List of popes

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This article is about the Catholic Church. For popes of the Coptic Orthodox Church, see List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria. For popes of the Legio Maria, see List of Legio Maria Popes. For Palmarian popes, see Palmarian Catholic Church#Popes. For a graphical representation of this list, see List of Popes (graphical).
Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St Peter's (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes.[1] The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.[2]

The term pope (Latin: papa "father") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.[3]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. The first 31 popes, with the exception of Zephyrinus, died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

Chronological list of popes[edit]

1st–5th century[edit]

1st century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Latin
Personal name Place of birth Notes
1 33 – 64/67 Pope-peter pprubens.jpg St Peter
Šimʻōn Kêpâ (Simon Peter) Bethsaida, Galilea, Syria, Roman Empire Apostle of Jesus from whom he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 16:18–19. Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. He is recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.[4]
2 64/67(?) – 76/79(?) Linus2.jpg St Linus
Linus Tuscia, Italia Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
3 76/79(?) – 92 Popeanacletus.JPG St Anacletus
Anacletus Rome Martyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus[5]
4 92 – 99 Pope Clement I.jpg St Clement I
Clemens Rome Feast day 23 November. Issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
5 99 – 107 Pope Evaristus.jpg St Evaristus
Aristus Bethlehem, Judea Said to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.

2nd century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
6 107 – 115 Pope Alexander I.jpg St Alexander I
Alexander Rome Inaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
7 115/116 – 125 Raphael - Saint Sixtus.JPG St Sixtus I
Xystus Rome Feast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
8 125 – 136/138 Telesphorus.JPG St Telesphorus
Telesphorus Terranova da Sibari, Calabria Feast day of 5 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 22 February. Church Father St. Irenaeus called him a great martyr.
9 136/138 – 140/142 Hyginus.jpg St Hyginus
Ygínos Athens, Greece Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 11 January
10 140/142 – 155 Pope Pius I.jpg St Pius I
Pius Aquileia, Friuli Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
11 155 – 20 April 168 Papa Aniceto cropped.jpg St Anicetus
Anicitus Emesa, Syria Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
12 168 – 174 Soter.jpg St Soter
Soterius Fondi, Latium Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
13 174 – 24 May 189 Eleutherius.jpg St Eleuterus
Eleutherius Nicopoli, Epirus Greece Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 6 May
14 189 – 198/199 Victor I..jpg St Victor I
Victor Roman Africa Known for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
15 199–20 December 217 Saintz05.jpg St Zephyrinus
Zephyrinus Rome Combated against the adoptionist heresies of the followers of Theodotus the Byzantium who were ruled by Theodotus, the Money Changer and Asclepiodotus.

Although not physically martyred, he is called a martyr for the suffering he endured.

3rd century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
16 c. 217 – 222 Pope Callixtus I.jpg St Callixtus I
Callistus Iberian Peninsula Martyred; feast day 14 October.
17 222 – 23 May 230 UrbanI.jpg St Urban I
Urbanus Rome Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
18 21 July 230
– 28 September 235
(5 years, 69 days)
Pope Pontian Illustration.jpg St Pontian
Pontianus Rome First to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his death on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.[6][7]
19 21 November 235
– 3 January 236
(43 days)
Pope Anterus.jpg St Anterus
Anterus Petilia Policastro - Calabria Feast day 3 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
20 10 January 236
– 20 January 250
(14 years, 10 days)
Saint Fabian1.jpg St Fabian
Fabianus Rome Divided the communities of Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
21 6/11 March 251
– June 253
(2 years+)
Heiliger Cornelius.jpg St Cornelius
Cornelius Rome Died a martyr through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September.
22 25 June 253
– 5 March 254
(256 days)
Pope Lucius I.jpg St Lucius I
Lucius Rome Feast day 5 March.
23 12 May 254
– 2 August 257
(3 years, 82 days)
Pope Stephen I.jpg St Stephen I
Stephanus Rome Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
24 31 August 257
– 6 August 258
(341 days)
Pope Sixtus II.jpg St Sixtus II
XYSTUS Secundus
Sixtus Greece Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
25 22 July 259
– 26 December 268
(9 years, 157 days)
Pope Dionysius.jpg St Dionysius
Dionysius Greece Feast day 26 December
26 5 January 269
– 30 December 274
(5 years, 359 days)
PopeFelixI.jpg St Felix I
Felix Rome  
27 4 January 275
– 7 December 283
(8 years, 337 days)
Pope Eutychian.jpg St Eutychian
Eutychianus Tuscany  
28 17 December 283
– 22 April 296
(12 years, 127 days)
Pope Caius I.jpg St Caius
Gaius Salona, Dalmatia Martyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
29 30 June 296
– 1 April 304
(7 years, 276 days)
Pope Marcellinus.jpg St Marcellinus
Marcellinus Rome Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
30 308–309 Papa Marcelo I.jpg St Marcellus I
Marcellus Italia Banished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
31 18 April – 17 August 309 or 310 PopeEusebius.jpg St Eusebius
Eusebius Sardinia Banished by the emperor Maxentius, and died in exile.
32 2 July 311
– 10 January 314
(2 years, 192 days)
Pope Miltiades.jpg St Miltiades
Miltiades (or Melchiades) Africa First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
33 31 January 314
– 31 December 335
(21 years, 334 days)
Sylvester I.jpg St Sylvester I
Silvester Sant'Angelo a Scala, Avellino Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea (325). Under him was built: the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St. Peter's Basilica. Donation of Constantine.
34 18 January 336
– 7 October 336
(263 days)
Pope Mark.jpg St Mark
Marcus Rome One of Mark's undertakings was to compile stories of the lives of martyrs and bishops before his time. There is some reason to believe he founded two churches in the area of Rome. One of them is still known to this day as the Church of San Marco, although it is greatly changed since his time. The other church was at the Catacomb of Balbina, a cemetery. Emperor Constantine gave gifts of land and furnishing for both buildings. Feast day 7 October
35 6 February 337
– 12 April 352
(15 years, 66 days)
Pope Julius I.jpg St Julius I
Iulius Rome Arian controversy. Credited with splitting the birth of Christ into two distinct celebrations: The Epiphany stayed on the traditional date, and the Nativity was added on 25 December.
36 17 May 352
– 24 September 366
(14 years, 130 days)
Pope Liberius.jpg Liberius
Liberius Rome Earliest pope not canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.[8]
37 1 October 366
– 11 December 384
(18 years, 71 days)
Damasoc.jpg St Damasus I
Damasus Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Council of Rome (382).
38 11 December 384
– 26 November 399
(14 years, 350 days)
Pope Siricius.jpg St Siricius
Sicirius Rome His famous letters—the earliest surviving texts of papal decretals—focus particularly on religious discipline and include decisions on baptism, consecration, ordination, penance, and continence. Siricius’ important decretal of 386 (written to Bishop Himerius of Tarragona), commanding celibacy for priests, was the first decree on this subject.[9]
39 27 November 399
– 19 December 401
(2 years, 22 days)
Pope Anastasius I.jpg St Anastasius I
Anastasius Rome Instructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the Gospels.

