Page protected with pending changes

List of popes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Popes)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St. Peter's (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio no longer identifies popes by regnal number, stating that it is impossible to decide which pope represented the legitimate succession at various times.[1] The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.[2]

The term pope (Latin: papa, lit. 'father') is used in several churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.[3]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Christopher was considered a legitimate pope for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was listed as Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was removed. The decisions of the Council of Pisa (1409) were reversed in 1963 in a reinterpretation of the Western Schism, extending Gregory XII's pontificate to 1415 and classifying rival claimants Alexander V and John XXIII as antipopes.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

Chronological list of popes[edit]

1st millennium[edit]

1st century[edit]

Popes of the 1st century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
1 30–33 – 64–68 St Peter
Sanctus PETRVS
AD 1 Bethsaida, Galilea, Roman Empire[birth 1] 29–32 / 62–67 Born Jewish. First pope. Apostle of Jesus. According to Catholic tradition he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 16:18–19). Feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. He is recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.[4] St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is named after him.
2 64–68 – 76–79 St Linus
LINVS
10 AD Volterrae, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 2] 54–58 / 66–69 First Roman pope.[5] Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
3 76–79 – 88–91 St Anacletus
(Cletus)
ANACLETVS (CLETVS)
25 AD Athenae, Achaea, Roman Empire[birth 3] 51–54 / 63–66 First Greek pope. Feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus.[6]
4 26 April 88 –
23 November 99
(11 years, 211 days)
St Clement I
CLEMENS
c. 35 AD Roma, Italy, Roman Empire[birth 4] 53 / 64 (†66) Roman. Feast day 23 November. Issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November. He was martyred by being tied to an anchor and being thrown in the sea.
5 23 November 99 –
27 October 105
(5 years, 338 days)
St Evaristus
EVARISTVS
c. 30 AD Bethlehem, Iudaea, Roman Empire[birth 5] 69 / 75 Hellenized Jew. Said to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.

2nd century[edit]

Popes of the 2nd century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
6 27 October 105 –
3 May 115
(9 years, 188 days)
St Alexander I
ALEXANDER
c. 75 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 30 / 40 Roman. Inaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 March.
7 3 May 115 –
3 April 125
(9 years, 335 days)
St Sixtus I
XYSTVS
42 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 73 / 83 Greek. Feast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
8 3 April 125 –
5 January 136
(10 years, 277 days)
St Telesphorus
TELESPHORVS
c. 67 AD Terra Nova, Italy, Roman Empire 58 / 69 Greek. Feast day of 5 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 22 February. Church Father St. Irenaeus called him a great martyr.
9 5 January 136 –
11 January 140
(4 years, 6 days)
St Hyginus
HYGINVS
c. 74 Athens, Achaea, Roman Empire[birth 3] 58 / 62 Greek. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 11 January.
10 11 January 140 –
11 July 155
(15 years, 181 days)
St Pius I
PIVS
c. 81 AD Aquileia, Italy, Roman Empire[birth 6] 59 / 74 Roman, brother of Hermas. Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
11 11 July 155 –
20 April 166
(10 years, 283 days)
St Anicetus
ANICETVS
c. 92 AD Emesa, Syria, Roman Empire[birth 7] 63 / 74 Hellenized Syrian; first Syrian pope. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
12 20 April 166 –
22 April 174
(8 years, 2 days)
St Soter
SOTERIVS
c. 119 AD Fundi, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 6] 46 / 55 Greek. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
13 22 April 174 –
26 May 189
(15 years, 34 days)
St Eleutherius
ELEVTHERIVS
c. 130 AD Nicopolis, Epirus, Roman Empire[birth 8] 45 / 59 Greek. Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 6 May.
14 26 May 189 –
28 July 199
(10 years, 63 days)
St Victor I
VICTOR
c. 155 AD Africa, Roman Empire[birth 9] 34 / 44 Roman Berber; first pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. Known for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
15 28 July 199 –
20 December 217
(18 years, 145 days)
St Zephyrinus
ZEPHYRINVS
c. 160 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 39 / 57 Roman. Combated against the adoptionist heresies of the followers of Theodotus the Byzantium who were ruled by Theodotus and Asclepiodotus.

Although not physically martyred (murdered), he is called a martyr for the suffering he endured.

c. 199 –
c. 200
(1 year, 0 days)
Natalius
NATALIVS
Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] Roman. In opposition to pope Zephyrinus. Later reconciled (see above).

3rd century[edit]

Popes of the 3rd century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
16 20 December 217 –
14 October 222
(4 years, 298 days)
St Callixtus I
CALLIXTVS
c. 155 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 62 / 67 Greek. Martyred; feast day 14 October.
217 –
235
(18 years, 0 days)
St Hippolytus
HIPPOLYTVS
c. 170 AD Asia Minor, Roman Empire 47 / 65 Greek. In opposition to Callistus I, Urban I and Pontian. Later reconciled with Pontian (see below).
17 14 October 222 –
23 May 230
(7 years, 221 days)
St Urban I
VRBANVS
c. 175 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 47 / 55 Roman. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
18 21 August 230 –
28 September 235
(5 years, 38 days)
St Pontian
PONTIANVS
c. 175 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 55 / 60 Roman. First to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his death on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.[8][9]
19 21 November 235 –
3 January 236
(43 days)
St Anterus
ANTERVS
c. 180 AD Petelia, Italy, Roman Empire 55 / 56 Greek. Feast day 3 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
20 10 January 236 –
20 January 250
(14 years, 10 days)
St Fabian
FABIANVS
c. 200 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 36 / 50 Roman. Divided the communities of Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
21 6 March 251 –
25 June 253
(2 years, 111 days)
St Cornelius
CORNELIVS
c. 180 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 71 / 73 Roman. Died as a martyr through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September.
March 251 –
258
(7 years, 0 days)
Novatian
NOVATIANVS
c. 200–20 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 31–51 / 38–58 Roman. Founder of Novatianism. In opposition to Cornelius, Lucius I, Stephen I and Sixtus II.
22 25 June 253 –
5 March 254
(253 days)
St Lucius I
LUCIVS
c. 200 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 48 / 49 Roman. Feast day 5 March.
23 12 March 254 –
2 August 257
(3 years, 143 days)
St Stephen I
STEPHANVS
c. 205 AD Rome, Italia, Roman Empire[birth 4] 54 / 57 Greek. Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
24 30 August 257 –
6 August 258
(341 days)
St Sixtus II
XYSTVS Secundus
c. 215 AD Athens, Achaea, Roman Empire[birth 3] 42 / 43 Greek. Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
25 22 July 259 –
26 December 268
(9 years, 157 days)
St Dionysius
DIONYSIVS
c. 200 AD Terra Nova, Italy, Roman Empire 59 / 68 Greek. Feast day 26 December.
26 5 January 269 –
30 December 274
(5 years, 359 days)
St Felix I
FELIX
c. 206 AD Rome, Italy Roman Empire[birth 4] 63 / 68 Roman.
27 4 January 275 –
7 December 283
(8 years, 337 days)
St Eutychian
EVTYCHIANVS
c. 240 AD Luna, Italy, Roman Empire (Now Luni, Italy) 35 / 43 Roman.
28 17 December 283 –
22 April 296
(12 years, 127 days)
St Caius
CAIVS
c. 245 AD Salona, Dalmatia, Roman Empire 38 / 51 Roman. Martyred by beheading (according to legend). Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
29 30 June 296 –
26 April 304
(7 years, 301 days)
St Marcellinus
MARCELLINVS
c. 250 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire[birth 4] 46 / 54 Roman. Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century[edit]

Popes of the 4th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
30 27 May 308 –
16 January 309
(234 days)
St Marcellus I
MARCELLVS
c. 255 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire[birth 4] 53 / 54 Roman. Banished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
31 18 April 309 –
17 August 310
(1 year, 121 days)
St Eusebius
EVSEBIVS
c. 255 AD Sardinia, Roman Empire 54 / 54 (†55) Greek. Banished by the emperor Maxentius, and died in exile.
32 2 July 311 –
10 January 314
(2 years, 192 days)
St Miltiades
(Melchiades)
MILTIADES
c. 270 AD Africa, Roman Empire 41 / 44 Roman Berber. First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
33 31 January 314 –
31 December 335
(21 years, 334 days)
St Sylvester I
SILVESTER
c. 285 AD Fanum Sancti Angeli de Scala, Apulia et Calabria, Roman Empire 29 / 50 Roman. Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea (325). Under him was built: the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St. Peter's Basilica. Stated to be the recipient of the Donation of Constantine, which was later shown to be a forgery.
34 18 January 336 –
7 October 336
(263 days)
St Mark
MARCVS
c. 290 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 46 / 46 Roman. One of Mark's undertakings was to compile stories of the lives of martyrs and bishops before his time. There is some reason to believe he founded two churches in the area of Rome. One of them is still known to this day as the Church of San Marco, although it is greatly changed since his time. The other church was at the Catacomb of Balbina, a cemetery. Emperor Constantine gave gifts of land and furnishing for both buildings. Feast day 7 October.
35 6 February 337 –
12 April 352
(15 years, 66 days)
St Julius I
IVLIVS
c. 280 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 57 / 72 Roman. He was involved in the Arian controversy. Credited with splitting the birth of Christ into two distinct celebrations: The Epiphany stayed on the traditional date, and the Nativity was added on 25 December.
36 17 May 352 –
24 September 366
(14 years, 130 days)
Liberius
LIBERIVS
c. 310 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 42 / 56 Roman. Earliest pope not canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.[10]
355 –
22 November 365
(10 years, 0 days)
Felix II
FELIX Secundus
c. 300 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 55 / 65 Roman. In opposition to Pope Liberius. Installed by Roman Emperor Constantius II.
37 1 October 366 –
11 December 384
(18 years, 71 days)
St Damasus I
DAMASVS
Damasus c. 305 AD Egitania, Lusitania or Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 60 / 78
1 October 366 –
16 November 367
(1 year, 46 days)
Ursinus
VRSINVS
Rome, Italy, Roman Empire Roman. In opposition to Damasus I. Banished to Gallia by Emperor Valentinian II after a war between two sects and died after 384.
38 17 December 384 –
26 November 399
(14 years, 344 days)
St Siricius
SIRICIVS
c. 334 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 50 / 65 Roman. His famous letters—the earliest surviving texts of papal decretals—focus particularly on religious discipline and include decisions on baptism, consecration, ordination, penance, and continence. Siricius’ important decretal of 386 (written to Bishop Himerius of Tarragona), commanding celibacy for priests, was the first decree on this subject.[11]
39 27 November 399 –
19 December 401
(2 years, 22 days)
St Anastasius I
ANASTASIVS
c. 340 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 59 / 61 Roman. Instructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the Gospels.

