Pornography in Asia
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Pornography in Asia is pornography created in Asia, watched in Asia, or consumed or displayed in other parts of the world as one or more genres of Asian porn.
Internet pornography was outlawed in the People's Republic of China effective 2002, when state censors issued guidelines requiring that all websites remove any pornographic material. The government started a crackdown in 2004, which included the jailing of a woman.
Since 2008, the production of pornographic films has been banned by state censors, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television's prohibition on pornography has been complete, and the government has shown no signs of changing course. Directors, producers, and actors involved in pornographic films have been barred from competing in any film competitions. Any film studio found in violation may have its license revoked. As a result of this regulation and censorship, adult films and media can only be obtained through the Internet and on the black market. Possession of pornography is punishable by up to 3 years in prison, a fine of CN¥ 20,000, or up to life imprisonment for large underground distributors. In 2010 China shut down 60,000 pornographic websites according to the news agency Reuters, arresting almost 5,000 suspects in the process.
In Hong Kong, pornography is illegal if sold or shown to children under 18 years of age, if it is publicly displayed (except within the confines of and only visible from inside a "bona fide art gallery or museum"), or if it is sold without being wrapped completely with an "easily noticeable" warning stating that the material may be offensive and may not be distributed to minors.
As in Europe, photographs of nudes are not uncommon in the mainstream media. In the 1970s and 1980s, the strongest prohibition was against showing pubic hair or adult genitalia. Imported magazines would have the pubic hair scratched out, and even the most explicit videos could not portray it. Starting around 1991, photobook publishers began challenging this ban to the point where pubic hair is now fairly well accepted. Close-ups of genitalia remain proscribed. In 1999, the government enacted a law banning photos and videos of naked children. Manga and anime remain largely unregulated, although large publishers tend to self-censor or specify that characters are at least 18 years of age.
The 1960s, in Japanese pornography, was the era of the independent Pink film. In the years since the end of World War II, eroticism had been gradually making its way into Japanese cinema. The first kiss to be seen in Japanese film—discreetly half-hidden by an umbrella—caused a national sensation in 1946. Nevertheless, until the early 1960s, graphic depictions of nudity and sex in Japanese film could only be seen in single-reel "stag films", made illegally by underground film producers such as those depicted in Imamura's film The Pornographers (1966). Nudity and sex would officially enter the Japanese cinema with the independent, low-budget softcore pornographic films which would come to dominate domestically produced films in the 1960s and 1970s. These films were called eroductions during the early 1960s, but are now more commonly referred to as pink films. The first true pink film, and the first Japanese movie with nude scenes, was Satoru Kobayashi's controversial and popular independent production, Flesh Market (Nikutai no Ichiba, 1962), starring Tamaki Katori. Katori would go on to star in over 600 pink films throughout the 1960s, earning the nickname the "Pink Princess". In 1964 Tetsuji Takechi made the first big-budget, mainstream pink film, Daydream. Takechi would remake Daydream as Japan's first theatrical hardcore film in 1981, starring Kyoko Aizome.
In 2007 the online newspaper Daily NK reported that pornographic literature was produced in North Korea for high-ranking officials during the late 1990s. Some pornographic films showing nude or scantily-clad women dancing to music were also made. In the 2000s these were superseded by imported pornographic films, for which a public rental market developed.
Imported works of pornography have been available in North Korea in recent decades, mainly in the capital Pyongyang and typically in the form of CD-R copies bought secretly at markets. There is very little domestic production. Producing, distributing, importing and watching pornography is illegal.
Importing pornography to North Korea is harshly punished. Pornography is sold openly on the China–North Korea border regardless of regulations. Despite attempts to curtail circulation of imported pornography, most of the pornography watched in North Korea is currently made abroad. A significant part of pornographic media in circulation consists of Chinese bootleg recordings of poor quality.
North Korea has ratified the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, there are currently no specific laws to combat child pornography.