5th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
40 22 December 401
– 12 March 417
(15 years, 80 days)
Pope Innocent I.jpg St Innocent I
  Albano, Latium Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric
41 18 March 417
– 26 December 418
(1 year, 283 days)
Pope Zosimus.jpg St Zosimus
  Mesoraca, Calabria  
42 28 December 418
– 4 September 422
(3 years, 250 days)
Pope Boniface I Illustration.jpg St Boniface I
43 10 September 422
– 27 July 432
(9 years, 321 days)
Pope Celestine I.jpg St Celestine I
  Rome, Western Roman Empire Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
44 31 July 432
– 18 August 440
(8 years, 18 days)
Pope Sixtus III.jpg St Sixtus III
Papa SIXTUS Tertius
45 29 September 440
– 10 November 461
(21 years, 43 days)
Herrera mozo San León magno Lienzo. Óvalo. 164 x 105 cm. Museo del Prado.jpg St Leo I
(Leo the Great)
  Rome Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
46 19 November 461
– 29 February 468
(6 years, 102 days)
Nuremberg chronicles - Hilarius, Pope (CXXXVIv).jpg St Hilarius
Hilarius Sardinia  
47 3 March 468
– 10 March 483
(15 years, 7 days)
Sansimpliciopapa.jpg St Simplicius
Simplicius Tivoli  
48 13 March 483
– 1 March 492
(8 years, 354 days)
Felix3.jpg St Felix III (Felix II)
Papa FELIX Tertius (Secundus)
Felice Rome Sometimes called Felix II
49 1 March 492
– 21 November 496
(4 years, 265 days)
Pope Gelasius I.jpg St Gelasius I
Gelasius Africa The last pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. The first pope called the "Vicar of Christ".[10]
50 24 November 496
– 19 November 498
(1 year, 360 days)
Pope Anastasius II.jpg Anastasius II
Papa ANASTASIUS Secundus
Anastasius Rome Tried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism.
51 22 November 498
– 19 July 514
(15 years, 239 days)
Simmaco - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpg St Symmachus
Simmaco Sardinia  

6th–15th centuries[edit]

6th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
52 20 July 514
– 19 July 523
(8 years, 364 days)
Pope Hormisdas Illustration.jpg St Hormisdas
Hormisdas Frosinone, Southern Latium Father of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
53 13 August 523
– 18 May 526
(2 years, 278 days)
Papa Ioannes I.jpg St John I
Giovanni Toscana  
54 13 July 526
– 22 September 530
(4 years, 71 days)
Mosaic of Felix IV (III) in Santi Cosma e Damiano, Rome, Italy (527–530).jpg St Felix IV (Felix III)
Papa FELIX Quartus (Tertius)
Felice Samnium Sometimes called Felix III. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
55 22 September 530
– 17 October 532
(2 years, 25 days)
Pope Boniface II.jpg Boniface II
Papa BONIFATIUS Secundus
Bonifacio Rome to Ostrogoth parents Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
56 2 January 533
– 8 May 535
(2 years, 126 days)
Pope John II.jpg John II
Papa IOHANNES Secundus
Mercurio Rome First pope not to use his personal name. This was because of the Roman god, Mercury.
57 13 May 535
– 22 April 536
(346 days)
Agapitus I.jpg St Agapetus I
Agapito Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom Feast days 22 April and 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
58 1 June 536
– 11 November 537
(1 year, 163 days)
Silverius2.jpg St Silverius
Silverius Italia Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas
59 29 March 537
– 7 June 555
(18 years, 70 days)
Pope Vigilius.jpg Vigilius
60 16 April 556
– 4 March 561
(4 years, 322 days)
Pope Pelagius I Illustration.jpg Pelagius I
  Rome Credited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
61 17 July 561
– 13 July 574
(12 years, 361 days)
Pope John III.jpg John III
Papa IOANNES Tertius
Catelinus Rome, Eastern Roman Empire  
62 2 June 575
– 30 July 579
(4 years, 58 days)
Pope Benedict I.jpg Benedict I
63 26 November 579
– 7 February 590
(10 years, 73 days)
Pope Pelagius II.jpg Pelagius II
Papa PELAGIUS Secundus
  Rome Ordered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
64 3 September 590
– 12 March 604
(13 years, 191 days)
Gregorythegreat.jpg St Gregory I
(Gregory the Great)
Rome The first formally to employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St. Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.

7th Century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
65 13 September 604
– 22 February 606
(1 year, 162 days)
Pope Sabinian.jpg Sabinian
66 19 February 607
– 12 November 607
(267 days)
Pope Boniface III.jpg Boniface III
Bonifacio Rome  
67 25 August 608
– 8 May 615
(6 years, 256 days)
Pope Boniface IV.jpg St Boniface IV
Marsi First pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
68 19 October 615
– 8 November 618
(3 years, 20 days)
Adeodatus I (Deusdedit I).jpg St Adeodatus I
  Rome Sometimes called Deusdedit, as a result Pope Adeodatus II is sometimes called Pope Adeodatus without a number. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called Papal bulls.
69 23 December 619
– 25 October 625
(5 years, 306 days)
Pope Boniface V.jpg Boniface V
Bonifacio Naples  
70 27 October 625
– 12 October 638
(12 years, 350 days)
Onorio I - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpg Honorius I
Onorio Campania, Byzantine Empire Named a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople (680)
71 28 May 640
– 2 August 640
(66 days)
Pope Severinus.jpg Severinus
Severino Rome  
72 24 December 640
– 12 October 642
(1 year, 292 days)
Pope John IV.jpg John IV
Papa IOANNES Quartus
  Zadar, Dalmatia, Byzantine Empire
73 24 November 642
– 14 May 649
(6 years, 171 days)
Pope Theodore I.jpg Theodore I
  Jerusalem The last pope from Palestine. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but died before it could open.
74 21 July 649
– 16 September 655
(6 years, 57 days)
Pope Martin I.jpg St Martin I
Martino Near Todi, Umbria, Byzantine Empire Last pope recognized as a martyr. Feast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
75 10 August 654
– 1 June 657
(2 years, 295 days)
Pope Eugene I.jpg St Eugene I
Eugenio Rome  
76 30 July 657
– 27 January 672
(14 years, 181 days)
Pope Vitalian Illustration.jpg St Vitalian
  Segni, Byzantine Empire  
77 11 April 672
– 17 June 676
(4 years, 67 days)
Pope Adeodatus II Illustration.jpg Adeodatus II
Papa ADEODATUS Secundus
Rome, Byzantine Empire Sometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) in reference to Pope Adeodatus I sometimes being called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
78 2 November 676
– 11 April 678
(1 year, 160 days)
Dono I.jpg Donus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire  
79 27 June 678
– 10 January 681
(2 years, 197 days)
Pope Agatho.jpg St Agatho
  Sicily Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
80 17 August 682
– 28 June 683
(315 days)
Pope Leo II.jpg St Leo II
Papa LEO Secundus
Leo Sicily Feast day 3 July
81 26 June 684
– 8 May 685
(317 days)
Pope Benedict II.jpg St Benedict II
Papa BENEDICTUS Secundus
Benedetto Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 7 May
82 12 July 685
– 2 August 686
(1 year, 21 days)
Pope John V.jpg John V
Papa IOANNES Quintus
83 21 October 686
– 22 September 687
(335 days)
Pope Conon.jpg Conon
84 15 December 687
– 8 September 701
(13 years, 267 days)
Pope Sergius I.jpg St Sergius I
  Sicily Introduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass.[10]

8th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
85 30 October 701
– 11 January 705
(3 years, 73 days)
Pope John VI.jpg John VI
Papa IOANNES Sextus
86 1 March 705
– 18 October 707
(2 years, 231 days)
Byzantinischer Mosaizist um 705 002.jpg John VII
Papa IOANNES Septimus
  Rossano, Calabria The second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
87 15 January 708
– 4 February 708
(21 days)
Pope Sisinnius.jpg Sisinnius
88 25 March 708
– 9 April 715
(7 years, 15 days)
Pope Constantine.jpg Constantine
  Syria Last pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001.
89 19 May 715
– 11 February 731
(15 years, 268 days)
Pope Gregory II.jpg St Gregory II
Papa GREGORIUS Secundus
Gregorio Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
90 18 March 731
– 28 November 741
(10 years, 255 days)
Pope Gregory III Illustration.jpg St Gregory III
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius
  Syria The third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Was previously the last pope to have been born outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
91 3 December 741
– 22 March 752
(10 years, 110 days)
Pope Zachary Illustration.jpg St Zachary
  Santa Severina - Calabria Feast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
(never consecrated) 23 March 752
– 25 March 752
(Never took office as pope)
Pope-elect Stephen.jpg Pope-elect Stephen
Papa Electus STEPHANUS
    Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election; never receiving episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
92 26 March 752
– 26 April 757
(5 years, 31 days)
Pope Stephen II.jpg Stephen II (Stephen III)
Papa STEPHANUS Secundus (Tertius)
  Rome Sometimes called Stephen III. The Donation of Pepin. Brother of Paul I.
93 29 May 757
– 28 June 767
(10 years, 30 days)
Pope Paul I.jpg St Paul I
Paolo Rome Brother of Stephen II.
94 7 August 768
– 24 January 772
(3 years, 170 days)
Pope Stephen III.jpg Stephen III (Stephen IV)
Papa STEPHANUS Tertius (Quartus)
Stefano Sicily Sometimes called Stephen IV. The Lateran Council (769).
95 1 February 772
– 26 December 795
(23 years, 328 days)
Pope Adrian I Illustration.jpg Adrian I
Adriano Rome  
96 26 December 795
– 12 June 816
(20 years, 169 days)
Leo III.jpg St Leo III
Papa LEO Tertius
Leo Rome Crowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy.