5th century[edit]

Popes of the 5th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
40 21 December 401 –
12 March 417
(15 years, 81 days)
St Innocent I
INNOCENTIVS
c. 378 AD Albanum, Latium et Campania, Roman Empire 41 / 57 Roman. Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric I.
41 18 March 417 –
26 December 418
(1 year, 283 days)
St Zosimus
ZOSIMVS
c. 370 AD Messurga, Lucania et Bruttii, Roman Empire 47 / 48 Greek.
27 December 418 –
3 April 419
(97 days)
Eulalius
EVLALIVS
c. 350–80 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 68–38 / 69–39 (†72–42) Roman. In opposition to Pope Boniface I. Elected on the eve of the election of Boniface, first benefited from the support of the emperor Honorius, but lost it quickly. Exiled in Campania, and died in 423.
42 28 December 418 –
4 September 422
(3 years, 250 days)
St Boniface I
BONIFACIVS
c. 377 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 43 / 47 Roman.
43 10 September 422 –
27 July 432
(9 years, 321 days)
St Celestine I
CAELESTINVS
c. 380 AD Campania, Roman Empire 42 / 52 Roman. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
44 31 July 432 –
18 August 440
(8 years, 18 days)
St Sixtus III
XYXTVS Tertius
c. 390 AD Rome, Italy, Roman Empire 42 / 50 Roman.
45 29 September 440 –
10 November 461
(21 years, 42 days)
St Leo I
(Leo the Great)
LEO MAGNVS
c. 390 AD Etruria, Italia, Roman Empire 50 / 71 Roman. Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
46 19 November 461 –
29 February 468
(6 years, 102 days)
St Hilary
HILARIVS
c. 400 AD Sardinia, Italy, Western Roman Empire 46 / 53 Roman.
47 3 March 468 –
10 March 483
(15 years, 7 days)
St Simplicius
SIMPLICIVS
c. 430 AD Tibur, Italy, Western Roman Empire 38 / 53 Roman. Papacy during the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent overtaking of Rome and Italy in general by Odoacer.
48 13 March 483 –
1 March 492
(8 years, 354 days)
St Felix III
FELIX Tertius
c. 440 AD Rome, Italy, Western Roman Empire 43 / 52 Imperial Roman pope. Sometimes called Felix II. Great-great-grandfather of pope Gregory I.
49 1 March 492 –
21 November 496
(4 years, 265 days)
St Gelasius I
GELASIVS
c. 410 AD Mons Ferratus, Quinquegentiani, Africa, Western Roman Empire 82 / 86 Roman Berber; the last pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. The first pope called the "Vicar of Christ".[12]
50 24 November 496 –
19 November 498
(1 year, 360 days)
Anastasius II
ANASTASIVS Secundus
c. 445 AD Rome, Italy, Western Roman Empire 51 / 53 Greek. Tried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism.
51 22 November 498 –
19 July 514
(15 years, 239 days)
St Symmachus
SYMMACHVS
c. 460 AD Sardinia, Italy, Western Roman Empire 38 / 54 Roman.
22 November 498 –
Aug 506/8
(7 years, 252 days)
Laurence
LAVRENTIVS
c. 460 AD Rome, Italy, Western Roman Empire 38 / 46 (†48) Roman. In opposition to Symmachus. Elected on the same day as Symachus, King Theodoric settled in favor of his adversary. Took control of Rome in 501 and remained pope in fact until he died in 506/08.

6th century[edit]

Popes of the 6th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
52 20 July 514 –
6 August 523
(9 years, 17 days)
St Hormisdas
HORMISDAS
c. 450 AD Frusino, Italy, Western Roman Empire 64 / 73 Roman. Father of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
53 13 August 523 –
18 May 526
(2 years, 278 days)
St John I
IOANNES
c. 470 AD Sena Iulia, Italy, Western Roman Empire 53 / 56 Roman.
54 12 July 526 –
22 September 530
(4 years, 72 days)
St Felix IV
FELIX Quartus
c. 490 AD Samnium, Kingdom of Odoacer 36 / 40 Roman. Sometimes called Felix III. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
55 22 September 530 –
17 October 532
(2 years, 25 days)
Boniface II
BONIFACIVS Secundus
c. 490 AD Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 40 / 42 Ostrogoth; first Germanic pope. Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
22 September 530 –
14 October 530
(22 days)
Dioscore
DIOSCORVS
Alexandria, Aegyptus, Eastern Roman Empire Greek. In opposition to Pope Boniface II. Candidate of the Byzantine party, elected by the majority of the cardinals and recognized by Constantinople, he died less than a month after his election.
56 2 January 533 –
8 May 535
(2 years, 126 days)
John II
IOANNES Secundus
c. 473 AD Rome, Western Roman Empire 63 / 65 Roman. First pope not to use his personal name, as it was associated with a Roman god, Mercury.
57 13 May 535 –
22 April 536
(356 days)
St Agapetus I
AGAPETVS
c. 490 AD Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 45 / 46 Roman. Feast days 22 April and 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
58 8 June 536 –
11 March 537
(276 days)
St Silverius
SILVERIVS
c. 480 AD Cicanum, Ostrogothic Kingdom 56 / 57 Roman. Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Hormisdas.
59 29 March 537 –
7 June 555
(18 years, 70 days)
Vigilius
VIGILIVS
c. 500 AD Rome, Kingdom of Odoacer 37 / 55 Roman.
60 16 April 556 –
4 March 561
(4 years, 322 days)
Pelagius I
PELAGIVS
c. 505 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 51 / 56 Roman. Credited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
61 17 July 561 –
13 July 574
(12 years, 361 days)
John III
IOANNES Tertius
c. 520 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 41 / 54 Roman.
62 2 June 575 –
30 July 579
(4 years, 58 days)
Benedict I
BENEDICTVS
c. 525 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 50 / 54 Roman.
63 26 November 579 –
7 February 590
(10 years, 73 days)
Pelagius II
PELAGIVS Secundus
c. 520 AD Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom 59 / 70 Romanized Ostrogoth. Ordered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
64 3 September 590 –
12 March 604
(13 years, 191 days)
St Gregory I
(Gregory the Great)
GREGORIVS MAGNVS
c. 540 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 50 / 64 Last imperial Roman Pope. Great-great-grandson of pope Felix III. The first formally to employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St. Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.

7th century[edit]

Popes of the 7th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
65 13 September 604 –
22 February 606
(1 year, 162 days)
Sabinian
SABINIANVS
c. 530 AD Blera, Eastern Roman Empire 74 / 76 Roman. For the next two centuries the Roman popes were all controlled by the Byzantine Empire.
66 19 February 607 –
12 November 607
(266 days)
Boniface III
BONIFACIVS Tertius
c. 540 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 67 / 67 Greek.
67 15 September 608 –
8 May 615
(6 years, 235 days)
St Boniface IV
BONIFACIVS Quartus
c. 550 AD Marsica, Eastern Roman Empire 58 / 65 Roman. First pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
68 13 November 615 –
8 November 618
(2 years, 360 days)
St Adeodatus I
ADEODATVS or DEVSDEDIT
c. 570 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 55 / 58 Roman. Sometimes called Deusdedit. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called papal bulls.
69 23 December 619 –
25 October 625
(5 years, 306 days)
Boniface V
BONIFACIVS Quintus
c. 575 AD Neapolis, Eastern Roman Empire 44 / 50 Roman.
70 27 October 625 –
12 October 638
(12 years, 350 days)
Honorius I
HONORIVS
c. 585 AD Ceperanum, Campania, Eastern Roman Empire 40 / 53 Roman. Named a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople. (680)
71 28 May 640 –
2 August 640
(66 days)
Severinus
SEVERINVS
c. 585 AD Rome, Eastern Roman Empire 55 / 55 Roman.
72 24 December 640 –
12 October 642
(1 year, 292 days)
John IV
IOANNES Quartus
c. 587 AD Iadera, Dalmatia, Eastern Roman Empire 40 / 42 Roman.
73 24 November 642 –
14 May 649
(6 years, 171 days)
Theodore I
THEODORVS
c. 610 AD Hierosolyma, Eastern Roman Empire 32 / 39 Greek. The last pope from Palestine. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but died before it could open.
74 5 July 649 –
12 November 655
(6 years, 130 days)
St Martin I
MARTINVS
c. 590 AD Near Tuder, Umbria, Eastern Roman Empire 59 / 65 Roman. Last pope recognized as a martyr. Feast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
75 10 August 654 –
2 June 657
(2 years, 296 days)
St Eugene I
EVGENIVS
c. 615 AD Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
39 / 42 Roman.
76 30 July 657 –
27 January 672
(14 years, 181 days)
St Vitalian
VITALIANVS
c. 600 Signia, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
57 / 72 Roman.
77 11 April 672 –
17 June 676
(4 years, 67 days)
Adeodatus II
ADEODATVS Secundus
c. 621 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
51 / 55 Roman. Sometimes called Adeodatus, without a number, in reference to Adeodatus I sometimes being called Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
78 2 November 676 –
11 April 678
(1 year, 160 days)
Donus
DONVS
c. 610 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
66 / 68 Roman.
79 27 June 678 –
10 January 681
(2 years, 197 days)
St Agatho
AGATHO
c. 577 Panormus, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire 101 / 104 Greek. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
80 17 August 682 –
3 July 683
(320 days)
St Leo II
LEO Secundus
c. 611 Aydonum, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire 71 / 72 Greek. Feast day 3 July.
81 26 June 684 –
8 May 685
(316 days)
St Benedict II
BENEDICTVS Secundus
c. 635 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
49 / 50 Roman. Feast day 7 May.
82 23 July 685 –
2 August 686
(1 year, 10 days)
John V
IOANNES Quintus
c. 635 Antiochia, Syria, Eastern Roman Empire 50 / 51 Greek.
83 21 October 686 –
21 September 687
(335 days)
Conon
CONON
c. 630 Thracia, Eastern Roman Empire 56 / 57 Greek.
84 15 December 687 –
8 September 701
(13 years, 267 days)
St Sergius I
SERGIVS
c. 650 Palermo, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire 37 / 51 Hellenized Syrian. Introduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass.[12]

8th century[edit]

