Porbandar

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Porbandar

Sudamapuri
City
Hari Mandir in Porbandar
Hari Mandir Temple
Porbandar is located in Gujarat
Porbandar
Porbandar
Porbandar is located in India
Porbandar
Porbandar
Coordinates: 21°37′48″N 69°36′0″E / 21.63000°N 69.60000°E / 21.63000; 69.60000Coordinates: 21°37′48″N 69°36′0″E / 21.63000°N 69.60000°E / 21.63000; 69.60000
Country India
StateGujarat
DistrictPorbandar
Government
 • BodyPorbandar Chhaya Nagar Seva Sadan
Area
 • Total38.43 km2 (14.84 sq mi)
Elevation
1 m (3 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total217,500
 • Density5,700/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialGujarati
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
360575
Vehicle registrationGJ-25
Websitewww.porbandarnagarpalika.org

Porbandar About this soundpronunciation  is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat, perhaps best known for being the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sudama. It is the administrative center of the Porbandar District and it was the former capital of the Porbandar princely state. As the birthplace of one of the most famous leaders of the world, Porbandar has a significant tourism-led infrastructure and economy. The area around Mahatma Gandhi's home has been renovated to become a temple of peace.

Porbandar's beach locally known as 'Chowpati' has a long, sandy expanse along the ocean. Construction activities to provide attractions and manage litter and facilities on Chowpati Beach started in around 2003. It has been furnished with well-arranged seating for tourists and commuters; there is a skating rink for children. The Chowpati ground has been used for the 'Janamastmi Fair', an annual festival. This place is well equipped with a circuit house and a range of hotels nearby for visitors.

Fisheries give a lot of employment to the city and to neighboring districts. Porbandar is also one of the last coasts remaining where the threatened marine mammal dugong can be found. Officials are working out for the conservation policies for the mammal.[1] There are two shops at the corner of Kukadia Saheb Street at parasnagar near railway crossing. One shop is for local street foods here you can get best taste of Vanela Gathiya (food item famous in saurashtra). Another shop is raj pan house,famous for its Lemon Soda.Kukadia Saheb street is entrance of parasnagar. street was named after Devji Lakha Kukadia, who was a teacher in Navyug High School and was famous for his hilarious and generous nature.

Etymology[edit]

In ancient times Porbandar was known to be Pao Bandar, due to its bread factories that used to export Pao ruti to Arab nations across Arabian sea. Colloquial changes in language results in name change to Pore Bandar.

History[edit]

Harappan settlement (1600-1400 BCE)[edit]

Onshore explorations in and around Porbandar brought to light the remains of a late Harappan settlement dating back to the 16th-14th centuries BCE. There is evidence to suggest that the Harappan legacy of maritime activity continued till the late Harappan period on the Saurashtra coast. The discovery of ancient jetties along the Porbandar creek signifies the importance of Porbandar as an active center of maritime activities in the past.[2]

Indian theology views Porbandar as the birthplace of Sudama, a friend of Krishna. For this reason, it is also referred to as Sudaamapuri or Sudamapuri.[2]

Kirti Mandir

Princely Porbandar (1600 CE onwards)[edit]

Porbandar was the seat of the eponymous princely state in British India. Later the state belonged to the Jethwa clan of Rajputs and had been established in the area since at least the mid-16th century. The state was subordinate to the Mughal governor of Gujarat until being overrun by the Marathas in the latter half of the 18th century. After, they came under the authority of the Gaekwad court at Baroda and eventually of the Peshwa.

British influence[edit]

In common with the other states of Kathiawar, the state first came into the ambit of British influence in 1807, when the HEIC guaranteed security in the area in lieu of a fixed annual tribute to be paid to the Peshwa and the Gaekwad. In 1817, the Peshwa ceded his share to the HEIC; in 1820, the Gaekwad agreed to have the HIEC collect his due tributes in Kathiawar and remit the same to his treasury.

Huzoor Palace built by last ruler of Princely State of Porbandar, Rana Natwarsinhji, in the early 20th century, stands near seashore at Marine Drive in city.