9th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at election / death or resigned # years as pope Notes
97 12 June 816
– 24 January 817
(226 days)
Pope Stephen IV.jpg Stephen IV (Stephen V)
Papa STEPHANUS Quartus (Quintus)
Stephanus Rome   <1 Sometimes called Stephen V.
98 25 January 817
– 11 February 824
(7 years, 17 days)
Pope Paschalis I. in apsis mosaic of Santa Prassede in Rome.gif St Paschal I
Pasquale Rome   7 Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
99 8 May 824
– 27 August 827
(3 years, 111 days)
Pope Eugene II.jpg Eugene II
Papa EUGENIUS Secundus
Eugenio Rome   3  
100 31 August 827
– 10 October 827
(40 days)
Pope Valentine.jpg Valentine
Valentino Rome   <1  
101 December 827
– 25 January 844
(17 years+)
Pope Gregory IV.jpg Gregory IV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus
Gregorio Rome   17 Rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter’s Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory I.
102 25 January 844
– 7 January 847
(2 years, 347 days)
Pope Sergius II Illustration.jpg Sergius II
Papa SERGIUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
103 27 January 847
– 17 July 855
(8 years, 171 days)
Pope St. Leo IV.jpg St Leo IV
Papa LEO Quartus
Rome   8 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
104 29 July 855
– 7 April 858
(2 years, 252 days)
Pope Benedict III Illustration.jpg Benedict III
Benedetto Rome      
105 24 April 858
– 13 November 867
(9 years, 203 days)
NicholasI.jpg St Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
Niccolò Rome   9 Encouraged missionary activity.
106 14 December 867
– 14 December 872
(5 years, 0 days)
Pope Adrian II.jpg Adrian II
Papa HADRIANUS Secundus
Adriano Rome   5  
107 14 December 872
– 16 December 882
(10 years, 2 days)
Pope John VIII Illustration.jpg John VIII
Papa IOANNES Octavus
Giovanni Rome   10  
108 16 December 882
– 15 May 884
(1 year, 151 days)
Pope Marinus I.jpg Marinus I
Marino Gallese, Rome   1  
109 17 May 884
– July 885
(1 year+)
Pope Adrian III.jpg St Adrian III
Papa HADRIANUS Tertius
Adriano Rome      
110 September 885
– 14 September 891
(4 years+)
Pope Stephen V.jpg Stephen V (Stephen VI)
Papa STEPHANUS Quintus (Sextus)
Stefano Rome     Sometimes called Stephen VI.
111 19 September 891
– 4 April 896
(4 years, 198 days)
Pope Formosus.jpg Formosus
Formoso Ostia   4 Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod.
112 4 April 896
– 19 April 896
Pope Boniface VI.jpg Boniface VI
Bonifacio Rome   <1  
113 22 May 896
– 14 August 897
(1 year, 84 days)
Pope Stephen VI.jpg Stephen VI (Stephen VII)
Papa STEPHANUS Sextus (Septimus)
Stefano Rome   1 Sometimes called Stephen VII. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
114 August 897 – November 897 Pope Romanus Illustration.jpg Romanus
Romano Gallese, Rome   <1  
115 December 897 - 20 December 897 Pope Theodore II.jpg Theodore II
Papa THEODORUS Secundus
Teodoro Rome   <1  
116 January 898
– January 900
(2 years+)
Pope John IX.jpg John IX
Papa IOANNES Nonus
Tivoli     Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
117 1 February 900
– July 903
(3 years+)
Pope Benedict IV Illustration.jpg Benedict IV
Benedetto Rome      

10th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at election / death or resigned # years as pope Notes
118 July 903 – September 903 Pope Leo V Illustration.jpg Leo V
Papa LEO Quintus
Leo Ardea   <1  
119 29 January 904
– 14 April 911
(7 years, 75 days)
SergiusIII.jpg Sergius III
Papa SERGIUS Tertius
Sergio Rome   7 "Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
120 April 911 – June 913 Pope Anastasius III Illustration.jpg Anastasius III
  Rome   2  
121 July/August 913 – 25 February 914 Pope Lando.jpg Lando
Lando Sabina   <1  
122 March 914 – May 928 Pope John X Illustration.jpg John X
Papa IOANNES Decimus
Giovanni Romagna   14  
123 June 928 – February 929 Pope Leo VI Illustration.jpg Leo VI
Papa LEO Sextus
Leo Rome   <1  
124 February 929 – 15 March 931 Pope Stephen VII.jpg Stephen VII (Stephen VIII)
Papa STEPHANUS Septimus (Octavus)
Stefano Rome   2 Sometimes called Stephen VIII.
125 February/March 931 – December 935 Ioannes XI.jpg John XI
Papa IOANNES Undecimus
Giovanni Rome   4  
126 3 January 936
– 13 July 939
(3 years, 191 days)
Pope Leo VII.jpg Leo VII
Papa LEO Septimus
Rome   3 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
127 14 July 939 – October 942 Pope Stephen VIII.jpg Stephen VIII (Stephen IX)
Papa STEPHANUS Octavus (Nonus)
Stephan Rome   3 Sometimes called Stephen IX.
128 30 October 942
– 10 May 946
(3 years, 192 days)
Pope Marinus II.jpg Marinus II
Papa MARINUS Secundus
Marino Rome   3  
129 10 May 946
– 8 December 955
(9 years, 212 days)
Pope Agapetus II Illustration.jpg Agapetus II
Papa AGAPITUS Secundus
Agapito Rome   9  
130 16 December 955
– 14 May 964
(8 years, 150 days)
Pope John XII.jpg John XII
Papa IOANNES Duodecimus
Octavian Rome   8 Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
131 22 May 964
– 23 June 964
(32 days)
Pope Benedict V.jpg Benedict V
  Rome   <1 Elected by the people of Rome, in opposition to the Antipope Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo VIII as the sole pope.
132 July 964 – 1 March 965 Pope Leo VIII.jpg Leo VIII
Papa LEO Octavus
  Rome   <1 Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. He became the true pope after Benedict V was deposed.
133 1 October 965
– 6 September 972
(6 years, 341 days)
Pope John XIII.jpg John XIII
Papa IOANNES Tertius Decimus
  Rome   6 Chronicled after his death as "the Good".
134 19 January 973
– June 974
(1 year+)
Pope Benedict VI.jpg Benedict VI
  Rome, Papal States   1 Deposed and murdered.
135 October 974 – 10 July 983 Pope Benedict VII Illustration.jpg Benedict VII
Papa BENEDICTUS Septimus
  Rome   8  
136 December 983 – 20 August 984 Pope John XIV Illustration.jpg John XIV
Papa IOANNES Quartus Decimus
Pietro Campanora Pavia   <1  
137 August 985
– March 996
(8 years+)
Pope John XV Illustration.jpg John XV
Papa IOANNES Quintus Decimus
John Rome   10 The first pope to formally canonize a saint.
138 3 May 996
– 18 February 999
(2 years, 291 days)
Pope Gregory V.jpg Gregory V
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus
Bruno of Carinthia Germany, Holy Roman Empire   2 First German Pope
139 2 April 999
– 12 May 1003
(4 years, 40 days)
Pope Sylvester II.jpg Sylvester II
Papa SILVESTER Secundus
Gerbert d'Aurillac Auvergne region of France   4 The first French pope.