Popes of the 8th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
85 30 October 701 –
11 January 705
(3 years, 73 days)
(1169)
John VI
IOANNES Sextus
Ioannes c. 650 Ephesus, Eastern Roman Empire 46 / 50 Greek. The only pope who came from Asia Minor.
86 1 March 705 –
18 October 707
(2 years, 231 days)
(961)
Byzantinischer Mosaizist um 705 002.jpg John VII
IOANNES Septimus
Ioannes c. 655 Rossanum, Calabria, Eastern Roman Empire 55 / 57 Greek. The second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
87 15 January 708 –
4 February 708
(20 days)
(20)
Sisinnius
SISINNIVS
Sisinnius c. 650 Syria, Rashidun Caliphate 58 / 58 Syrian.
88 25 March 708 –
9 April 715
(7 years, 15 days)
(2571)
Constantine
CONSTANTINVS
Constantinus c. 664 Syria, Umayyad Caliphate 44 / 51 Syrian. Last pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001.
89 19 May 715 –
11 February 731
(15 years, 268 days)
(5747)
St Gregory II
GREGORIVS Secundus
Gregorius c. 669 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
46 / 62 Roman. Feast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
90 18 March 731 –
28 November 741
(10 years, 255 days)
(3908)
St Gregory III
GREGORIVS Tertius
Gregorius c. 669 Syria, Umayyad Caliphate 41 / 51 Syrian; the last pope from Syria. The third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Was previously the last pope to have been born outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
91 3 December 741 –
22 March 752
(10 years, 110 days)
(3762)
St Zachary
ZACHARIAS
Zacharias c. 679 Sancta Severina, Calabria, Eastern Roman Empire 62 / 73 Greek. Feast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
22 March 752 –
25 March 752
(3)
(Never took office as pope)
Stephen
STEPHANUS
Stephanus c. 700 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
52 / 52 Roman. Previously known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election, having never received episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
92 26 March 752 –
26 April 757
(5 years, 31 days)
(1857)
Stephen II
STEPHANVS Secundus
Stephanus c. 714 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
38 / 43 Roman. Sometimes called Stephen III. The Donation of Pepin. Brother of Paul I.
93 29 May 757 –
28 June 767
(10 years, 30 days)
(3682)
St Paul I
PAVLVS
Paulus c. 700 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
57 / 67 Roman. Brother of Stephen II.
94 7 August 768 –
24 January 772
(3 years, 170 days)
(1265)
Stephen III
STEPHANVS Tertius
Stephanus c. 723 Syracuse, Sicily, Eastern Roman Empire 45 / 49 Greek. Sometimes called Stephen IV. He summoned the Lateran Council (769).
95 1 February 772 –
26 December 795
(23 years, 328 days)
(8729)
Adrian I
HADRIANVS
Hadrianus a. 700–12 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
72–60 / 95–83 Roman.
96 26 December 795 –
12 June 816
(20 years, 169 days)
(7474)
Leo III Mosaic.jpg St Leo III
LEO Tertius
Leo c. 750 Rome, Duchy of Rome
(formally Eastern Roman Empire)
45 / 66 Roman. Crowned Charlemagne emperor on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the Holy Roman Empire, requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its ruler's legitimacy.

9th century[edit]

Popes of the 9th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
97 22 June 816 –
24 January 817
(216 days)
(216)
Stephen IV
STEPHANVS Quartus
c. 770 Rome, Papal States 46 / 47 First pope born in Rome after breaking away from the Roman Empire. Sometimes called Stephen V.
98 25 January 817 –
11 February 824
(7 years, 17 days)
(2573)
St Paschal I
PASCHALIS
c. 775 Rome, Papal States 42 / 49 Italian. Son of Bonosus and Episcopa Theodora. Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
99 8 May 824 –
27 August 827
(3 years, 111 days)
(1206)
Eugene II
EVGENIVS Secundus
c. 780 Rome, Papal States 44 / 47 Italian.
100 31 August 827 –
10 October 827
(40 days)
(40)
Valentine
VALENTINVS
c. 780 Rome, Papal States 47 / 47 Italian.
101 20 December 827 –
25 January 844
(16 years, 36 days)
(5880)
Gregory IV
GREGORIVS Quartus
c. 790 Rome, Papal States 37 / 54 Italian. Rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter’s Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory I.
102 25 January 844 –
27 January 847
(3 years, 2 days)
(1098)
Sergius II
SERGIVS Secundus
c. 790 Rome, Papal States 54 / 57 Italian.
103 10 April 847 –
17 July 855
(8 years, 98 days)
(3020)
St Leo IV
LEO Quartus
c. 790 Rome, Papal States 57 / 65 Lombard. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
104 29 September 855 –
17 April 858
(2 years, 200 days)
(931)
Benedict III
BENEDICTVS Tertius
c. 810 Rome, Papal States 45 / 48 Italian.
105 24 April 858 –
13 November 867
(9 years, 203 days)
(3490)
St Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
NICOLAVS MAGNVS
c. 800 Rome, Papal States 39 / 48 Italian. Encouraged missionary activity.
106 14 December 867 –
14 December 872
(5 years, 0 days)
(1827)
Adrian II
HADRIANVS Secundus
c. 792 Rome, Papal States 75 / 80 Italian.
107 14 December 872 –
16 December 882
(10 years, 2 days)
(3654)
John VIII
IOANNES Octavus
c. 820 Rome, Papal States 52 / 62 Italian. First pope to be assassinated.
108 16 December 882 –
15 May 884
(1 year, 151 days)
(516)
Marinus I
MARINVS
c. 830 Gallese, Papal States 52 / 54 Italian. Erroneously also known as Martin II.
109 17 May 884 –
15 September 885
(1 year, 121 days)
(486)
St Adrian III
HADRIANVS Tertius
c. 830 Rome, Papal States 49 / 50 Italian. Feast day 8 July. Adrian I was possibly his ancestor.
110 14 September 885 –
4 September 891
(5 years, 355 days)
(2181)
Stephen V
STEPHANVS Quintus
c. 840 Rome, Papal States 45 / 51 Italian. Sometimes called Stephen VI.
111 6 October 891 –
4 April 896
(4 years, 181 days)
(1642)
Formosus
FORMOSVS
c. 805–16 Ostia, Papal States 75–85 / 80–91 Italian. In early 897 posthumously executed following the Cadaver Synod. His body was reburied with full Christian honors in 897.
112 11 April 896 –
26 April 896
(15 days)
(15)
Boniface VI
BONIFATIVS Sextus
c. 806 Rome, Papal States 90 / 90 Italian.
113 22 May 896 –
14 August 897
(1 year, 84 days)
(449)
Stephen VI
STEPHANVS
c. 850 Rome, Papal States 46 / 47 Italian. Sometimes called Stephen VII. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
114 14 August 897 –
Nov 897
(92 days)
(92)
Romanus
ROMANVS
c. 850 Gallese, Papal States 47 / 47 Italian.
115 December 897 –
20 December 897
(19 days)
(19)
Theodore II
THEODORVS Secundus
c. 840 Rome, Papal States 57 / 57 Greek.
116 18 January 898 –
5 January 900
(1 year, 352 days)
(717)
John IX
IOANNES Nonus
c. 840 Tivoli, Papal States 58 / 60 Lombard. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
117 1 February 900 –
30 July 903
(3 years, 179 days)
(1274)
Benedict IV
BENEDICTVS Quartus
c. 840 Rome, Papal States 60 / 63 Italian.

10th century[edit]

Popes of the 10th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Name: English
· Latin
Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
118 30 July 903 –
Dec 903
(124 days)
(124)
Leo V
LEO Quintus
c. 845 Ardea, Papal States 58 / 58 (†59) Italian. Deposed and murdered.
October 903 –
January 904
(92 days)
(92)
Christopher
CHRISTOFORO
Rome, Papal States Italian. In opposition to Leo V.
119 29 January 904 –
14 April 911
(7 years, 75 days)
(2632)
Sergius III
SERGIVS Tertius
c. 860 Rome, Papal States 44 / 51 Italian. "Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
120 14 April 911 –
June 913
(2 years, 48 days)
(779)
Anastasius III
ANASTASIVS Tertius
c. 865 Rome, Papal States 46 / 48 Italian.
121 7 July 913 –
5 February 914
(213 days)
(213)
Lando
LANDO
c. 865 Sabina, Papal States 48 / 49 Italian.
122 March 914 –
28 May 928
(14 years, 88 days)
(5202)
John X
IOANNES Decimus
c. 860 Tossignano, Papal States 54 / 68 Italian.
123 28 May 928 –
Dec 928
(187 days)
(187)
Leo VI
LEO Sextus
c. 880 Rome, Papal States 48 / 48 Italian.
124 3 February 929 –
13 February 931
(2 years, 10 days)
(740)
Stephen VII
STEPHANVS Septimus
c. 880 Rome, Papal States 49 / 51 Italian. Sometimes called Stephen VIII.
125 15 March 931 –
Dec 935
(4 years, 261 days)
(1722)
John XI
IOANNES Undecimus
c. 910 Rome, Papal States 21 / 25 Italian. Probably, according to the Liber Pontificalis and Liutprand of Cremona, the son of Pope Sergius III, and not of Alberic I of Spoleto, who was Marozia's husband.
126 3 January 936 –
13 July 939
(3 years, 191 days)
(1287)
Leo VII
LEO Septimus
c. 885 Rome, Papal States 41 / 44 Italian. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
127 14 July 939 –
30 October 942
(3 years, 108 days)
(1204)
Stephen VIII
STEPHANVS Octavus
c. 900 Rome, Papal States 39 / 42 Italian. Sometimes called Stephen IX.
128 30 October 942 –
1 May 946
(3 years, 183 days)
(1279)
Marinus II
MARINVS Secundus
c. 900 Rome, Papal States 42 / 46 Italian.
129 10 May 946 –
8 November 955
(9 years, 182 days)
(3469)
Agapetus II
AGAPETVS Secundus
c. 905 Rome, Papal States 41 / 50 Italian.
130 16 December 955 –
6 December 963
(8 years, 356 days)
(3278)
John XII
IOANNES Duodecimus
c. 930–37 Rome, Papal States 18–25 / 26–33 Italian. Third pope not to use his personal name (Octavian). Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
6 December 963 –
26 February 964
(82 days)
(82)
Leo VIII
LEO Octavus
c. 915 Rome, Papal States 48 / 49 Italian. Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. His pontificate after the deposition of Benedict V is considered legitimate by the modern Catholic Church.
130 26 February 964 –
14 May 964
(78 days)
(78)
John XII
IOANNES Duodecimus
c. 937 Rome, Papal States 27 / 27 Italian. Murdered in 964.
131 22 May 964 –
23 June 964
(32 days)
(32)
Benedict V
BENEDICTVS Quintus
c. 915 Rome, Papal States 49 / 49 (†50) Italian. Elected by the people of Rome, in opposition to Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo VIII as the sole pope.
132 23 June 964 –
1 March 965
(251 days)
(251)
Leo VIII
LEO Octavus
c. 915 Rome, Papal States 49 / 50 Italian. His pontificate from 963 to 964 is considered illegitimate by today's Catholic Church. An appointee of Emperor Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
133 1 October 965 –
6 September 972
(6 years, 341 days)
(2532)
John XIII
IOANNES Tertius Decimus
c. 930 Rome, Papal States 45 / 52 Italian. Chronicled after his death as "the Good".
134 19 January 973 –
8 June 974
(1 year, 140 days)
(505)
Benedict VI
BENEDICTVS Sextus
c. 925 Rome, Papal States 48 / 49 Lombard. Deposed and murdered.
July 974 –
July 974
(30 days)
(30)
Boniface VII
BONFATIUS Septinus
Rome, Papal States Italian, born Francone Ferucci. In opposition to Benedict VI and Benedict VII.
135 October 974 –
10 July 983
(8 years, 282 days)
(3204)
Benedict VII
BENEDICTVS Septimus
c. 930 Rome, Papal States 44 / 53 Italian.
136 December 983 –
20 August 984
(263 days)
(263)
John XIV
IOANNES Quartus Decimus
c. 940 Pavia, Kingdom of Italy, Holy Roman Empire 43 / 44 Italian. Fourth pope not to use his personal name (Pietro Canepanova).
20 August 984 –
20 July 985
(334 days)
(334)
Boniface VII
BONFATIUS Septinus
Rome, Papal States Italian. In opposition to John XIV and John XV
137 20 August 985 –
1 April 996
(10 years, 225 days)
(3877)
John XV
IOANNES Quintus Decimus
c. 950 Rome, Papal States 35 / 46 Italian. The first pope to formally canonize a saint.
138 3 May 996 –
18 February 999
(2 years, 291 days)
(1021)
Gregory V
GREGORIVS Quintus
c. 972 Stainach, Duchy of Carinthia, Holy Roman Empire 24 / 27 The first official German pope and fifth not to use his personal name (Bruno). Henceforth, this decision became tradition among future popes.
April 997 –
February 998
(306 days)
(306)
John XVI
IOANNES Sextus Decimus
c. 941 Rossanum, Calabria, Italy, Eastern Roman Empire 55 / 56 (†60) Greek. In opposition to Gregory V
139 2 April 999 –
12 May 1003
(4 years, 40 days)
(1500)
Sylvester II
SILVESTER Secundus
c. 940–42 Belliac, France 52–54 / 56–58 Born Gerbert, the first French (Occitan) pope.

