Measuring programming language popularity
Various counts have been proposed to indicate a language's popularity, each subject to a different bias over what is measured. These counts include the number of:
- job advertisements that mention the language
- times the language is mentioned in web searches, as with Google Trends
- estimates of lines of code written in the language – (which may underestimate languages not often found in public searches)
- references to the language found using a web search engine
- projects in the language on SourceForge and GitHub
- postings in Usenet newsgroups about the language
- commits or changed source lines for open source projects in the language on Open Hub
- courses on the language sold by programming bootcamps
- students enrolled in programming classes teaching the language around the world
- videos on the language on YouTube
- postings on Reddit or Stack Exchange about the language
This section needs to be updated.(May 2019)
Different Indices calculate a programming language's popularity based on different metrics. For example: The IEE Spectrum publishes the rankings by taking the data points from an array of matrices including Google, GitHub, Reddit, and Twitter to calculate the overall rank for the 2021 list with keeping in the account factors like job demands, Reliability, and Current trends that sum up to say Python is the top programming language of 2021.Several indices have been published:
- The monthly TIOBE Programming Community Index has been published since 2001, showing the top 10 languages graphically, the top 20 languages with a rating and delta, and the top 50 languages by rating. The numbers are based on searching the Web with certain phrases that include language names and counting the numbers of hits returned.
- The PYPL PopularitY of Programming Language index is an indicator based on Google Trends, reflecting the developers' searches for "<programming language> tutorial", instead of what pages are available. It shows the popularity trends since 2004, worldwide or separated for 5 countries.
- The RedMonk Programming Language Rankings are derived from a correlation of programming traction on GitHub (usage) and Stack Overflow (discussion).
- Trendy Skills searches and extracts from popular advertising websites the skills and technologies that employers are seeking and classifies them in categories, one of which is Programming Languages. It displays trends for one or more skills or categories during specified time ranges. Data is also accessible via a public API, so anyone can generate their own statistics.
- Indeed 2016 survey combed through job listings, identifying mentions of programming languages.
- Stack Overflow's 2016 Developer Survey polled site users who gave help to other users.
- IEEE Spectrum's 2016 ranking of top programming languages "synthesises 12 metrics from 10 sources to arrive at an overall ranking of language popularity". The various metrics were collected from GitHub, Google Search and Trends, Twitter, Stack Overflow, Reddit, Hacker News, Career Builder, Dice.com, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library. The interactive ranking app allows adjustment of each metric's weight, and also filtering languages by "type" (Web, Mobile, Enterprise, Embedded).
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