11th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
140 June 1003
– 6 December 1003
Pope John XVII.jpg John XVII
Papa IOANNES Septimus Decimus
Siccone Rome, Papal States  
141 25 December 1003
– July 1009
(5 years+)
Pope John XVIII.jpg John XVIII
Papa IOANNES Duodevicesimus
Giovanni Fasano; Phasianus Rapagnano, Papal States  
142 31 July 1009
– 12 May 1012
(2 years, 286 days)
Sergius IV.jpg Sergius IV
Papa SERGIUS Quartus
Pietro Martino Boccapecora, O.S.B. Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
143 18 May 1012
– 9 April 1024
(11 years, 327 days)
Pope Benedict VIII.jpg Benedict VIII
Theophylactus II, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
144 April/May 1024
– 20 October 1032
(8 years+)
Pope John XIX.jpg John XIX
Papa IOANNES Undevicesimus
Romanus, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
145 20 October 1032 – 31 December 1044

(12 years, 72 days)

Pope Benedict IX.jpg Benedict IX
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 1st Term
146 1 January 1045 - 31 March 1045

(0 years, 89 days)

Silvestro3.jpg Sylvester III
Papa SILVESTER Tertius
John, Bishop of Sabina Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Validity of election questioned; considered Anti-Pope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
147 1 April 1045 – 10 November 1045

(0 years, 223 days)

Pope Benedict IX.jpg Benedict IX
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 2nd Term; deposed at the Council of Sutri
148 10 November 1045– 23 December 1046

(1 year, 43 days)

B Gregor VI.jpg Gregory VI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus,
Johannes Gratianus Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Deposed at the Council of Sutri
149 24 December 1046
– 9 October 1047

(0 years, 289 days)

ClemensII.jpg Clement II
Papa CLEMENS Secundus
Suidger Hornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire Appointed by Henry III at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor.
150 November 1047 – 17 July 1048 Pope Benedict IX.jpg Benedict IX
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 3rd Term; deposed and excommunicated
151 17 July 1048
– 9 August 1048
(0 years, 23 days)
Pope Damasus II.jpg Damasus II
Papa DAMASUS Secundus
Poppo Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire  
152 12 February 1049
– 19 April 1054
(5 years, 66 days)
Leon IX.jpg St Leo IX
Papa LEO Nonus
Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg Eguisheim, Swabia, Holy Roman Empire In 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.[11]
153 13 April 1055
– 28 July 1057
(2 years, 106 days)
Pope Victor II.jpg Victor II
Papa VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg Kingdom of Germany, Holy Roman Empire  
154 2 August 1057
– 29 March 1058
(0 years, 241 days)
B Stephan IX.jpg Stephen IX (Stephen X)
Papa STEPHANUS Nonus (Decimus)
Frédéric de Lorraine, O.S.B. Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
155 6 December 1058
– 27 July 1061
(2 years, 233 days)
Papa Nicolau II.jpg Nicholas II
Papa NICOLAUS Secundus
Gérard de Bourgogne Château de Chevron, Kingdom of Arles In 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini. (Papal conclave).
156 30 September 1061
– 21 April 1073
(11 years, 203 days)
Papa Alexandre II.jpg Alexander II
Papa ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da Baggio Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Authorised the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
157 22 April 1073
– 25 May 1085
(12 years, 33 days)
Pope Gregory VII.jpg St Gregory VII
Papa GREGORIUS Septimus
Sovana, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Initiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the title "Papa" to the Bishop of Rome.[4] Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with German Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
158 24 May 1086
– 16 September 1087
(1 year, 115 days)
Pope Victor III.jpg Bl. Victor III
Papa VICTOR Tertius
Desiderio; Desiderius; Dauferius
Benevento, Duchy of Benevento Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Called the Synod of Benevento (1087) condemning lay investiture.
159 12 March 1088
– 29 July 1099
(11 years, 139 days)
Pope Urban II.jpg Bl. Urban II
Papa URBANUS Secundus
Odo of Lagery, O.S.B. Lagery, County of Champagne, France Preached and started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
160 13 August 1099
– 21 January 1118
(18 years, 161 days)
Pope Paschal II.jpg Paschal II
Papa PASCHALIS Secundus
Bleda, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.

12th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
161 24 January 1118
– 28 January 1119
(1 year, 4 days)
Pope Gelasius II.jpg Gelasius II
Papa GELASIUS Secundus
Giovanni Coniulo, O.S.B. Gaeta, Principality of Capua Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
162 2 February 1119
– 13 December 1124
(5 years, 315 days)
Pope Callixtus II.jpg Callixtus II
Papa CALLISTUS Secundus
Guido, Comte de Bourgogne Quingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123
163 15 December 1124
– 13 February 1130
(5 years, 60 days)
Pope Honorius II.jpg Honorius II
Papa HONORIUS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can.Reg. Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno. Approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.
164 14 February 1130
– 24 September 1143
(13 years, 222 days)
B Innozenz II.jpg Innocent II
Gregorio Papareschi, Can.Reg. Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of Lateran; Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139
165 26 September 1143
– 8 March 1144
(164 days)
Pope Celestine II.jpg Celestine II
Guido Città di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
166 12 March 1144
– 15 February 1145
(340 days)
B Lucius II.jpg Lucius II
Papa LUCIUS Secundus
Gerardo Caccianemici dal Orso, Can.Reg. Bologna, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca
167 15 February 1145
– 8 July 1153
(8 years, 143 days)
B Eugen III.jpg Bl. Eugene III
Papa EUGENIUS Tertius
Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno, O.Cist.[12] Pisa, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
168 8 July 1153
– 3 December 1154
(1 year, 148 days)
B Anastasius IV.jpg Anastasius IV
Corrado Demetri della Suburra Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
169 4 December 1154
– 1 September 1159
(4 years, 271 days)
Pope Adrian IV.jpg Adrian IV
Papa HADRIANUS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear, Can.Reg. Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of England First and only English pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Canon Regular of St. Rufus Monastery .
170 7 September 1159
– 30 August 1181
(21 years, 357 days)
B-Alexander III1.jpg Alexander III
Papa ALEXANDER Tertius
Rolando Siena, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179
171 1 September 1181
– 25 November 1185
(4 years, 85 days)
Pope Lucius III.png Lucius III
Papa LUCIUS Tertius
Ubaldo Allucingoli Lucca, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  
172 25 November 1185
– 19 October 1187
(1 year, 328 days)
B Urban III.jpg Urban III
Papa URBANUS Tertius
Uberto Crivelli Cuggiono, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  
173 21 October 1187
– 17 December 1187
(57 days)
B Gregor VIII.jpg Gregory VIII
Papa GREGORIUS Octavus
Alberto di Morra, Can.Reg. Benevento, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade.
174 19 December 1187
– 20 March 1191[13]
(3 years, 91 days)
A08 CLEMENTE III.jpg Clement III
Papa CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo Scolari Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
175 Orsini-roma-stemma.jpg 21 March 1191
– 8 January 1198
(6 years, 293 days)
Celestin III.jpg Celestine III

Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis
("Going in Thy path")

Giacinto Bobone Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.
176 C o a Innocenzo III.svg 8 January 1198
– 16 July 1216
(18 years, 190 days)
Innozenz3.jpg Innocent III
Lothario dei Conti di Segni Gavignano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities.[14]