2nd millennium[edit]

11th century[edit]

Popes of the 11th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
140 16 May 1003 –
6 November 1003
(174 days)
John XVII
IOANNES Septimus Decimus
Siccone Secchi c. 955 Rome, Papal States 48 / 48 Italian.
141 25 December 1003 –
18 July 1009
(5 years, 205 days)
John XVIII
IOANNES Duodevicesimus
Giovanni Fasano c. 965 Rapagnano,
Papal States
43 / 49 Italian.
142 31 July 1009 –
12 May 1012
(2 years, 286 days)
Sergius IV
SERGIVS Quartus
Pietro Martino Boccadiporco
O.S.B.
c. 970 Rome, Papal States 39 / 42 Italian.
12 June 1012 –
31 December 1012
(202 days)
Gregory VI
GREGORIVS Sextus
Gregorio Rome, Papal States Italian. In opposition to Benedict VIII
143 18 May 1012 –
9 April 1024
(11 years, 327 days)
Benedict VIII
BENEDICTVS Octavus
Teofilatto di Tuscolo c. 980 Rome, Papal States 32 / 44 Italian.
144 14 May 1024 –
6 October 1032
(8 years, 145 days)
John XIX
IOANNES Undevicesimus
Romano di Tuscolo c. 975 Rome, Papal States 49 / 57 Italian. Brother of Benedict VIII.
145 21 October 1032 –
31 December 1044
(12 years, 71 days)
Benedict IX
BENEDICTVS Nonus
Teofilatto di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 20 / 32 (†43) Italian; first term.
146 13 January 1045 –
10 March 1045
(56 days)
Sylvester III
SILVESTER Tertius
Giovanni dei Crescenzi Ottaviani c. 1000 Rome, Papal States 45 / 45 (†63) Italian. Validity of election questioned; considered antipope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
147 10 March 1045 –
1 May 1045
(52 days)
Benedict IX
BENEDICTVS Nonus
Teofilatto di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States 33 / 33 (†43) Italian. Second term; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
148 5 May 1045 –
20 December 1046
(1 year, 229 days)
Gregory VI
GREGORIVS Sextus
Giovanni Graziano Pierleoni c. 1000 Rome, Papal States 45 / 46 (†48) Italian. Deposed at the Council of Sutri.
149 24 December 1046 –
9 October 1047
(289 days)
Clement II
CLEMENS Secundus
Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburg c. 967 Hornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire 79 / 80 German. Appointed by King Henry III at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry III as emperor.
150 8 November 1047 –
17 July 1048
(252 days)
Benedict IX
BENEDICTVS Nonus
Teofilatto di Tuscolo 1012 Rome, Papal States 35 / 36 (†43) Italian. Third term; deposed and excommunicated.
151 17 July 1048 –
9 August 1048
(23 days)
Damasus II
DAMASVS Secundus
Poppo de Curagnoni c. 1000 Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire 48 / 48 German.
152 12 February 1049 –
19 April 1054
(5 years, 66 days)
Leon IX (crop).jpg St Leo IX
LEO Nonus
Bruno von Egisheim-Dagsburg 21 July 1002 Eguisheim, Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire 47 / 51 German. In 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.[13]
153 13 April 1055 –
28 July 1057
(2 years, 106 days)
Gebhard I Bischof von Eichstätt, als Victor II Papst.JPG Victor II
VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard II von Calw-Dollnstein-Hirschberg c. 1018 Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire 37 / 39 German.
154 2 August 1057 –
29 March 1058
(239 days)
Stephen IX
STEPHANVS Nonus (Decimus)
Frederich
O.S.B.
c. 1020 Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire 37 / 38 German. Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
4 April 1058 –
24 January 1059
(295 days)
Benedict X
BENEDICTVS Decimus
Giovanni Mincio di Tuscolo Rome, Papal States Italian. In opposition to Nicholas II.
155 6 December 1058 –
27 July 1061
(2 years, 233 days)
Robertoilguiscardo.jpg Nicholas II
NICOLAVS Secundus
Gerald de Bourgogne c. 980 Château de Chevron, County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire 78 / 81 French. In 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini. (Papal conclave).
30 September 1061
1072
(10 years, 185 days)
Honorius II
HONORIVS Secundus
Pietro Candalus 1010 Verona, Holy Roman Empire 61 / 72 Italian. In opposition to Pope Alexander II
156 30 September 1061
21 April 1073
(11 years, 203 days)
Alessandro-ii-color.jpg Alexander II
ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da Baggio c. 1018 Baggio, Milan, Holy Roman Empire 46 / 58 Italian. Authorised the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
157 22 April 1073
25 May 1085
(12 years, 33 days)
Gregorius (Vita Gregorii VII).jpg St Gregory VII
GREGORIVS Septimus
Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi di Soana
O.S.B.
c. 1015 Sovana, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire 48 / 60 Lombard. Initiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the papal title to the bishop of Rome.[4] Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
25 June 1080 –
8 September 1100
(20 years, 75 days)
Clement III
CLEMENS Tertius
Pietro Cadnalus 1010 Verona, Holy Roman Empire 61 / 72 Italian. In opposition to Pope Gregory VII, Pope Victor III, Pope Urban II and Pope Paschal II.
158 24 May 1086
16 September 1087
(1 year, 115 days)
Victor III. - Desiderius of Montecassino.jpg Bl. Victor III
VICTOR Tertius
Dauferio Epifani Del Zotto
O.S.B.
c. 1026 Benevento, Duchy of Benevento 60 / 61 Lombard. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Called the Synod of Benevento (1087) condemning lay investiture.
159 12 March 1088
29 July 1099
(11 years, 139 days)
Bl. Urban II
VRBANVS Secundus
Odon de Lagery
O.S.B.
c. 1042 Châtillon-sur-Marne, County of Champagne, France 46 / 57 French. Preached and started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
160 13 August 1099
21 January 1118
(18 years, 161 days)
Paschal II
PASCHALIS Secundus
Rainero Ranieri
O.S.B.
c. 1050 Bleda, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire 49 / 68 Lombard. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.
8 September 1100 –
January 1101
(115 days)
Theodoric
THEODORICVS
Teodorico c. 1030 Rome, Papal States 70 / 71 Lombard. In opposition to Pope Paschal II

12th century[edit]

Popes of the 12th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
January 1101 –
February 1102
(1 year, 31 days)
Adalbert
ADALBERTVS
Adalberto
O.S.B.
Rome, Papal States Lombard. In opposition to Pope Paschal II
8 November 1105 –
11 April 1111
(5 years, 154 days)
Sylvester IV
SILVESTER Quartus
Maguinulf 1050 Rome, Papal States 49 / 55 (†56) German. In opposition to Paschal II.
161 24 January 1118
29 January 1119
(1 year, 5 days)
Gelasius II
GELASIVS Secundus
Giovanni Caetani
O.S.B.
c. 1061 Gaeta, Duchy of Gaeta 57 / 58 Italian.

10 March 1118 –
20 April 1121
(3 years, 41 days)
Gregory VIII
GREGORIVS Octavus
Maurice Baurdain c. 1060 Limousin, Occitania, France 58 / 61 (†77) French (Occitan). In opposition to Gelasius II and Callixtus II.
162 2 February 1119
13 December 1124
(5 years, 315 days)
Calixtus II.jpg Callixtus II
CALLISTVS Secundus
Guy c. 1060 Quingey, Franche-Comté 59 / 64 French. Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123.

16 December 1124
16 December 1124
(0 days)
Celestine II
COELESTINVS Secundus
Teobaldo Boccapecora 1050 Rome, Papal States 74 / 74 (†76) French. In opposition to Honorius II.
163 21 December 1124
13 February 1130
(5 years, 54 days)
Honorius II
HONORIVS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi da Fiagnano
Can.Reg.
9 February 1060 Fiagnano, Romagna, Holy Roman Empire 64 / 70 Italian. Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno. Approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.
164 14 February 1130
24 September 1143
(13 years, 222 days)
B Innozenz II1 (cropped).jpg Innocent II
INNOCENTIVS Secundus
Gregorio Papareschi
Can.Reg.
c. 1082 Rome, Papal States 48 / 61 Italian. Canon regular of Lateran. Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139.

14 February 1130
25 January 1138
(7 years, 345 days)
Anacletus II
ANACLETUS Secundus
Pietro Pierleoni
O.S.B.
1090 Rome, Papal States 40 / 48 Italian. In opposition to Innocent II.

23 March 1138 –
25 March 1138
(2 days)
Victor IV
VICTOR Quartus
Gregorio Conti Rome, Papal States Italian. In Opposition to Pope Innocent II
165 26 September 1143
8 March 1144
(164 days)
Celestine II
COELESTINVS Secundus
Guido Guelfuccio de Castello c. 1085 Città di Castello, Papal States 58 / 59 Italian.
166 12 March 1144
15 February 1145
(340 days)
Lucius II
LUCIVS Secundus
Gherardo Caccianemici dall'Orso
Can.Reg.
c. 1079 Bologna, Holy Roman Empire 65 / 66 Italian. Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca.
167 15 February 1145
8 July 1153
(8 years, 143 days)
Bl. Eugene III
EVGENIVS Tertius
Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno
O.Cist.[14]
c. 1080 Montemagno, Republic of Pisa 44 / 52 Italian. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
168 12 July 1153
3 December 1154
(1 year, 144 days)
Anastasius IV
ANASTASIVS Quartus
Corrado Demitri della Suburra c. 1073 Rome, Papal States 80 / 81 Italian.
169 4 December 1154
1 September 1159
(4 years, 271 days)
Adrian IV, servus servorum dei (cropped).png Adrian IV
HADRIANVS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear
Can.Reg.
c. 1100 Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of England 54 / 59 The only English (Anglo-Saxon) pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Canon Regular of St. Rufus Monastery.
170 7 September 1159
30 August 1181
(21 years, 357 days)
Alexander III
ALEXANDER Tertius
Rolando Bandinelli c. 1100 Siena, Republic of Siena 59 / 81 Italian. Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179.

7 September 1159
20 April 1164
(4 years, 226 days)
Victor IV
VICTOR Quartus
Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli 1095 Rome, Papal States 64 / 69 Italian. In opposition to Pope Alexander III.

28 April 1164 –
22 September 1168
(4 years, 147 days)
Paschal III
PASCALIS Tertius
Guido di Crema 1110 Rome, Papal States 54 / 58 Italian. In opposition to Alexander III.