During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 1,663 square kilometres (642 sq mi), encompassing 106 villages and a population, in 1921, of over 100,000 people. It enjoyed a revenue of Rs. 21,00,000/-. By 1947, the rulers held the style of "Highness" and the title of "Maharaj Rana Sahib". They were entitled to a salute of 13 guns as a hereditary distinction.

After Independence[edit]

Upon the Independence of India in 1947, the state acceded to the dominion of India. It was merged with the 'United State of Kathiawar', effective 15 February 1948 and eventually came to form part of the present-day state of Gujarat. The last King of Porbandar was Natwarsinhji Bhavsinhji Maharaj.

Geography[edit]

Porbandar is located at 21°37′48″N 69°36′0″E / 21.63000°N 69.60000°E / 21.63000; 69.60000.[3] It has an average elevation of 1 metre (3 ft).

Climate[edit]

Like most of Gujarat, Porbandar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh) with three distinct seasons: the “cool” from October to March, the “hot” in April, May and early June, and the monsoonal “wet” from mid-June to September.[4]

Almost no rain falls outside the monsoon season, except for a very few late-season tropical cyclones. The most powerful one occurred on 22 October 1975 and produced a storm surge of 4 metres or 13 feet. During the monsoon season, rainfall is exceedingly erratic: Annual rainfall has been as low as 32.2 millimetres or 1.27 inches in 1918 and 34.3 millimetres or 1.35 inches in 1939, but as high as 1,850.6 millimetres or 72.86 inches in 1983—when a cyclone caused over 1,100 millimetres (43.3 in) to fall over four days[5]—and 1,251.7 millimetres or 49.28 inches in 1878.

With a coefficient of variation exceeding fifty percent and an expectation of only 41 percent of mean annual rainfall in the driest year in ten, the Porbandar region is among the most variable in the world[6]—comparable to northern Australia, the Brazilian sertão and the Kiribatese Line Islands.[7]

An illustration of Porbandar’s extremely variable rainfall can be seen from 1899 to 1905 when seven successive years produced annual falls of:

  • 83.4 millimetres (3.28 in) in 1899
  • 1,185.1 millimetres (46.66 in) in 1900
  • 99.8 millimetres (3.93 in) in 1901
  • 756.9 millimetres (29.80 in) in 1902
  • 575.2 millimetres (22.65 in) in 1903
  • 124.5 millimetres (4.90 in) in 1904 and
  • 134.4 millimetres (5.29 in) in 1905

Porbandar, owing to its coastal location, is the least hot of all major cities in Gujarat: Average high temperatures do not reach 35 °C or 95 °F in any month.

Climate data for Porbandar Airport (1981–2010, extremes 1969–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.9
(96.6)
38.4
(101.1)
43.1
(109.6)
44.0
(111.2)
45.5
(113.9)
40.8
(105.4)
35.4
(95.7)
35.4
(95.7)
40.3
(104.5)
41.4
(106.5)
39.7
(103.5)
37.2
(99.0)
45.5
(113.9)
Average high °C (°F) 29.3
(84.7)
30.5
(86.9)
32.9
(91.2)
33.5
(92.3)
33.5
(92.3)
33.3
(91.9)
31.4
(88.5)
30.3
(86.5)
31.7
(89.1)
34.7
(94.5)
33.9
(93.0)
31.0
(87.8)
32.2
(90.0)
Average low °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
15.8
(60.4)
19.5
(67.1)
22.6
(72.7)
26.2
(79.2)
27.9
(82.2)
26.8
(80.2)
25.9
(78.6)
25.0
(77.0)
22.6
(72.7)
19.1
(66.4)
15.8
(60.4)
21.8
(71.2)
Record low °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
5.9
(42.6)
8.7
(47.7)
15.0
(59.0)
19.2
(66.6)
20.7
(69.3)
18.7
(65.7)
22.2
(72.0)
19.2
(66.6)
15.3
(59.5)
11.0
(51.8)
6.4
(43.5)
2.0
(35.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.1
(0.04)
1.1
(0.04)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.5
(0.10)
98.3
(3.87)
249.5
(9.82)
155.4
(6.12)
77.6
(3.06)
7.6
(0.30)
13.1
(0.52)
0.7
(0.03)
606.8
(23.89)
Average rainy days 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.3 9.4 7.7 3.0 0.9 0.5 0.2 25.4
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 40 43 49 57 68 72 77 77 70 52 42 41 57
Source: India Meteorological Department[8][9]