13th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
177C o a Onorio IV.svg 18 July 1216
– 18 March 1227
(10 years, 243 days)
B Honorius III3.jpg Honorius III
Papa HONORIUS Tertius
Cencio Savelli Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Initiated the Fifth Crusade. Approved several religious and tertiary orders.
178C o a Innocenzo III.svg 19 March 1227
– 22 August 1241
(14 years, 156 days)
PopeGregoryIX.jpg Gregory IX
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canonized Elisabeth of Hungary (1235). Initiated the Inquisition in France and endorsed the Northern Crusades.
179C o a Celestino IV.svg 25 October 1241
– 10 November 1241
(16 days)
B Colestin IV.jpg Celestine IV
Goffredo Castiglioni Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Died before coronation.
180C o a Adriano V.svg 25 June 1243
– 7 December 1254
(11 years, 165 days)
A14 INNOCENZO IV.jpg Innocent IV
Sinibaldo Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire Convened the First Council of Lyons (1245). Issued the bull Ad extirpanda that permitted the torture of heretics (1252).
181C o a Innocenzo III.svg 12 December 1254
– 25 May 1261
(6 years, 164 days)
B Alexander IV.jpg Alexander IV
Papa ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne Jenne, Papal States Established an Inquisition in France.
182C o a Urbano IV.svg 29 August 1261
– 2 October 1264
(3 years, 34 days)
Pope Urban IV.jpg Urban IV
Papa URBANUS Quartus
Jacques Pantaléon Troyes, County of Champagne, France Instituted the feast of Corpus Christi (1264).
183C o a Clemente IV.svg 5 February 1265
– 29 November 1268
(3 years, 298 days)
Papst Clemens IV.jpg Clement IV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus
Gui Faucoi Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, France  
N/A 29 November 1268
– 1 September 1271
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Almost 3 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184C o a Gregorio X.svg 1 September 1271
– 10 January 1276
(4 years, 131 days)
B Gregor X.jpg Bl. Gregory X
Papa GREGORIUS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S Piacenza, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Second Council of Lyons (1274). Responsible for regulation all papal conclaves until the 20th century.
185C o a Innocenzo V.svg 21 January 1276
– 22 June 1276
(153 days)
InnocenzoV.jpg Bl. Innocent V
Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P. County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Dominican Order.
186C o a Adriano V.svg 11 July 1276
– 18 August 1276
(38 days)
Papa Adriano V.jpg Adrian V
Papa HADRIANUS Quintus
Ottobuono Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire Annulled Gregory X's papal bull on the regulations of papal conclaves.
187C o a Giovanni XXI.svg 8 September 1276
– 20 May 1277
(254 days)
B Johannes XXI.jpg John XXI
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano) Lisbon, Portugal Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, there was no John XX. There has never been a John XX, because the 20th pope of this name formerly when elected, decided to skip the number XX and be counted as John XXI instead. He wanted to correct what in his time was believed to be an error in the counting of his predecessors John XV to XIX
188C o a Niccolo III.svg 25 November 1277
– 22 August 1280
(2 years, 271 days)
NicholasIII.jpg Nicholas III
Papa NICOLAUS Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
189C o a Martino IV.svg 22 February 1281
– 28 March 1285
(4 years, 34 days)
B Martin IV.jpg Martin IV
Papa MARTINUS Quartus
Simon de Brion Meinpicien, Touraine, France  
190C o a Onorio IV.svg 2 April 1285
– 3 April 1287
(2 years, 1 day)
PopeOnorioIV.jpg Honorius IV
Papa HONORIUS Quartus
Giacomo Savelli Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
191C o a Niccolo IV.svg 22 February 1288
– 4 April 1292
(4 years, 42 days)
NicholasIV.jpg Nicholas IV
Papa NICOLAUS Quartus
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. Lisciano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Franciscan Order.
N/A 4 April 1292
– 5 July 1294
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
192C o a Celestino V.svg 5 July 1294
– 13 December 1294
(161 days)
Celestinus quintus.jpg St Celestine V
Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B. Sant'Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily One of the few popes who resigned voluntarily. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Founded the Celestines.
193C o a Bonifacio VIII.svg 24 December 1294
– 11 October 1303
(8 years, 291 days)
Bonifatius viii papst.jpg Boniface VIII
Benedetto Caetani Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Formalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued Unam Sanctam (1302) which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.

14th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
194C o a Benedetto XI.svg 22 October 1303
– 7 July 1304
(259 days)
B Benedikt XI.jpg Bl. Benedict XI
Papa BENEDICTUS Undecimus

Illustra faciem Tuam super servum Tuum
("Let Your Face shine upon Your servant")

Niccolò Boccasini, O.P. Treviso Member of the Dominican Order. Reverted Boniface VIII's Unam Sanctam.
195C o a Clemente V.svg 5 June 1305
– 20 April 1314
(8 years, 319 days)
Papa Clemens Quintus.jpg Clement V
Papa CLEMENS Quintus
Bertrand de Got Villandraut, Gascony, France Pope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne (1311–1312). Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip IV of France.
N/A 20 April 1314
– 7 August 1316
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196C o a Giovanni XXII.svg 7 August 1316
– 4 December 1334
(18 years, 119 days)
John22.jpg John XXII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse Cahors, Quercy, France Pope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on the Beatific Vision.
197C o a Benedetto XII.svg 20 December 1334
– 25 April 1342
(7 years, 126 days)
Papa Benedictus Duodecimus.jpg Benedict XII
Papa BENEDICTUS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier, O.Cist. Saverdun, County of Foix, France Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336).
198C o a Gregorio XI.svg 7 May 1342
– 6 December 1352
(10 years, 213 days)
Clemens VI.png Clement VI
Papa CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger, O.S.B. Maumont, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who died of it of their sins.
199C o a Innocenzo VI.svg 18 December 1352
– 12 September 1362
(9 years, 268 days)
Innozenz VI.gif Innocent VI
Étienne Aubert Les Monts, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon. Through his exertions the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) was brought about.
200C o a Urbano V.svg 28 September 1362
– 19 December 1370
(8 years, 82 days)
Urban V.gif Bl. Urban V
Papa URBANUS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B. Grizac, Languedoc, France Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Reformed areas of education and sent missionary movements across Europe and Asia. His pontificate witnessed the Alexandrian and Savoyard crusades.
201C o a Gregorio XI.svg 30 December 1370
– 27 March 1378
(7 years, 87 days)
Papa Gregorius Undecimus.jpg Gregory XI
Papa GREGORIUS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de Beaufort Maumont, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome. The last French pope.
202C o a Urbano VI.svg 8 April 1378
– 15 October 1389
(11 years, 190 days)
Urbanus VI.jpg Urban VI
Papa URBANUS Sextus
Bartolomeo Prignano Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism. Last pontiff to be elected outside the College of Cardinals.
203C o a Bonifacio IX.svg 2 November 1389
– 1 October 1404
(14 years, 334 days)
IX.Bonifac.jpg Boniface IX
Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism.

15th century[edit]

  • R This pope resigned his office.
  • B The exact birth date of Innocent VIII and almost all popes prior to Eugene IV is unknown, therefore the lowest probable age has been assumed for this table.
Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
204C o a Innocenzo VII.svg 17 October 1404
– 6 November 1406
(2 years, 20 days)
Innocent VII.jpg Innocent VII
Cosimo Gentile Migliorati Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples 65 / 67 [B] Western Schism
205C o a Gregorio XII.svg 30 November 1406
– 4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
Gregory XII cropped.png Gregory XII
Papa GREGORIUS Duodecimus
Angelo Correr Venice, Republic of Venice [R] Western Schism; abdicated during the Council of Constance, which had been called by his opponent John XXIII.
N/A 4 July 1415
– 11 November 1417
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected.
206C o a Martino V.svg 11 November 1417
– 20 February 1431
(13 years, 101 days)
Pisanello, copia da Ritratto di Martino V (Galleria Colonna).jpg Martin V
Papa MARTINUS Quintus
Oddone Colonna, O.F.S Genazzano, Papal States 48 / 62 Convened the Council of Basel (1431). Initiated the Hussite Wars.
207C o a Eugenio IV.svg 3 March 1431
– 23 February 1447
(15 years, 357 days)
PapstEugen.jpg Eugene IV
Papa EUGENIUS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A. Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 63 [B] Member of the Augustinian Order. Nephew of Martin V. Crowned Sigismund emperor at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.
208Escudo del papa Nicolás V.svg 6 March 1447
– 24 March 1455
(8 years, 18 days)
Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens.jpg Nicholas V
Papa NICOLAUS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli, O.P. Sarzana, Republic of Genoa 49 / 57 Member of the Dominican Order. Held the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Frederick III emperor at Rome (1452). Issued the Papal Bull Dum Diversas allowing Portugal's right to conquer and subjugate Saracens and pagans (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana.
209Coat of Arms of Pope Callixtus III.svg 8 April 1455
– 6 August 1458
(3 years, 120 days)
Alfonso de Borja, obispo de Valencia y papa Calixto III.jpg Callixtus III
Papa CALLISTUS Tertius
Alfonso de Borja Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 76 / 79 The first Spanish pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated.
210C o a Pio II.svg 19 August 1458
– 15 August 1464
(5 years, 362 days)
Pintoricchio 012.jpg Pius II
Papa PIUS Secundus
Enea Silvio Piccolomini Corsignano, Republic of Siena 52 / 58 Displayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
211Coat of arms of Pope Paul II.png 30 August 1464
– 26 July 1471
(6 years, 330 days)
Pietrobarbo.jpg Paul II
Papa PAULUS Secundus
Pietro Barbo Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 54 The nephew of Eugene IV. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia). Approved the introduction of printing in the Papal States.
212CoA della Rovere popes.svg 9 August 1471
– 12 August 1484
(13 years, 3 days)
Pope Sixtus IV (head).jpg Sixtus IV
Papa XYSTUS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M. Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa 57 / 70 Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel. Authorized an Inquisition targeting converted Jewish Christians in Spain at the request of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.
213C o a Innocenzo VIII.svg 29 August 1484
– 25 July 1492
(7 years, 331 days)
Innocent VIII 1492.JPG Innocent VIII
Giovanni Battista Cybo Genoa, Republic of Genoa 51 / 59 [B] Appointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484).
214C o a Alessandro VI.svg 11 August 1492
– 18 August 1503
(11 years, 7 days)
Pope Alexander Vi.jpg Alexander VI
Roderic Llançol i de Borja Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 61 / 72 Nephew of Callixtus III; father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493). No Alexander V due to the antipope.