30 September 1168 –
29 August 1178
(9 years, 333 days)
Callixtus III
CALLIXTVS Tertius
Giovanni di Struma
O.S.B.
1090 Rome, Papal States 78 / 88 Italian. In opposition to Alexander III.

29 September 1179 –
January 1180
(124 days)
Innocent III
INNOCENTIVS Tertius
Lando di Sezze (or Lanzo) 1120 Sezze, Papal States 59 / 60 (†63) Italian. In opposition to Alexander III.
171 1 September 1181
25 November 1185
(4 years, 85 days)
Lucius III
LUCIVS Tertius
Ubaldo Allucignoli c. 1097 Lucca, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire 84 / 88 Italian.
172 25 November 1185
20 October 1187
(1 year, 329 days)
Urban III
VRBANVS Tertius
Uberto Crivelli c. 1120 Cuggiono, Holy Roman Empire 67 / 67 Italian.
173 21 October 1187
17 December 1187
(57 days)
Gregory VIII
GREGORIVS Octavus
Alberto de Morra
Can.Reg.
c. 1100 Benevento, Papal States 87 / 87 Italian. Canon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade.
174 19 December 1187
20 March 1191[15]
(3 years, 91 days)
Clement III
CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo Scolari c. 1130 Rome, Papal States 57 / 61 Italian.
175 30 March 1191
8 January 1198
(6 years, 284 days)
Coelestin III (cropped 2).png Celestine III
COELESTINVS Tertius
Giacinto Bobone Orsini c. 1106 Rome, Papal States 85 / 92 Motto: Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis ("Going in Thy path")
Italian.
176 8 January 1198
16 July 1216
(18 years, 190 days)
Innozenz3.jpg Innocent III
INNOCENTIVS Tertius
Lotario dei Conti di Segni 1161 Gavignano, Papal States 37 / 55 Italian. Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities.[16] Endorsed the Franciscan Order.

13th century[edit]

Popes of the 13th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
177 18 July 1216
18 March 1227
(10 years, 243 days)
Vad-0321 025 Honorius III (cropped).jpg Honorius III
HONORIVS
Tertius
Cencio Savelli c. 1148–50 Rome, Papal States 66–68 / 77–79 Italian. Initiated the Fifth Crusade. Approved several religious and tertiary orders.
178 19 March 1227
22 August 1241
(14 years, 156 days)
Gregory IX (cropped).jpg Gregory IX
GREGORIVS Nonus
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S c. 1145–70 Anagni, Papal States 57–82 / 71–96 Italian. Initiated the inquisition in France and endorsed the Northern Crusades.
179 25 October 1241
10 November 1241
(16 days)
Celestine IV
COELESTINVS Quartus
Goffredo Castiglioni c. 1180–87 Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire 54–61 / 54–61 Italian. Died before coronation.
180 25 June 1243
7 December 1254
(11 years, 165 days)
Innocent IV Council of Lyon etail.jpg Innocent IV
INNOCENTIVS Quartus
Sinibaldo Fieschi c. 1195 Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire 48 / 60 Italian. Convened the First Council of Lyons (1245). Issued the bull Ad extirpanda that permitted the torture of heretics (1252).
181 12 December 1254
25 May 1261
(6 years, 164 days)
Alexander IV
ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne c. 1199 Jenne, Papal States 55 / 62 Italian. Established an Inquisition in France.
182 29 August 1261
2 October 1264
(3 years, 34 days)
Urban IV
VRBANVS Quartus
Jacques Pantaléon c. 1195 Troyes, County of Champagne, France 66 / 69 French. Instituted the feast of Corpus Christi (1264).
183 5 February 1265
29 November 1268
(3 years, 298 days)
Clement IV
CLEMENS
Quartus
Gui Faucoi 23 November 1190 Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, France 62 / 66 French.
29 November 1268 –
1 September 1271
(2 years, 276 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Almost three-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184 1 September 1271
10 January 1276
(4 years, 131 days)
Bl. Gregory X
GREGORIVS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S c. 1210 Piacenza, Italy, Holy Roman Empire 51 / 66 Italian. Convened the Second Council of Lyons (1274). Responsible for regulation all papal conclaves until the 20th century.
185 21 January 1276
22 June 1276
(153 days)
Bl. Innocent V
INNOCENTIVS Quintus
Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P. c. 1224/5 County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire 52 / 52 French. Member of the Dominican Order.
186 11 July 1276
18 August 1276
(38 days)
Adrian V
HADRIANVS Quintus
Ottobuono Fieschi c. 1216 Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire 60 / 60 Italian. Annulled Gregory X's papal bull on the regulations of papal conclaves.
187 8 September 1276
20 May 1277
(254 days)
John XXI
IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano) c. 1215 Lisbon, Portugal 60 / 70 Portuguese. Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, the ordinal XX was skipped.
188 25 November 1277
22 August 1280
(2 years, 271 days)
Nicholas III
NICOLAVS
Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini c. 1216 Rome, Papal States 61 / 64 Italian. Planned the Sicilian Vespers.
189 22 February 1281
28 March 1285
(4 years, 34 days)
Martin IV
MARTINVS Quartus
Simon de Brion c. 1210 Meinpicien, Touraine, France 71 / 75 French.
190 2 April 1285
3 April 1287
(2 years, 1 day)
Honorius IV
HONORIVS Quartus
Giacomo Savelli c. 1210 Rome, Papal States 75 / 77 Italian.
191 22 February 1288
4 April 1292
(4 years, 42 days)
Nicholas IV
NICOLAVS Quartus
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. 30 September 1227 Lisciano, Papal States 60 / 64 Italian. Member of the Franciscan Order.
4 April 1292 –
5 July 1294
(2 years, 92 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
192 5 July 1294
13 December 1294
(161 days)
St Celestine V
COELESTINVS Quintus
Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B. c. 1207–09 Sant'Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily 85–87 / 85–87 (†87–89) Italian. One of the few popes who abdicated voluntarily. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Founded the Celestines. Resigned from office and rumored to have been murdered in prison by Boniface VIII.
193 24 December 1294
11 October 1303
(8 years, 291 days)
Giotto - Bonifatius VIII.jpg Boniface VIII
BONIFATIVS Octavus
Benedetto Caetani c. 1230–36 Anagni, Papal States 59–64 / 68–73 Italian. Formalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued Unam Sanctam (1302) which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.

14th century[edit]

Popes of the 14th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
194 22 October 1303
7 July 1304
(259 days)
Bl. Benedict XI
BENEDICTVS Undecimus
Niccolò Boccasini, O.P. c. 1240 Treviso, Papal States 63 / 64 Motto: Illustra faciem Tuam super servum Tuum ("Let Your Face shine upon Your servant")

Italian. Member of the Dominican Order. Reverted Boniface VIII's Unam Sanctam.

195 5 June 1305
20 April 1314
(8 years, 319 days)
Sou d'or de Clément V frappé à Sorgues 1310.jpg Clement V
CLEMENS Quintus
Raymond Bertrand de Gouth c. 1264 Villandraut, Gascony, France 41 / 50 French. Pope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne (1311–1312). Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip IV of France.
20 April 1314 –
7 August 1316
(2 years, 79 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196 7 August 1316
4 December 1334
(18 years, 119 days)
Stato della chiesa, carlino di giovanni XXII, 1316-1334.JPG John XXII
IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse c. 1244–49 Cahors, Quercy, France 67–72 / 85–90 French. Pope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on the Beatific Vision.

12 May 1328–
25 July 1330
(2 years, 74 days)
Nicholas V
NICOLAVS Quintus
Pietro Rainalducci,
O.F.M.
1260 Corvaro, Papal States 68 / 70 (†73) Italian. In opposition to John XXII.
197 20 December 1334
25 April 1342
(7 years, 126 days)
Benoît XII Paolo de Siena 1341 crypte de St Pierre de Rome.jpg Benedict XII
BENEDICTVS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier, O.Cist. c. 1280–85 Saverdun, County of Foix, France 49–54 / 57–62 French. Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336).
198 7 May 1342
6 December 1352
(10 years, 213 days)
01 Clément VI (Fresque de la chapelle Saint-Martial du palais des papes).jpg Clement VI
CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger, O.S.B. c. 1291 Maumont, Limousin, France 51 / 61 French. Pope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who died of it of their sins.
199 18 December 1352
12 September 1362
(9 years, 268 days)
Innocent VI.JPG Innocent VI
INNOCENTIVS Sextus
Étienne Aubert c. 1282 Les Monts, Limousin, France 70 / 80 French. Pope at Avignon. Through his exertions the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) was brought about.
200 28 September 1362
19 December 1370
(8 years, 82 days)
Urbain V - Pinacotèque de Bologne (cropped).jpg Bl. Urban V
VRBANVS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B. c. 1309–10 Grizac, Languedoc, France 52–53 / 60–61 French. Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Reformed areas of education and sent missionary movements across Europe and Asia. His pontificate witnessed the Alexandrian and Savoyard crusades.
201 30 December 1370
27 March 1378
(7 years, 87 days)
Duke of Anjou leading Pope Gregory XI to the palace at Avignon, while cardinals follow (cropped).png Gregory XI
GREGORIVS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de Beaufort c. 1329 Maumont, Limousin, France 41 / 49 French. Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome. The last French pope.
202 8 April 1378
15 October 1389
(11 years, 190 days)
Duke of Anjou leading Pope Gregory XI to the palace at Avignon, while cardinals follow (cropped).png Urban VI
VRBANVS Sextus
Bartolomeo Prignano c. 1318 Naples, Kingdom of Naples 60 / 71 Italian. Western Schism. Last pontiff to be elected outside the College of Cardinals.
20 September 1378 –
16 September 1394
(15 years, 353 days)
Clement VII
CLEMENS Septimus
Robert de Genève 1342 Chateau d'Annecy, County of Savoy, H.R.E. 36 / 52 French. In opposition to Urban VI (1378–89) and Boniface IX (1389–1404)

28 September 1394 –
23 May 1423
(28 years, 237 days)
Antipope Benedictus XIII.jpg Benedict XIII
BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus
Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor 25 November 1328 Illueca, Aragon 66 / 94 Spanish. In opposition to Boniface IX (1389–1404), Innocent VII (1404–06), Gregory XII (1406–15), Martin V (1417–31) and Pisan Antipopes Alexander V (1409–10) and John XXIII (1410–15)
203 2 November 1389
1 October 1404
(14 years, 334 days)
Boniface IX
BONIFATIVS Nonus
Pietro Tomacelli Cybo c. 1348–50 Naples, Kingdom of Naples c. 39-41 / c. 54-56 Italian of Greek descent. Western Schism.

15th century[edit]

Popes of the 15th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
204 17 October 1404
6 November 1406
(2 years, 20 days)
Innocent VII
INNOCENTIVS Septimus
Cosimo Gentile Migliorati 1336–39 Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples 65–68 / 67–71[B] Italian. Reigned during the Western Schism.
205 30 November 1406
4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
Gregory XII
GREGORIVS Duodecimus
Angelo Correr 14 May 1324 Venice, Republic of Venice 82 / 91 (†91) Italian. Reigned during the Western Schism.

