http://www.copticpope.org Archived 9 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Although the site is mostly in Arabic, the Papal Residence is briefly mentioned in English at the bottom of the Home Page.
  5. ^ a b "Bishop Tawadros new pope of Egypt's Coptic Christians". BBC News. 4 November 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  6. ^ "Tawadros II: The 118th pope of the Coptic Church". Egypt Independent. 4 November 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  7. ^ "Pope Tawadros II". St-Takla.org. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  8. ^ "The New Pope Will Be from These 3 Men". Egyptian Chronicles. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  9. ^ "H.H. Pope Tawadros II is the 118th Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria". St Shenouda Monastery, Sydney, Australia. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  10. ^ "His Holiness Pope Tawadros II". St John Coptic Orthodox Church. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  11. ^ Casper, Jayson (2 November 2012). "Child's Ballot Will Determine November Election—Of Next Coptic Pope". Christianity Today. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  12. ^ "الأنبا رافائيل أسقف عام لكنائس وسط القاهرة، مصر". St-Takla.org (in Arabic). Retrieved 19 September 2016. تم اختيار نيافته سكرتيرًا للمجمع المقدس عام 2012 م. وذلك في بداية حبرية قداسة البابا تواضروس الثاني. حيث سيستمر "سكرتير المجمع" لمدة ثلاثة سنوات، وبعدها يتم اختيار آخر.. وهكذا.. ولكن الأنبا بيشوي قضى في هذه الوظيفة من عام 1985 م. حتى اختيار أنبا رافائيل، وذلك لأن مثلث الرحمات قداسة البابا شنوده الثالث كان يريد نوعًا من الاستقرار في الكنيسة.. وكان الأنبا يوأنس في هذه المهمة قبل الأنبا بيشوي.
  13. ^ Khalil, Imad; Chmais, Yasser; Kassem, Hamdi (13 November 2012). "Coptic Pope Warns of Extremism In Egypt's Constituent Assembly". Al-Monitor. Translated by El-Khoury, Joelle. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  14. ^ "Egypt: Pope Tawadros Receives Presidential Staff Head". allAfrica. 30 November 2012.
  15. ^ Samaan, Magdy; Walsh, Declan (9 April 2017). "Egypt Declares State of Emergency, as Attacks Undercut Promise of Security". Retrieved 26 October 2017 – via www.nytimes.com.
  16. ^ a b "Coptic Orthodox Church defrocks priest over child sexual abuse claims". Egypt Independent. 18 July 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  17. ^ August 07; 2020. "With ouster of priest accused of pedophilia, Coptic Church mobilizes against sexual abuse". Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests. Retrieved 2 October 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ a b "Egyptian Coptic Priest Defrocked Following Allegations of Sexual Abuse, Paedophilia". Egyptian Streets. 19 July 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  19. ^ "Coptic Church strips alleged paedophile priest of clerical status". The National. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  20. ^ "Copts Coming to Grips with Complaints of Sexual Abuse". The Media Line. 27 July 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  21. ^ Thinkers, The Coptic (29 July 2020). "Rebuild My Church: Renewing the Coptic Priesthood". Medium. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  22. ^ Thinkers, The Coptic (29 August 2020). "أعيدوا بناء كنيستي!": تجديد الكهنوت القبطي". Medium. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  23. ^ a b "With ouster of priest accused of pedophilia, Coptic Church confronts sexual abuse". Los Angeles Times. 28 July 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  24. ^ "الجزيرة - مصر". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  25. ^ "Stephanie M. v. COPTIC ORTHODOX DIOCESE, 362 S.W.3d 656 – CourtListener.com". CourtListener. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  26. ^ November 19; 2020. "SNAP Writes to Coptic Orthodox Officials: Group Should Learn from the Mistakes of the Catholic Church". Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests. Retrieved 30 November 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ "Pope Tawadros II Supports Revolution". www.ecumenicalnews.com. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  28. ^ "Pope Francis and Pope Tawadros meet". Catholic Star Herald. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  29. ^ El-Dabh, Basil (10 May 2013). "Pope Francis receives Pope Tawadros II". Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  30. ^ Soffer, Ari (26 November 2015). "Egypt's Coptic Pope makes historic visit to Israel". Israel National News. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  31. ^ "Jerusalem visit of Egypt's Coptic pope stirs divisions". Al Jazeera English. 28 November 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  32. ^ Gadallah, Nevine; Barsoum, Marina (7 September 2016). "Pope Tawadros to MECC: "Hand in hand with moderate Muslims"". Watani. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  33. ^ "Coptic Christian Pope dedicates Drumcondra church". Irish Times. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  34. ^ "Introducing Eporo Tower – La Trobe Street Melbourne". Eporo Tower. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  35. ^ "Coptic Church Recognizes Martyrdom of 21 Coptic Christians". 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  36. ^ "البابا تواضروس الثاني - البطريرك رقم 118 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  37. ^ "البابا شنوده الثالث". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  38. ^ "الأنبا أثناسيوس مطران بني سويف والبهنسا، مصر | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  39. ^ "البابا كيرلس الخامس - البطريرك رقم 112 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  40. ^ "الأنبا إيساك أسقف البهنسا والفيوم والجيزة، مصر | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  41. ^ "البابا بطرس السابع الجاولي - البطريرك رقم 109 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  42. ^ "البابا البابا مرقس الثامن - البطريرك رقم 108 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  43. ^ "الأنبا بطرس مطران جرجا وأخميم، سوهاج | رئيس دير السريان، وادي النطرون، مصر | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  44. ^ "البابا مرقس السابع - البطريرك رقم 106 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  45. ^ "الأنبا أثناسيوس أسقف أورشليم | كرسي القيامة | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  46. ^ "البابا بطرس السادس - البطريرك رقم 104 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  47. ^ "الأنبا خريستوذولوس مطران الحبشة (الأنبا سلامة) ورئيس دير السريان، وادي النطرون، مصر | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  48. ^ "البابا متاؤس الرابع - البطريرك رقم 102 | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org. Retrieved 22 September 2020.

External links[edit]

Oriental Orthodox titles
Preceded by
Shenouda III
Coptic Pope
2012–present
Incumbent