16th–20th centuries[edit]

16th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
215C o a Pio II.svg 22 September 1503
– 18 October 1503
(26 days)
PiusIII.jpg Pius III
Papa PIUS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini Siena, Republic of Siena 64 / 64 Nephew of Pius II. Founded the Piccolomini Library adjourning the Siena Cathedral.
216CoA della Rovere popes.svg 31 October 1503
– 21 February 1513
(9 years, 113 days)
Raffaello - Papa Giulio II - Uffizi.jpg Julius II
Papa IULIUS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M. Albisola, Republic of Genoa 59 / 69 Nephew of Sixtus IV; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took control of all the Papal States for the first time. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Proposed plans for rebuilding St Peter's Basilica.
217Medici popes.svg 9 March 1513
– 1 December 1521
(8 years, 267 days)
Pope-leo10.jpg Leo X
Papa LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 37 / 45 Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Closed the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences to those who donated to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica; excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal.
218C o a Adriano VI.svg 9 January 1522
– 14 September 1523
(1 year, 248 days)
Hadrian VI.jpg Adrian VI

Patere et sustine
("Respect and wait")[15]

Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (now Netherlands) 62 / 64 The only Dutch pope; last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. Tutor of Emperor Charles V. Retained his baptismal name as his regnal name.
219Medici popes.svg 26 November 1523
– 25 September 1534
(10 years, 303 days)
Angelo Bronzino - Portrait of Pope Clement VII - WGA3272.jpg Clement VII
Papa CLEMENS Septimus

Candor illæsus
("Unharmed candor")[16]

Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 45 / 56 Cousin of Leo X. Rome plundered by imperial troops (1527). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII; crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530). His niece was married to the future Henry II of France. Ordered Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.
220C o a Paulo III.svg 13 October 1534
– 10 November 1549
(15 years, 28 days)
Portrait du pape Paul III.jpg Paul III
Papa PAULUS Tertius
Alessandro Farnese Canino, Lazio, Papal States 66 / 81 Opened the Council of Trent (1545). His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of Henry VIII. Appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St. Peter's Basilica (1546).
221C o a Giulio III.svg 7 February 1550
– 29 March 1555
(5 years, 50 days)
Julius III.jpg Julius III
Papa IULIUS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte Rome, Lazio, Papal States 62 / 67 Established the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent. The Innocenzo Scandal.
222C o a Marcello II.svg 9 April 1555
– 1 May 1555
(0 years, 22 days)
Pope Marcellus II.jpg Marcellus II
Papa MARCELLUS Secundus
Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi Montefano, Marche, Papal States 53 / 53 The last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures. The Missa Papae Marcelli composed in his honour.
223C o a Paulo IV.svg 23 May 1555
– 18 August 1559
(4 years, 87 days)
Pope Paul IV.PNG Paul IV
Papa PAULUS Quartus

Dominus mihi adjutor
("The Lord is my helper")[17]

Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R. Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples 78 / 83 Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment modestly.
224Medici popes.svg 26 December 1559
– 9 December 1565
(5 years, 348 days)
Pius IV 2.jpg Pius IV
Papa PIUS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Duchy of Milan 60 / 66 Reopened and closed the Council of Trent. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
225C o a Pio V.svg 7 January 1566
– 1 May 1572
(6 years, 115 days)
El Greco 050.jpg St Pius V
Papa PIUS Quintus

Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas
("It binds us to keep")[18]

Antonio Ghislieri, O.P. Bosco, Piedmont, Duchy of Milan 61 / 68 Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Elizabeth I (1570). Battle of Lepanto (1571); instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Issued the 1570 Roman Missal.
226C o a Gregorio XIII.svg 13 May 1572
– 10 April 1585
(12 years, 332 days)
Gregory XIII.jpg Gregory XIII
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius Decimus

Aperuit et clausit
("Opened and closed")[19]

Ugo Boncompagni Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 70 / 83 Reformed the calendar (1582); built the Gregorian Chapel in the Vatican. The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as Patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579). Strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.
227C o a Sisto V.svg 24 April 1585
– 27 August 1590
(5 years, 125 days)
Sixtus V.PNG Sixtus V
Papa XYSTUS Quintus
Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv. Grottammare, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to 70 in number; doubled the number of curial congregations.
228C o a Urbano VII.svg 15 September 1590
– 27 September 1590
(12 days)
Urban VII.jpg Urban VII
Papa URBANUS Septimus
Giovanni Battista Castagna Rome, Lazio, Papal States 69 / 69 Shortest-reigning pope; died before coronation. Set the first known worldwide smoking ban, banning smoking in and near all churches.
229C o a Gregorio XIV.svg 5 December 1590
– 16 October 1591
(0 years, 315 days)
GregorioPPXVI.jpg Gregory XIV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò Sfondrati Somma Lombardo, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 55 / 56 Modified the constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus V so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591). Made gambling on papal elections punishable by excommunication.
230C o a Innocenzo IX.svg 29 October 1591
– 30 December 1591
(62 days)
Innocent IX 2.jpg Innocent IX
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 72 / 72 Supported the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
231C o a Clemente VIII.svg 30 January 1592
– 3 March 1605
(13 years, 32 days)
Papst Clemens VIII Italian 17th century.jpg Clement VIII
Papa CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito Aldobrandini Fano, Marche, Papal States 55 / 69 Initiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as The Long War (1595). Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace.[20]

17th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
232Medici popes.svg 1 April 1605
– 27 April 1605
(26 days)
Leo XI 2.jpg Leo XI
Papa LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici Florence, Duchy of Florence 69 / 69 The nephew of Leo X. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
233C o a Paulo V.svg 16 May 1605
– 28 January 1621
(15 years, 257 days)
Paul V Caravaggio.jpg Paul V
Papa PAULUS Quintus

Absit nisi in te gloriari
("Far, but in your glory")[21]

Camillo Borghese Rome, Lazio, Papal States 52 / 68 Known for various building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605); restored the Aqua Traiana.
234C o a Gregorio XV.svg 9 February 1621
– 8 July 1623
(2 years, 149 days)
Pope Gregory XV.jpg Gregory XV
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro Ludovisi Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 67 / 69 Established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
235C o a Urbano VIII.svg 6 August 1623
– 29 July 1644
(20 years, 358 days)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII.jpg Urban VIII
Papa URBANUS Octavus
Maffeo Barberini Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 55 / 76 Trial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
236C o a Innocenzo X.svg 15 September 1644
– 7 January 1655
(10 years, 114 days)
Diego Velázquez - Portrait of Innocent X - WGA24443.jpg Innocent X

Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram
("Water on earth")[22]

