Population of the Byzantine Empire

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The population of the Byzantine Empire encompassed all ethnic and tribal groups living there, including the Byzantine Greeks, the Khazars, the Armenians, the Slavs, the Goths, the Arabs and the many other ethnic groups that were part of the empire's civilization. It fluctuated throughout the state's millennial history. After the reign of Emperor Heraclius and the loss of the empire's overseas territories, Byzantium was limited to the Balkans and Anatolia. When the empire began to recover after a series of conflicts in the 8th century and its territories stabilized, its population began to recover. By the end of the 8th century the population of the empire was around 7,000,000, a figure that climbed to over 12,000,000 people by 1025.[1] The numbers began falling steadily to 9,000,000 people at 1204 and even lower to 5,000,000 people at 1282 with the arrival of the Turks.[2]

Population estimates[edit]

The Byzantine Empire may have had a population of over 26 million at its height.
Year Population
(estimated)
Notes Area
(km2; estimated)
Population density
(per km2; estimated)
300 17,000,000[3] Roman East 1,900,000 8.95
311 17,000,000[3] Roman East 2,100,000 8.1
457 16,000,000[3] Roman East 2,350,000 6.81
518 19,000,000[4] 2,300,000 8.26
540 26,000,000[5] 3,200,000 8.13
565 19,000,000[5] 3,400,000 5.59
600 17,000,000[5] 2,900,000 5.86
641 10,500,000[4] 1,500,000 7
668 10,000,000[4] 1,300,000 7.69
775 7,000,000[4] 880,000 7.95
842 8,000,000[4] 1,000,000 8
959 9,000,000[4] 1,100,000 8.18
1025 12,000,000[1] 1,675,000 7.16
1097 5,000,000[2] 555,000 9.09
1143 10,000,000[2] 950,000 10.53
1204 9,000,000[2] 210,000 42.86
1282 5,000,000[6] 550,000 9.09
1312 2,000,000[6] 460,000 4.35
1320 2,000,000[4] 420,000 4.76

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Treadgold 1997, p. 570.
  2. ^ a b c d Treadgold 1997, p. 700.
  3. ^ a b c Treadgold 1997, p. 137.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Treadgold 2001, p. 236.
  5. ^ a b c Treadgold 1997, p. 278.
  6. ^ a b Treadgold 1997, p. 841.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
  • Treadgold, Warren T. (2001). A Concise History of Byzantium. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-71829-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]