Demographics[edit]

Porbandar skyline

As of 2011 India census, Porbandar (City and urban outgrowth) had a population of 152,760.[10] Males constituted 51.4% of the population and females 48.6%. Porbandar has an average literacy rate of 86.46%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 91.69%, and female literacy is 80.92%. In Porbandar, 9.11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

According to the Census in 2011, the population of Porbander contracted 3.85% in 2011. i.e. the growth rate was negative. The sex ration of the city was 943 in 2011.[clarification needed]

Diaspora[edit]

Porbandar has historical importance in context of one of the earliest Western Indian diaspora across the globe. Thousands of Gujarati people in United Kingdom have origin in porbandar. Fiji, Australia and UK has significant " Girnara Soni" community who have roots in Porbandar. Some people in Tanzania and Uganda have roots in Porbandar .Maher community popularly known as Mer has spread from porbandar to UK and USA before Decades. Some Lohana and Khoja Muslims have immigrated to South Africa and a few to Madagascar.

Government and politics[edit]

Porbandar City is governed by a municipal council.[11] The municipality is responsible for supply of water to the city using Narmada as the main source of water supply.[12] The municipality supplies around 14 MLD everyday to the city. As per records available from 2008, the city had a coverage of 39% in terms of water supply connections though the coverage of distribution system was reported as 80%.[13] As per another assessment in the year 2016, Porbandar ranked the lowest in terms the volume of water supplied per capita at 59 lpcd (liters per capita per day) as compared to Gandhinagar which ranked the highest at 245 lpcd.[14] Municipality is also responsible for waste management in the city and generates about 66 tonnes per day of waste.[15]

The current member of Parliament is Rameshbhai Dhaduk. The current member of the Gujarat Legislative Assembly is Babu Bokhiria.

Culture[edit]

Tourist attractions[edit]

Birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi
Courtship of Lesser Flamingos at Chhaya rann

The best time to visit is October to March.

  • Kirti Mandir, a memorial of MK Gandhi (birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi) , built originally by Maharaja Sayaji Rao III in 1936 AD. It is located at the Main bazaar, Manek Chowk.
  • Rana Bapu’s Mahal is located nearby Chowpati
  • Bharat Mandir (A permanent exhibition of culture, history and geometry about India. It was established by Shri Nanjibhai Kalidas Mehta)
  • Tara Mandir (one of the oldest planetariums of India)
  • Ram Krishna Mission (Swami Vivekananda stayed here for four months)
  • Shree Sudama ji Mandir: One of the few temples built in India in his name
  • Shree Hari Mandir or Sandipani temple (handled by Ramesh Oza): a massive temple complex
  • The Huzoor Palace, Daria Raj Mahal Palace, Darbargadh and the Sartanji Choro
  • Chowpati beach: one of the cleanest in coastal Gujarat
  • Porbandar Bird Sanctuary (birds like teals, fowls, flamingos, ibis, curlews can be seen)
  • Barda Hills Wildlife Sanctuary (about 15 km from Porbandar, ideal for trekking)
  • Bileshwara Shiva temple (built in the 7th century)
  • Khimeshwar Mahadev Temple (Kuchchdi) (1600-year-old temple as per the Archaeological Survey of India)
  • Jamvant cave (15 km away at Ranavav town) (historical place from the time of Ramayan)[16]
  • Ghumli (37 km from the city, Capital of Jethwa kingdom till 1313, listed by Archaeological Survey of India)
  • Porbandar has many wetlands ideal for birdwatching.[17]
  • Janmashtami Mela (5 days), celebrated in the month of Shraavana as per Hindu calendar. There are rides, foods, and other attractions.