C o a Alexander V (antipapa).svg
30 June 1409
3 May 1410
(307 days)
Alexander V
ALEXANDER Quintus
Pétros Philárgēs,
O.F.M.
1339 Candia Lomellina, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 70 / 71 Greek. Western Schism. In opposition to Gregory XII. Considered a legitimate pope until 1963 and is numbered as such to this day.

C o a Giovanni XXIII (Pisa).svg
25 May 1410 –
30 May 1415
(5 years, 5 days)
John XXIII
IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius
Baldassarre Cossa 1365 Procida, Naples 45 / 50 (†54) Italian. Western Schism. In opposition to Gregory XII. Convened Council of Constance. Abdicated. Became dean of the College of Cardinals in 1417. Was considered a legitimate pope until 1958.
4 July 1415 –
11 November 1417
(2 years, 136 days)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected. The Council of Constance called on all three papal claimants to abdicate, but only Gregory XII (Roman) and John XXIII (Pisan) abdicated. The Council finally excommunicated Benedict XIII (Avignon) and elected a new pope.
206 11 November 1417
20 February 1431
(13 years, 101 days)
Papa Martino V.jpg Martin V
MARTINVS Quintus
Oddone Colonna, O.F.S Jan/Feb 1369 Genazzano, Papal States 48 / 62 Italian. Convened the Council of Basel (1431). Initiated the Hussite Wars.

20 June 1423[17] (or 10 June 1423[18]) –
26 July 1429
(6 years, 36 days)
Palma Antipapa Clemens VIII.JPG Clement VIII
CLEMENS Octavus
Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón 1369 Teruel, Aragon 54 / 60 (†77) Italian. Western Schism. In opposition to Martin V.
207 3 March 1431
23 February 1447
(15 years, 357 days)
PapstEugen.jpg Eugene IV
EVGENIVS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A. 1383 Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 63[B] Italian. Member of the Augustinian Order. Nephew of Gregory XII. Crowned Emperor Sigismund at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.

5 November 1439
7 April 1449
(9 years, 153 days)
Felix V
FELIX Quintus
Amadeus 4 September 1383 Chambéry, France 56 / 65 (†67) French. In opposition to Eugene IV[19] and Nicholas V.[20] Also ruled as count of Savoy.
208
C o a Nicolaus V.svg
6 March 1447
24 March 1455
(8 years, 18 days)
Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens.jpg Nicholas V
NICOLAVS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli, O.P. 13 November 1397 Sarzana, Republic of Genoa 49 / 57 Italian. Member of the Dominican Order. Held the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Emperor Frederick III at Rome (1452). Issued the bull Dum Diversas allowing Portugal's right to conquer and subjugate Saracens and pagans (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana.
209
Coat of Arms of Pope Callixtus III.svg
8 April 1455
6 August 1458
(3 years, 120 days)
Pope Callixtus III Siena (cropped).jpg Callixtus III
CALLISTVS Tertius
Alfonso de Borja 31 December 1378 Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 76 / 79 The first Spanish (Valencian) pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated.
210
C o a Pio II.svg
19 August 1458
15 August 1464
(5 years, 362 days)
Pintoricchio 012.jpg Pius II
PIVS Secundus
Enea Silvio Piccolomini 18 October 1405 Corsignano, Republic of Siena 52 / 58 Italian. Displayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
211 30 August 1464
26 July 1471
(6 years, 330 days)
Pietrobarbo.jpg Paul II
PAVLVS Secundus
Pietro Barbo 23 February 1417 Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 54 Italian. The nephew of Eugene IV. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia). Approved the introduction of printing in the Papal States.
212
CoA della Rovere popes.svg
9 August 1471
12 August 1484
(13 years, 3 days)
Titian - Sixtus IV - Uffizi.jpg Sixtus IV
XYSTVS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M. 21 July 1414 Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa 57 / 70 Italian. Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel. Authorized an Inquisition targeting converted Jewish Christians in Spain at the request of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
213
C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg
29 August 1484
25 July 1492
(7 years, 331 days)
Niccolò di forzore spinelli, medaglia di innocenzo viii 01.JPG Innocent VIII
INNOCENTIVS Octavus
Giovanni Battista Cybo 1432 Genoa, Republic of Genoa 51 / 59[B] Italian. Appointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484).
214
C o a Alessandro VI.svg
11 August 1492
18 August 1503
(11 years, 7 days)
Pope Alexander Vi.jpg Alexander VI
ALEXANDER Sextus
Roderic Llançol i de Borja 1 January 1431 Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 61 / 72 Spanish (Valencian); Nephew of Callixtus III; father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493).

16th century[edit]

Popes of the 16th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
215
C o a Pio II.svg
22 September 1503
18 October 1503
(26 days)
PiusIII.jpg Pius III
PIVS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini 29 May 1439 Siena, Republic of Siena 64 / 64 Italian. Nephew of Pius II. Founded the Piccolomini Library in the Siena Cathedral.
216
CoA della Rovere popes.svg
31 October 1503
21 February 1513
(9 years, 113 days)
Pope Julius II.jpg Julius II
IVLIVS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M. 5 December 1443 Albisola, Republic of Genoa 59 / 69 Italian. Nephew of Sixtus IV; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took control of all the Papal States for the first time. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Commissioned the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica.
217
Medici popes.svg
9 March 1513
1 December 1521
(8 years, 267 days)
Pope-leo10.jpg Leo X
LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici 11 December 1475 Florence, Republic of Florence 37 / 45 Italian. Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Closed the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences to those who donated to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica; excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal.
218
C o a Adriano VI.svg
9 January 1522
14 September 1523
(1 year, 248 days)
Hadrian VI.jpg Adrian VI
HADRIANVS Sextus
Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens 2 March 1459 Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (now Netherlands) 62 / 64 Motto: Patere et sustine ("Respect and wait")[21]

The only Dutch pope; last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. Tutor of Emperor Charles V.

219
Medici popes.svg
26 November 1523
25 September 1534
(10 years, 303 days)
Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian) - Pope Clement VII - Google Art Project.jpg Clement VII
CLEMENS Septimus
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici 26 May 1478 Florence, Republic of Florence 45 / 56 Motto: Candor illæsus ("Unharmed candor")[22]

Italian. Cousin of Leo X. Rome sacked by imperial troops (1527). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII; crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530). Commissioned Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel (1533). Approved Copernicusheliocentric universe theory (1533). His niece was married to the future Henry II of France (1533). Recognized the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Capuchins).

220
C o a Paulo III.svg
13 October 1534
10 November 1549
(15 years, 28 days)
Titian - Pope Paul III - WGA22962.jpg Paul III
PAVLVS Tertius
Alessandro Farnese 29 February 1468 Canino, Lazio, Papal States 66 / 81 Italian. Opened the Council of Trent (1545). His illegitimate son became the first duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of King Henry VIII of England. Appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St. Peter's Basilica (1546). Recognized the Order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
221
C o a Giulio III.svg
7 February 1550
29 March 1555
(5 years, 50 days)
Julius III.jpg Julius III
IVLIVS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte 10 September 1487 Rome, Lazio, Papal States 62 / 67 Italian. Established the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent. The Innocenzo Scandal.
222
C o a Marcello II.svg
9 April 1555
1 May 1555
(22 days)
PopeMarcellusII.jpg Marcellus II
MARCELLVS Secundus
Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi 6 May 1501 Montefano, Marche, Papal States 53 / 53 Italian. The last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures. The Missa Papae Marcelli composed in his honour.
223
C o a Paulo IV.svg
23 May 1555
18 August 1559
(4 years, 87 days)
PapaPauloIV.jpg Paul IV
PAVLVS Quartus
Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R. 28 June 1476 Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples 78 / 83 Motto: Dominus mihi adjutor ("The Lord is my helper")[23]

Italian. Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment modestly.

224
Medici popes.svg
26 December 1559
9 December 1565
(5 years, 348 days)
Ritratto di Pio IV.jpg Pius IV
PIVS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo Medici 31 March 1499 Milan, Duchy of Milan 60 / 66 Italian. Reopened and closed the Council of Trent. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
225
C o a Pio V.svg
7 January 1566
1 May 1572
(6 years, 115 days)
El Greco 050.jpg St Pius V
PIVS Quintus
Antonio Ghislieri, O.P. 17 January 1504 Bosco, Piedmont, Duchy of Milan 61 / 68 Motto: Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas ("It binds us to keep")[24]

Italian. Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I of England (1570). Battle of Lepanto (1571); instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Issued the 1570 Roman Missal.

226
C o a Gregorio XIII.svg
13 May 1572
10 April 1585
(12 years, 332 days)
Gregory XIII.jpg Gregory XIII
GREGORIVS Tertius Decimus
Ugo Boncompagni 7 January 1502 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 70 / 83 Motto: Aperuit et clausit ("Opened and closed")[25]

Italian. Reformed the calendar (1582); built the Gregorian Chapel in the Vatican. The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579). Strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.

227
C o a Sisto V.svg
24 April 1585
27 August 1590
(5 years, 125 days)
Sixtus V.PNG Sixtus V
XYSTVS Quintus
Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv. 13 December 1521 Grottammare, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Italian. Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to 70 in number; doubled the number of curial congregations.
228
C o a Urbano VII.svg
15 September 1590
27 September 1590
(12 days)
Urban VII.jpg Urban VII
VRBANVS Septimus
Giovanni Battista Castagna 4 August 1521 Rome, Lazio, Papal States 69 / 69 Italian. Supported by the Spanish. Shortest-reigning pope; died before coronation. Set the first known worldwide smoking ban, banning smoking in and near all churches.
229
C o a Gregorio XIV.svg
5 December 1590
16 October 1591
(315 days)
GregorioPPXVI.jpg Gregory XIV
GREGORIVS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò Sfondrati 11 February 1535 Somma Lombardo, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 55 / 56 Italian. Modified the constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus V so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591). Made gambling on papal elections punishable by excommunication.
230
C o a Innocenzo IX.svg
29 October 1591
30 December 1591
(62 days)
Innocent IX 2.jpg Innocent IX
INNOCENTIVS Nonus
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti 20 July 1519 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 72 / 72 Italian. Supported the cause of King Philip II of Spain and the Catholic League against King Henry IV of France in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
231
C o a Clemente VIII.svg
30 January 1592
3 March 1605
(13 years, 32 days)
Papst Clemens VIII Italian 17th century.jpg Clement VIII
CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito Aldobrandini 24 February 1536 Fano, Marche, Papal States 55 / 69 Italian. Initiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as The Long War (1595). Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace.[26]

17th century[edit]

Popes of the 17th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
232
Medici popes.svg
1 April 1605
27 April 1605
(26 days)
Leo XI 2.jpg Leo XI
LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici 2 June 1535 Florence, Duchy of Florence 69 / 69 Italian. The nephew of Leo X. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
233
C o a Paulo V.svg
16 May 1605
28 January 1621
(15 years, 257 days)
PaoloHasekura.jpg Paul V
PAVLVS Quintus
Camillo Borghese 17 September 1550 Rome, Lazio, Papal States 52 / 68 Motto: Absit nisi in te gloriari ("May it be absent, except to glory in you")[27]

Italian. Known for various building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605); restored the Aqua Traiana.