Giovanni Battista Pamphilj Rome, Lazio, Papal States 70 / 80 The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander VI. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.
237C o a Alessandro VII.svg 7 April 1655
– 22 May 1667
(12 years, 45 days)
Alexander VII.jpg Alexander VII
Papa ALEXANDER Septimus

Montium custos
("Mountain guardian")[23]

Fabio Chigi Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 56 / 68 Great-nephew of Paul V. Commissioned St. Peter's Square. Issued the constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum that set the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to that of Pius IX centuries later.
238C o a Clemente IX.svg 20 June 1667
– 9 December 1669
(2 years, 172 days)
Clemens IX.jpg Clement IX
Papa CLEMENS Nonus

Aliis non sibi Clemens
("Clement to others, not to himself")[24]

Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 67 / 69 Commissioned the colonnade of St. Peter's Square. Mediated in the peace of Aachen (1668).
239C o a Clemente X.svg 29 April 1670
– 22 July 1676
(6 years, 84 days)
Clement X.jpg Clement X
Papa CLEMENS Decimus

Bonum auget malum minuit
("He increases good and diminishes evil")[25]

Emilio Bonaventura Altieri Rome, Lazio, Papal States 79 / 86 Canonized the first saint from the Americas: Saint Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.
240C o a Innocenzo XI.svg 21 September 1676
– 12 August 1689
(12 years, 325 days)
Inocencius XI.jpg Bl. Innocent XI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Undecimus

Avarus non Implebitur
("The covetous man is not satisfied")[26]

Benedetto Odescalchi Como, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 65 / 78 Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Extended the Holy Name of Mary as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis.
241C o a Alessandro VIII.svg 6 October 1689
– 1 February 1691
(1 year, 118 days)
Alexander VIII 1.jpg Alexander VIII
Papa ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito Ottoboni Venice, Republic of Venice 79 / 80 Condemned the so-called philosophical sin (1690).
242C o a Innocenzo XII.svg 12 July 1691
– 27 September 1700
(9 years, 77 days)
Pope Innocent XII.PNG Innocent XII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S Spinazzola, Apulia, Kingdom of Naples 76 / 85 Issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.

18th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
243C o a Clemente XI.svg 23 November 1700
– 19 March 1721
(20 years, 116 days)
Clement XI.jpg Clement XI
Papa CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco Albani Urbino, Marche, Papal States 51 / 71 The "Chinese Rites" controversy. Patronized the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs and made the feast of the Immaculate Conception universal.[10]
244C o a Innocenzo XIII.svg 8 May 1721
– 7 March 1724
(2 years, 304 days)
InnocientXIII.jpg Innocent XIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo dei Conti Poli, Lazio, Papal States 65 / 68 Prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China ordering that no new members should be received into the order.
245C o a Benedetto XIII.svg 29 May 1724
– 21 February 1730
(5 years, 268 days)
Benedict XIII.jpg Servant of God Benedict XIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius Decimus
Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P. Gravina in Puglia, Bari, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81 Member of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called Benedict XIV due to the antipope but reverted to XIII. Repealed the worldwide tobacco smoking ban set by Urban VII and Urban VIII.
246C o a Clemente XII.svg 12 July 1730
– 6 February 1740
(9 years, 209 days)
Pope Clement XII, portrait.jpg Clement XII
Papa CLEMENS Duodecimus

Dabis discernere inter malum et bonum
("Distinguish between good and evil")[27]

Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87 Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In eminenti apostolatus (1738).
247C o a Benedetto XIV.svg 17 August 1740
– 3 May 1758
(17 years, 259 days)
Pierre Subleyras Portrait of Benedict XIV 1746. Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg Benedict XIV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus Decimus

Curabuntor omnes
("Will heal all")[28]

Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83 Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas; founded academies of art, religion and science.
248C o a Clemente XIII.svg 6 July 1758
– 2 February 1769
(10 years, 211 days)
ClementXIII.jpeg Clement XIII
Papa CLEMENS Tertius Decimus

Rosa umbriæ
("Umbrian rose")[29]

Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75 Provided the famous fig leaves on nude male statues in the Vatican. Defended the Society of Jesus in "Apostolicum pascendi" (1765).
249C o a Clemente XIV.svg 19 May 1769
– 22 September 1774
(5 years, 126 days)
Portrait du pape Clément XIV Ganganelli.jpg Clement XIV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus Decimus

Ursus velox
("Quick bear")[30]

Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, O.F.M. Conv. Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Society of Jesus in the brief "Dominus ac Redemptor" (1773).
250C o a Pio VI.svg 15 February 1775
– 29 August 1799
(24 years, 195 days)
Pompeo Batoni - Ritratto di Papa Pio VI (National Gallery of Ireland).jpg Pius VI
Papa PIUS Sextus

Floret in domo domini
("It blossoms in the house of God")[31]

Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Condemned the French Revolution; expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death. The last pope to be a patron of Renaissance art.
N/A 29 August 1799
–14 March 1800
Sede vacante.svg Interregnum Six-month period without a valid pope elected. This was due to unique logistical problems (the old pope died a prisoner and the conclave was in Venice) and a deadlock among cardinals voting.

19th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
251C o a Pio VII.svg 14 March 1800
– 20 August 1823
(23 years, 159 days)
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg Servant of God Pius VII
Papa PIUS Septimus

Aquila Rapax
("Rapacious eagle")[32]

Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, O.S.B. Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Briefly expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
252C o a Leone XII.svg 28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
(5 years, 135 days)
Pope Leo XII.PNG Leo XII
Papa LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga Genga, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia (1824). Condemned the Bible societies.
253C o a Pio VIII.svg 31 March 1829
– 30 November 1830
(1 year, 244 days)
Pope Pius VIII.PNG Pius VIII
Papa PIUS Octavus
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Cingoli, Marche, Papal States 67 / 69 Accepted Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations in the brief Litteris altero (1830).
254C o a Gregorio XVI.svg 2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
(15 years, 119 days)
GregorioXVI.jpg Gregory XVI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B. Cam. Belluno, Veneto, Republic of Venice 65 / 80 Member of the Camaldolese Order; last non-bishop to be elected to the papacy. Opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States.
255Pio Nono.svg 16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
(31 years, 236 days)
Popepiusix.jpg Bl. Pius IX
Papa PIUS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, O.F.S. Senigallia, Marche, Papal States 54 / 85 Opened the First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and defined papal infallibility. Issued the controversial Syllabus of Errors. Longest serving pope in history.
256C o a Leone XIII.svg 20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
(25 years, 150 days)
Leo-xiii-sm.jpg Leo XIII
Papa LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, O.F.S. Carpineto Romano, Lazio, Papal States 67 / 93 Issued the encyclical Rerum novarum; supported Christian democracy against Communism. Had the fourth-longest reign after Pius IX, Saint Peter and John Paul II. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars; first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix.

20th century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
257Coat of arms of Pope Pius X.svg 4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
(11 years, 16 days)
PiusX, Bain (cropped).jpg St Pius X
Papa PIUS Decimus

Instaurare Omnia in Christo
("Restore all things in Christ")

Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, O.F.S. Riese, Treviso, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 68 / 79 Encouraged and expanded reception of the Eucharist. Combatted Modernism; issued the oath against it. Advocated the Gregorian Chant and reformed the Roman Breviary.
258CoA Benedetto XV.svg 3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
(7 years, 141 days)
Benedictus XV.jpg Benedict XV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus Decimus

In te, Domine, speravi:
non confundar in aeternum.

("In thee, o Lord, have I trusted: let me not be confounded for evermore.")

Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista Della Chiesa, O.F.S. Genoa, Pegli, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia 59 / 67 Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. Issued the 1917 Code of Canon Law; supported the missionaries in Maximum Illud. Remembered by Benedict XVI as a "prophet of peace".
259C o a Pio XI.svg 6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
(17 years, 4 days)
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-01279, Papst Pius XI..jpg Pius XI
Papa PIUS Undecimus

Pax Christi in Regno Christi
("The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ")

Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti, O.F.S. Desio, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 64 / 81 Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) establishing Vatican City as a sovereign state. Inaugurated Vatican Radio. Re-founded the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Created the feast of Christ the King. Opposed Communism and Nazism.
260Pius 12 coa.svg 2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
(19 years, 221 days)
His Holiness Pope Pius XII.png Ven. Pius XII
Papa PIUS Duodecimus

Opus Justitiae Pax
("The work of justice [shall be] peace")

Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, O.F.S. Rome, Lazio, Kingdom of Italy 63 / 82 Invoked papal infallibility in the encyclical Munificentissimus Deus; defined the dogma of the Assumption. Eliminated the Italian majority of cardinals. Credited with intervening for peace during World War II; controversial for his role in the Holocaust.
261John 23 coa.svg 28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
(4 years, 218 days)
Pope John XXIII - 1959.jpg St John XXIII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius

Obedientia et Pax
("Obedience and peace")

Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, O.F.S. Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Kingdom of Italy 76 / 81 Opened the Second Vatican Council; called "Good Pope John". Issued the encyclical Pacem in terris (1963) on peace and nuclear disarmament; intervened for peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).
262Coat of Arms of Pope Paul VI.svg 21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
(15 years, 46 days)
Pope Paul VI portrait.jpg Bl. Paul VI
Papa PAULUS Sextus

Cum Ipso in Monte
("With Him on the mount")

Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini Concesio, Brescia, Kingdom of Italy 65 / 80 Last pope to be crowned in a coronation with the tiara. First pope to travel to the USA and Australia; first pope since 1809 to travel outside Italy. Closed the Second Vatican Council. Issued the encyclical Humanae vitae (1968) condemning artificial contraception.
263John paul 1 coa.svg 26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
(33 days)
Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani).jpg Servant of God John Paul I


Albino Luciani Forno di Canale, Belluno, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy 65 / 65 Abolished the coronation opting for the Papal Inauguration. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name; first with two names for two immediate predecessors. Last pope to use the Sedia Gestatoria.
264John paul 2 coa.svg 16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpg St John Paul II


Totus Tuus
("Totally yours")

Karol Józef Wojtyła Wadowice, 2nd Polish Republic 58 / 84 First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522–1523). Traveled extensively; first pope to travel to Canada. Third longest reign after Pius IX and Saint Peter. Founded World Youth Day (1984). Canonized more saints than all his predecessors.

21st century[edit]

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
265BXVI CoA like gfx PioM.svg 19 April 2005
– 28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
Benedicto XVI, 2011.jpg Benedict XVI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus Decimus

Cooperatores Veritatis
("Cooperators of the truth")

Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany 78 / 85 Oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. Established the Anglican Ordinariate. First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294),[33] retaining regnal name with title of Pope Emeritus.[34]
266Insigne Francisci.svg 13 March 2013
– present
(2 years, 169 days)
Pope Francis 2013.jpg Francis

Miserando atque Eligendo
("Lowly but chosen" -- literally in Latin 'by having mercy, by choosing him') [35]

Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J. Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina 76 / - First pope to be born outside Europe since Gregory III (731–741) and the first from the Americas; first pope from the Southern Hemisphere. First religious pope since Gregory XVI (1831–1846); first Jesuit pope. First to use a new and non-composed regnal name since Lando (913–914).

Religious orders[edit]

38 popes have been members of religious orders. These have included:

  • Benedictines (18):
    • Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, Sergius IV, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Gelasius II, Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, Pius VII
and including Camaldolese (1):
Gregory XVI
and including Canons Regulars (5):
Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Gregory VIII, Adrian IV
  • Dominicans (5):
    • Innocent V, Benedict XI, Nicholas V, Pius V, Benedict XIII
  • Franciscans (5):
    • Nicholas IV, Sixtus IV, Julius II
and including Conventual Franciscans (2):
Sixtus V, Clement XIV

12 popes have been members of third orders, also called "tertiaries" or "Third Order Secular," and all of them of the Secular Franciscans:

  • Gregory IX, Gregory X, Martin V, Innocent XII, Clement XII, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII

Notes on numbering of popes[edit]

A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation:

  • Felix II (356–357), Boniface VII (974, 984–985), John XVI (997–998), Benedict X (1058–1059) and Alexander V (1409–1410) are not listed because they are all considered antipopes.[36]
  • The numbering of popes named Felix has been amended to omit antipope Felix II; however, most lists still call the last two Felixes Felix III and Felix IV. Additionally, there was an antipope Felix V.[36]
  • There has never been a pope John XX as a result of confusion of the numbering system in the 11th century.[37]
  • Pope-elect Stephen, who died before being consecrated, has not been on the Vatican's official list of popes since 1961, but appears on lists dating from before 1960.[37] The numbering of following popes called Stephen are nowadays given as Pope Stephen II (752–757) to Pope Stephen IX (1057–1058), rather than Stephen III to Stephen X.
  • When Simon de Brion became pope in 1281, he chose to be called Martin. At that time, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and Martin III respectively, and so, erroneously, Simon de Brion became Pope Martin IV.[38]
  • Pope Donus II, said to have reigned about 974, never existed. The belief resulted from the confusion of the title dominus (lord) with a proper name.
  • Pope Joan also never existed; however, legends about her may have originated from stories about the pornocracy.[39]
  • The status of Antipope John XXIII was uncertain for hundreds of years, and was finally settled in 1958 when Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli announced his own name as John XXIII. Baldassare Cossa, who was Antipope John XXIII, served as a Cardinal of the reunited church before his death in 1419 and his remains are found in the Florence Baptistery.
  • Those who believe in Sedevacantism say that there have been no legitimate popes since Pius XII. This is because they consider all popes since the Second Vatican Council to be heretics.[40][41]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12*
  2. ^ "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 21 October 2008. 
  3. ^ "Papal Primacy of honour: titles and insignia". 1 June 1911. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  4. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Erwin (et al.); Bromiley (English translation), Geoffrey William, eds. (2005). "Pope, Papacy". Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon [The encyclopedia of Christianity] 4. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 272–282. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  5. ^ The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  6. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P. (31 October 2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. HarperCollins. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 13: Bishops of Rome". pp. from Theosodr Mommsen, MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp.73–6. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "OCA - St Liberius the Pope of Rome". Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  9. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ a b c "Papal Timeline". 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  11. ^ Deno John Geanakoplos (15 September 1989). Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-299-11884-6. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "Blessed Eugene III". Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  13. ^ For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211
  14. ^ Philip Hughes, "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 371, Sheed & Ward, 1948.
  15. ^ "Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Pope Clement VII (1523-1534)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "Pope Pius V (1566-1572)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  20. ^ John Henry Blunt (1874). "Jansenists". Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. Rivingtons. pp. 234–240. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  21. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  23. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  24. ^ "Pope Clement IX (1667-1669)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "Pope Clement X (1670-1676)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  26. ^ "Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  27. ^ "Pope Clement XII (1730-1740)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  28. ^ "Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  29. ^ "Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  30. ^ "Pope Clement XIV (1769-1774)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  31. ^ "The Wind was too Strong". Rome Art Lover. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  33. ^ Brown, Andrew (11 February 2013). "Benedict, the placeholder pope who leaves a battered, weakened church". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  34. ^ Pianigiani, Gaia; Povoledo, Elisabetta (27 February 2013). "Benedict XVI to Keep His Name and Become Pope Emeritus". The New York Times. 
  35. ^ Scarisbrick, Veronica (22 March 2013). "Pope Francis : "Miserando atque eligendo"...". Vatican Radio (The Holy See). Vatican Radio. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  36. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Antipope". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  37. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Chronological Lists of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  38. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Pope Martin IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  39. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Paschal Robinson (1913). "Popess Joan". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  40. ^ Weaver, MJ., and Appleby, RS., Being Right: Conservative Catholics in America, Indiana University Press, 1 Jan 1995, p. 257.
  41. ^ Flinn, FK., Encyclopedia of Catholicism, 2007, p. 566.


  • The Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451, Adrian Fortescue, Ignatius Press, 2008.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, John N.D. Kelly, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • Catholicism, Henri de Lubac, Ignatius Press, 1988.
  • Rome and the Eastern Churches, Aidan Nichols, Ignatius Press, 2010.
  • I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.
  • Rome Sweet Home, Scott Hahn, Ignatius Press, 1993.
  • Enciclopedia dei Papi, AA.VV., Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000.

External links[edit]