Notable people[edit]

Transport[edit]

New terminal at Porbandar Airport

The local transportation is auto rickshaw. Sudama Chowk is the main hub of auto rickshaw and private taxis.

Porbandar is well-connected by road, rail and air to cities across the country.

Port[edit]

Porbandar is an ancient port city. At present it has an all-weather port, with direct berthing facilities up to 50,000 DWT ships.[18][19]

Road[edit]

"NH8b" Highway
(Porbander - Kochuveli) Express Route map

The city is connected through National Highway 27, connecting to Rajkot and Ahmedabad. National Highway 8E Ext (also known as State Highway 6) connects to Jamnagar, Dwarka in the north and Veraval, Bhavnagar in the south.

Major public transport is covered by the private and government buses.

Many private coaches are available daily to Rajkot, Dwarka, Veraval, Junagadh, Ahmedabad, Jamnagar, Vadodra, Surat, and Mumbai.

Large number of S.T. buses (State Transport Corporation operated by government) are available to multiple destinations including major cities of the state, small villages and towns.

From Narsang Tekri, you can catch luxurious air-conditioned private buses for Rajkot and Ahmedabad. The booking is available on the internet.

Rail[edit]

Porbandar railway station connects Porbandar with major cities of state and the country. There are daily trains to Rajkot (via Jamnagar, Bhanwad and Upleta, Dhoraji, Gondal as well), Somnath (via Junagadh) and Mumbai (via Ahmedabad, Vadodra and Surat). There are also trains to Delhi, Muzaffarpur and Howrah connecting to major cities of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Vidarbha and West Bengal. A weekly train service connects Kochuveli, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) and Secunderabad (Hyderabad) with Porbandar via Mangalore, Calicut, Kochi and Quilon(Kollam).

Airport[edit]

Porbandar Airport Mumbai-Porbandar to and fro flight by SpiceJet is currently operational.

Ahmedabad-Porbandar to and fro flight by TruJet is currently operational as well.

Sports[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kaushik, Himanshu. "Task force on dugong soon". Times of India. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  2. ^ a b A.S Gaur, Sundaresh, A.D. Odedra (2004). "New light on the maritime archaeology of Porbandar, Saurashtra Coast, Gujarat". Man and Environment. 29 (1): 103–107.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Porbandar
  4. ^ "Porbandar - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  5. ^ Francis P. A. and Sulochana Gadgil; ‘Intense Rainfall Events over the West Coast during the Summer Monsoon Season’ (CAOS REPORT 2002 AS 1); published by Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies; Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
  6. ^ Dewar, Robert E. and Wallis, James R; ‘Geographical patterning of interannual rainfall variability in the tropics and near tropics: An L-moments approach’; in Journal of Climate, 12; pp. 3457-3466
  7. ^ Van Etten, Eddie J.B.; ‘Inter-annual Rainfall Variability of Arid Australia: greater than elsewhere?’ Australian Geographer; 40 (2009), pp. 109-120
  8. ^ "Station: Porbandar (A) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. 617–618. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  9. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M59. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  10. ^ "Census of India". Census of India. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  11. ^ "Local body polls Delimitation exercise held in Gujarat". The Indian Express. 4 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  12. ^ "Hardlook: Thirsty Gujarat cities… fed by Narmada". The Indian Express. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  13. ^ "Urban Water and Sanitation in Gujarat: A Report Prepared by Urban Management Centre" (PDF). PAS. September 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  14. ^ "URBAN WATER & SANITATION IN GUJARAT Summary Report 2009-2016" (PDF). PAS. June 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  15. ^ "GOVERNMENT OF INDIA URBAN DEVELOPMENT" (PDF). Eparlib. 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  16. ^ https://porbandar.gujarat.gov.in/tourist-places/jambuvan-cave
  17. ^ "Wetlands of Porbandar" (web). Mokarsagar Committee. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ [1]

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]