234
C o a Gregorio XV.svg
9 February 1621
8 July 1623
(2 years, 149 days)
Pope Gregory XV.jpg Gregory XV
GREGORIVS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro Ludovisi 9 January 1554 Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 67 / 69 Italian. Established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
235
C o a Urbano VIII.svg
6 August 1623
29 July 1644
(20 years, 358 days)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII.jpg Urban VIII
VRBANVS Octavus
Maffeo Barberini 5 April 1568 Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 55 / 76 Italian. Trial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bill that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
236
C o a Innocenzo X.svg
15 September 1644
7 January 1655
(10 years, 114 days)
Inocencio X, Velazquez.jpg Innocent X
INNOCENTIVS Decimus
Giovanni Battista Pamphilj 6 May 1574 Rome, Lazio, Papal States 70 / 80 Motto: Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram ("Water on earth")[28]

Italian. The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander VI. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.

237
C o a Alessandro VII.svg
7 April 1655
22 May 1667
(12 years, 45 days)
Alexander VII.jpg Alexander VII
ALEXANDER Septimus
Fabio Chigi 13 February 1599 Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 56 / 68 Italian. Great-nephew of Paul V. Commissioned St. Peter's Square. Issued the constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum that set the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to that of Pius IX centuries later.
238
C o a Clemente IX.svg
20 June 1667
9 December 1669
(2 years, 172 days)
Clemente IX.jpg Clement IX
CLEMENS Nonus
Giulio Rospigliosi 28 January 1600 Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 67 / 69 Motto: Aliis non sibi Clemens ("Clement to others, not to himself")[29]

Italian. Mediated in the peace of Aachen (1668).

239
C o a Clemente X.svg
29 April 1670
22 July 1676
(6 years, 84 days)
Alexander VII, 1599-1667, påve (Giovanni Battista (Baciccio) Gaulli) - Nationalmuseum - 19080.tif Clement X
CLEMENS Decimus
Emilio Bonaventura Altieri 13 July 1590 Rome, Lazio, Papal States 79 / 86 Motto: Bonum auget malum minuit ("He increases good and diminishes evil")[30]

Italian. Canonized the first saint from the Americas: St. Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and added one of the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.

240
C o a Innocenzo XI.svg
21 September 1676
12 August 1689
(12 years, 325 days)
Inocencius XI.jpg Bl. Innocent XI
INNOCENTIVS Undecimus
Benedetto Odescalchi 16 May 1611 Como, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 65 / 78 Motto: Avarus non Implebitur ("The covetous man is not satisfied")[31]

Italian. Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Extended the Holy Name of Mary as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis.

241
C o a Alessandro VIII.svg
6 October 1689
1 February 1691
(1 year, 118 days)
Alexander VIII 1.jpg Alexander VIII
ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito Ottoboni 22 April 1610 Venice, Republic of Venice 79 / 80 Italian. Condemned the so-called philosophical sin (1690).
242
C o a Innocenzo XII.svg
12 July 1691
27 September 1700
(9 years, 77 days)
Pope Innocent XII.PNG Innocent XII
INNOCENTIVS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S 13 March 1615 Spinazzola, Apulia, Kingdom of Naples 76 / 85 Italian. Issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.

18th century[edit]

Popes of the 18th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
243
C o a Clemente XI.svg
23 November 1700
19 March 1721
(20 years, 116 days)
Clement XI.jpg Clement XI
CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco Albani 23 July 1649 Urbino, Marche, Papal States 51 / 71 Italian. The Chinese Rites controversy. Patronized the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs and made the feast of the Immaculate Conception universal.[12]
244
C o a Innocenzo XIII.svg
8 May 1721
7 March 1724
(2 years, 304 days)
InnocientXIII.jpg Innocent XIII
INNOCENTIVS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo dei Conti 13 May 1655 Poli, Lazio, Papal States 65 / 68 Italian. Prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China ordering that no new members should be received into the order. Issued the papal bull Apostolici Ministerii (1724) to revive ecclesiastical discipline in Spain.
245
C o a Benedetto XIII.svg
29 May 1724
21 February 1730
(5 years, 268 days)
Benedetto XIII.jpg S.D. Benedict XIII
BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus
Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P. 2 February 1649 Gravina in Puglia, Bari, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81 Italian. Member of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called Benedict XIV due to the antipope but reverted to XIII. Repealed the worldwide tobacco smoking ban set by Urban VII and Urban VIII.
246
C o a Clemente XII.svg
12 July 1730
6 February 1740
(9 years, 209 days)
Pope Clement XII, portrait.jpg Clement XII
CLEMENS Duodecimus
Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S 7 April 1652 Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87 Motto: Dabis discernere inter malum et bonum ("You shall deign to distinguish between good and evil")[32]

Italian. Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In eminenti apostolatus (1738).

247
C o a Benedetto XIV.svg
17 August 1740
3 May 1758
(17 years, 259 days)
Pierre Subleyras Portrait of Benedict XIV 1746. Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg Benedict XIV
BENEDICTVS Quartus Decimus
Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini 31 March 1675 Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83 Motto: Curabuntur omnes ("All will be healed")[33]

Italian. Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas; founded academies of art, religion and science.

248
C o a Clemente XIII.svg
6 July 1758
2 February 1769
(10 years, 211 days)
ClementXIII.jpeg Clement XIII
CLEMENS Tertius Decimus
Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico 7 March 1693 Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75 Italian. Provided the famous fig leaves on nude male statues in the Vatican. Defended the Society of Jesus in "Apostolicum pascendi" (1765).
249
C o a Clemente XIV.svg
19 May 1769
22 September 1774
(5 years, 126 days)
Portrait du pape Clément XIV Ganganelli.jpg Clement XIV
CLEMENS Quartus Decimus
Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, O.F.M. Conv. 31 October 1705 Sant'
Arcangelo di Romagna
, Papal States
63 / 68 Italian. Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Society of Jesus in the brief "Dominus ac Redemptor" (1773).
250
C o a Pio VI.svg
15 February 1775
29 August 1799
(24 years, 195 days)
Popepiusvi.jpg Pius VI
PIVS Sextus
Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi 25 December 1717 Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Motto: Floret in domo domini ("It blossoms in the house of God")[34]

Italian. Condemned the French Revolution; expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death. The last pope to be a patron of Renaissance art.

29 August 1799 –
14 March 1800
(197 days)
(197)
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Six-month period without a valid pope elected. This was due to unique logistical problems (the old pope died a prisoner and the conclave was in Venice) and a deadlock among cardinals voting.

19th century[edit]

Popes of the 19th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
251
C o a Pio VII.svg
14 March 1800
20 August 1823
(23 years, 159 days)
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg S.D. Pius VII
PIVS Septimus
Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, O.S.B. 14 August 1742 Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Italian. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as emperor of the French. Expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
252
C o a Leone XII.svg
28 September 1823
10 February 1829
(5 years, 135 days)
Pope Leo XII.PNG Leo XII
LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga 22 August 1760 Genga, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Italian. Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia (1824). Condemned the Bible societies.
253
C o a Pio VIII.svg
31 March 1829
30 November 1830
(1 year, 244 days)
Ritratto di Papa Pio VIII, by Clemente Alberi.jpg Pius VIII
PIVS Octavus
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni 20 November 1761 Cingoli, Marche, Papal States 67 / 69 Italian. Accepted Louis Philippe I as king of the French. Condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations in the brief Litteris altero (1830).
254
C o a Gregorio XVI.svg
2 February 1831
1 June 1846
(15 years, 119 days)
Gregory XVI.jpg Gregory XVI
GREGORIVS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B. Cam. 18 September 1765 Belluno, Veneto, Republic of Venice 65 / 80 Italian. Member of the Camaldolese; last non-bishop to be elected to the papacy. Opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States.
255
Pio Nono.svg
16 June 1846
7 February 1878
(31 years, 236 days)
(11559)
Popepiusix.jpg Bl. Pius IX
PIVS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, O.F.S. 13 May 1792 Senigallia, Marche, Papal States 54 / 85 Italian. Opened the First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and defined papal infallibility. Issued the controversial Syllabus of Errors. Longest-serving pope since Peter (c. AD 30–64).
256
C o a Leone XIII.svg
20 February 1878
20 July 1903
(25 years, 150 days)
Leo XIII.jpg Leo XIII
LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, O.F.S. 2 March 1810 Carpineto Romano, Lazio, French Empire 67 / 93 Italian. Issued the encyclical Rerum novarum; supported Christian democracy against Communism. Had the third-longest reign after Pius IX, and John Paul II. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars; first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix.

20th century[edit]

Popes of the 20th century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
257
Coat of arms of Pope Pius X.svg
4 August 1903
20 August 1914
(11 years, 16 days)
Papst Pius X-01..jpg St Pius X
PIVS Decimus
Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto 2 June 1835 Riese, Treviso, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 68 / 79 Motto: Instaurare Omnia in Christo ("Restore all things in Christ")

Italian. Encouraged and expanded reception of the Eucharist. Combatted Modernism; issued the oath against it. Advocated the Gregorian Chant and reformed the Roman Breviary.

258
CoA Benedetto XV.svg
3 September 1914
22 January 1922
(7 years, 141 days)
BentoXVIquadroaoleo.jpg Benedict XV
BENEDICTVS Quintus Decimus
Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista Della Chiesa 21 November 1854 Pegli, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia 59 / 67 Motto: In te, Domine, speravi: non confundar in aeternum. ("In thee, o Lord, have I trusted: let me not be confounded for evermore.")

Italian. Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. Issued the 1917 Code of Canon Law; supported the missionaries in Maximum illud. Remembered by Benedict XVI as a "prophet of peace".

259
C o a Pio XI.svg
6 February 1922
10 February 1939
(17 years, 4 days)
(6213)
Piuspp.xi.jpg Pius XI
PIVS Undecimus
Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti 31 May 1857 Desio, Milan, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 64 / 81 Motto: Pax Christi in Regno Christi ("The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ")

Italian. Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) establishing Vatican City as a sovereign state. Inaugurated Vatican Radio (1931). Re-founded the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (1936). Created the feast of Christ the King. Opposed Communism and Nazism.

260
Coat of arms of Pope Pius XII.svg
2 March 1939
9 October 1958
(19 years, 221 days)
His Holiness Pope Pius XII.png Ven. Pius XII
PIVS Duodecimus
Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli 2 March 1876 Rome, Italy 63 / 82 Motto: Opus Justitiae Pax ("The work of justice [shall be] peace")

Italian. Invoked papal infallibility in the encyclical Munificentissimus Deus; defined the dogma of the Assumption. Eliminated the Italian majority of cardinals. Credited with intervening for peace during World War II; controversial for his reactions to the Holocaust.

261
John 23 coa.svg
28 October 1958
3 June 1963
(4 years, 218 days)
Pope John XXIII - 1959.jpg St John XXIII
IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli 25 November 1881 Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Italy 76 / 81 Motto: Obedientia et Pax ("Obedience and peace")

Italian. Opened the Second Vatican Council; called "Good Pope John". Issued the encyclical Pacem in terris (1963) on peace and nuclear disarmament; intervened for peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).

262
Coat of Arms of Pope Paul VI.svg
21 June 1963
6 August 1978
(15 years, 46 days)
Pope Paul VI portrait.jpg St Paul VI
PAVLVS Sextus
Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini 26 September 1897 Concesio, Brescia, Italy 65 / 80 Motto: Cum Ipso in Monte ("With Him on the mount")

Italian. Last pope to be crowned. First pope since 1809 to travel outside Italy. Closed the Second Vatican Council. Issued the encyclical Humanae vitae (1968) condemning artificial contraception. Revised the Roman Missal (1969).

263
John paul 1 coa.svg
26 August 1978
28 September 1978
(33 days)
Albino Luciani, 1969 (3).jpg Ven. John Paul I
IOANNES PAVLVS Primus
Albino Luciani 17 October 1912 Forno di Canale, Belluno, Italy 65 / 65 Motto: Humilitas ("Humility")

Italian. Abolished the coronation and opted for the papal inauguration. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name; first with two names for two immediate predecessors. Last pope to use the sedia gestatoria.

264
John paul 2 coa.svg
16 October 1978
2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpg St John Paul II
IOANNES PAVLVS Secundus
Karol Józef Wojtyła 20 May 1920 Wadowice, Poland 58 / 84 Motto: Totus Tuus ("Totally yours")

Polish, first pope of Slavic origin. First non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522–1523). Travelled extensively, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. Second longest reign after Pius IX. Founded World Youth Day (1984) and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (1994). Canonized more saints than all his predecessors. Youngest individual to start his papacy since Pius IX (1846).

3rd millennium[edit]

21st century[edit]

Popes of the 21st century
Pontiff
number
Pontificate Portrait Name: English
· Latin
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/
end of papacy
Notes
265
Coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI
19 April 2005
28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
Photograph of Pope Benedict XVI Benedict XVI
BENEDICTVS Decimus Sextus
Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger (1927-04-16) 16 April 1927 (age 93) Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany 78 / 85 Motto: Cooperatores Veritatis ("Cooperators of the truth")

German. Still alive. Oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. Established the Anglican Ordinariate (2009). First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294),[35] becoming pope emeritus.[36] Longest-living pope on record.

266
Coat of arms of Pope Francis
13 March 2013
present
(7 years, 231 days)
Photograph of Pope Francis Francis
FRANCISCVS
Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J. (1936-12-17) 17 December 1936 (age 83) Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina 76 Motto: Miserando atque Eligendo ("Lowly but chosen", literally 'by having mercy, by choosing him')[37]

Argentine. First pope to be born outside Europe since Gregory III (731–741) and the first from the Americas; first pope from the Southern Hemisphere. First pope from a religious institute since Gregory XVI (1831–1846); first Jesuit pope. First to use a new and non-composed regnal name since Lando (913–914). First pope to visit and hold papal mass in the Arabian Peninsula.

[38]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Now Bethsaida, Galilee, Israel.
  2. ^ Now Volterra, Italy.
  3. ^ a b c Now Athens, Greece.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Now Rome, Italy.
  5. ^ Now Bethlehem, Israel.
  6. ^ a b Now Aquileia, Italy.
  7. ^ Now Homs, Syria.
  8. ^ Nicopolis is now a Roman ruin near the city of Preveza, Greece.
  9. ^ It is not clear when Pope Victor I was born, and where he was born, although some[7] suggest he was born in Leptis Magna, now a part of Libya.

Religious orders[edit]

51 popes and 6 antipopes (in italics) have been members of religious orders, including 12 members of third orders. They are listed by order as follows:

Family Order Number Percentage Popes Total Percentage
Augustinians Order of Saint Augustine 1 1.75% Eugene IV 6 10.53%
Canons Regular 4 7.02% Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Adrian IV
Premonstratense 1 1.75% Gregory VIII
Benedictines Order of Saint Benedict 22 38.6% Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, John XVI, Sylvester II, Sergius IV, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Adalbert, Gelasius II, Anacletus II, Callixtus III, Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, Pius VII 23 40.35%
Camaldolese 1 1.75% Gregory XVI
Cistercians 2 3.51% Eugene III, Benedict XII 2 3.51%
Dominicans 7 12.28% Innocent V, Benedict XI, Nicholas V, Pius V, Benedict XIII, Benedict XV, Pius XII 7 12.28%
Franciscans Order of Friars Minor 5 8.77% Nicholas IV, Nicholas V, Alexander V, Sixtus IV, Julius II 17 29.82%
Order of Friars Minor Conventual 2 3.51% Sixtus V, Clement XIV
Secular Franciscan Order 10 17.54% Gregory IX, Gregory X, Martin V, Innocent XII, Clement XII, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, Pius XI, John XXIII
Theatines 1 1.75% Paul IV 1 1.75%
Jesuits 1 1.75% Francis 1 1.75%
Total 57 57

Numbering of popes[edit]

Regnal numbers follow the usual convention for European monarchs. Popes with unique names are not identified by ordinals. Antipopes are treated as pretenders, and their numbers are reused by those considered to be legitimate popes. However, there are anomalies in the numbering of the popes. Several numbers were mistakenly increased in the Middle Ages because the records were misunderstood. Several antipopes were also kept in the sequence, either by mistake or because they were previously considered to be true popes.

  • Alexander: Antipope Alexander V (1409–1410) was listed in the Annuario Pontificio as a legitimate pope until the 20th century,[39] when the Pisan popes were reclassified as antipopes. There had already been three more Alexanders by then, so there is now a gap in the numbering sequence.
  • Donus: The name has only been used by one pope. The apocryphal Pope Donus II resulted from confusion between the Latin word dominus (lord) and the name Donus.
  • Felix: Antipope Felix II (356–357) was kept in the numbering sequence.[40]
  • John: The numbering of the Johns is particularly confused. In the modern sequence, the Johns are identified by the numbers they used during their reigns.
    • Antipope John XVI (997–998) was kept in the numbering sequence.
    • Pope John XXI (1276–1277) chose to skip the number XX, believing that there had been another John between XIV and XV. In reality, John XIV had been counted twice.[41]
    • By the 16th century, the numbering error had been conflated with legends about a female Pope Joan, whom some authors called John VIII. She was never listed in the Annuario Pontificio.[42]
    • Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415) was listed in the Annuario Pontificio as a legitimate pope until the 20th century.[39] John XXIII became an antipope when Pope John XXIII (1958–1963) chose to reuse the number, citing "twenty-two [sic] Johns of indisputable legitimacy."[43]
  • Martin: Pope Martin I (649–655) is followed by Martin IV (1281–1285). Due to the similarity between the Latin names Marinus and Martinus, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and III.[44]
  • Stephen: Pope-elect Stephen (752) died before being consecrated. He was previously known as Stephen II, but the Vatican removed him from the official list of popes in 1961.[41] The remaining Stephens are now numbered Pope Stephen II (752–757) to Pope Stephen IX (1057–1058).

Those who adhere to sedevacantism say that there have been no legitimate popes since Pius XII or John XXIII. This is because they consider all popes since the Second Vatican Council to be heretics.[45][46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific citations[edit]

  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12*
  2. ^ "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 5 June 2001. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
  3. ^ "Papal Primacy of honour: titles and insignia". Newadvent.org. 1 June 1911. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  4. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Erwin; et al., eds. (2005). "Pope, Papacy". Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon [The encyclopedia of Christianity]. 4. Translated by Bromiley, Geoffrey William. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 272–282. ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  5. ^ Against Heresies 3:3.3
  6. ^ The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  7. ^ Fisher, Max (13 March 2013). "WorldViews Sorry, Jorge Mario Bergoglio is not the first non-European pope". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  8. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P. (31 October 2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. HarperCollins. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  9. ^ "The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 13: Bishops of Rome". pp. from Theosodr Mommsen, MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp.73–6. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  10. ^ "OCA – St Liberius the Pope of Rome". Ocafs.oca.org. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  11. ^ "Saint Siricius".
  12. ^ a b c "Papal Timeline". 2005. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  13. ^ Deno John Geanakoplos (15 September 1989). Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-299-11884-6. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  14. ^ "Blessed Eugene III". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  15. ^ For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211
  16. ^ Philip Hughes, "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 371, Sheed & Ward, 1948.
  17. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Clement-VIII-antipope
  18. ^ Kelly, J. N. D.; Walsh, Michael (23 July 2015). Dictionary of Popes. ISBN 9780191044793.
  19. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Amadeus-VIII
  20. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nicholas-V-pope
  21. ^ "Pope Adrian VI (1522–1523)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  22. ^ "Pope Clement VII (1523–1534)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  23. ^ "Pope Paul IV (1555–1559)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  24. ^ "Pope Pius V (1566–1572)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  25. ^ "Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585)". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  26. ^ John Henry Blunt (1874). "Jansenists". Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. Rivingtons. pp. 234–240. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655–1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  28. ^ "Pope Innocent X (1644–1655)". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  29. ^ "Pope Clement IX (1667–1669)". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  30. ^ "Pope Clement X (1670–1676)". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  31. ^ "Pope Innocent XI (1676–1689)". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  32. ^ "Pope Clement XII (1730–1740)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  33. ^ "Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  34. ^ "The Wind was too Strong". Rome Art Lover. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  35. ^ Brown, Andrew (11 February 2013). "Benedict, the placeholder pope who leaves a battered, weakened church". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  36. ^ Pianigiani, Gaia; Povoledo, Elisabetta (27 February 2013). "Benedict XVI to Keep His Name and Become Pope Emeritus". The New York Times.
  37. ^ Scarisbrick, Veronica (22 March 2013). "Pope Francis : "Miserando atque eligendo"..." Vatican Radio. The Holy See. Vatican Radio. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  38. ^ Updated daily according to UTC.
  39. ^ a b Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1942. Rome. 1942. p. 21. 205. Gregorio XII, Veneto, Correr (c. 1406, cessò a. 1409, m. 1417) - Pont. a. 2, m. 6. g. 4. 206. Alessandro V, dell'Isola di Candia, Filargo (c. 1409, m. 1410). - Pont. m. 10, g. 8. 207. Giovanni XXII o XXIII o XXIV, Napoletano, Cossa (c. 1410, cessò dal pontificare 29 mag. 1415
  40. ^ Paschal Robinson (1913). "Antipope" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  41. ^ a b Paschal Robinson (1913). "Chronological Lists of Popes" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  42. ^ Paschal Robinson (1913). "Popess Joan" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  43. ^ "I Choose John ..." Time. 10 November 1958. p. 91.
  44. ^ Paschal Robinson (1913). "Pope Martin IV" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  45. ^ Weaver, MJ., and Appleby, RS., Being Right: Conservative Catholics in America, Indiana University Press, 1 January 1995, p. 257.
  46. ^ Flinn, FK., Encyclopedia of Catholicism, 2007, p. 566.

General sources[edit]

  • The Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451, Adrian Fortescue, Ignatius Press, 2008.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, John N.D. Kelly, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • Catholicism, Henri de Lubac, Ignatius Press, 1988.
  • Rome and the Eastern Churches, Aidan Nichols, Ignatius Press, 2010.
  • I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.
  • Rome Sweet Home, Scott Hahn, Ignatius Press, 1993.
  • Enciclopedia dei Papi, AA.VV., Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000.

External links[edit]