Pornographic websites, books, writings, films, magazines, photographs or other materials of a pornographic nature are illegal in South Korea, although the law is not regularly enforced. Distribution of pornography can result in a fine or a two-year prison sentence. Since 2009, pornographic websites have been blocked by the South Korean government. In 2012 the Ministry of Public Administration and Security released statistics that cited 39.5% of South Korean children having experienced watching online pornography, with 14.2% of those who have viewed online pornography reportedly "wanting to imitate" it.
In Taiwan pornographic films can be legally traded and pornography is available via a number of routes, including DVD, television and the Internet. The level of piracy of pornographic films in Taiwan is high because authorities have not traditionally recognised their copyrights. Copyright protection is usually strictly applied in Taiwan, but pornography has been seen as an exception.
The public display of adult material is strictly prohibited. The National Communications Commission (NCC), the Taiwanese media regulator, monitors and categorizes the level of media and public material into four levels. Thus adult material is not seen for sale in authorized shops, but only in small and hidden places. Due to the lack of copyright, adult content produced in Taiwan has stayed in the form of "webcam chat". Prostitution is illegal in Taiwan. The Taiwanese government has planned to set up a zone for prostitution.
Possession of pornographic material is illegal in Brunei. Due to the high number of expatriates in this country, pornography from various regions such as the Americas, Africa and Europe are easily available in retail shops known as "kedai runcit". It is illegal to sell to minors, and it is illegal to produce pornography unless for personal use.
The Indonesian criminal code (Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Pidana, KUHP), in conjunction with the Roman-Dutch law-based Indonesian legal system, strictly prohibits pornographic material. The creation, distribution, sale and rental of explicit materials is banned in the country. On 30 October 2008, the People's Representative Council (DPR) passed the Bill against Pornography and Pornoaction, but it was deemed controversial. The broadness of the law has concerned practitioners of regional traditions such as the nightclubs in Bali, West Javan jaipong dance, and New Guinean penis gourd wearing. In 2010 the anti-pornography law was challenged but Indonesia's Constitutional Court upheld the ban and stated that the law's definition of pornography was clear and did not violate the constitution.
A revised criminal code (RUU KUHP) has been drafted and is currently being discussed by the DPR. There is controversy over the RUU (Law Proposal) because child abuse is already recognized by the KUHP and the RUU is deemed to meddle too much in domestic affairs.
The Printing Presses and Publications Act of 1984 subjects all offline media (such as newspapers, television, and radio stations) to licensing regimes granted at the discretion of ministers. However, the Communications and Multimedia Act of 1998 pledged the Malaysian government to refraining from Internet censorship in Malaysia. Nevertheless, the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission, the main regulatory authority of information technology and communications industries, prohibits online content that is "indecent" or "obscene".
In July 2018, the Malaysian police announced the creation of the Malaysian Internet Crime Against Children Investigation Unit (MICAC) that is equipped with real-time mass Internet surveillance software developed in the United States. It is tasked with the monitoring of all Malaysian Internet users even on mobile phones, with a focus on pornography especially child pornography. The system creates a "data library" of users which includes details such as IP addresses, websites, locations, duration and frequency of use and files uploaded and downloaded. Visiting these websites are subject to either questioning by police or imprisonment.
The national government blocks many pornographic websites, with more than 3,000 blocked as of 2018.
Condom shops selling sex toys and many sex-related products in Malaysia are illegal. There are shops selling them in towns and cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu.
Pornographic material is prohibited in Myanmar. Many users of the Internet in Myanmar cannot access content outside the country, and a significant number of pornographic websites are blocked using content-control software.
Any kind of pornography is illegal in the Philippines. This is due to the influence of conservative Christian groups, such as the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, and churches, mainly the Roman Catholic Church, among other institutions. The current law does not specifically outlaw webcam-sex websites based in the Philippines. Law enforcement is light, and pornography is available often through black markets and the Internet. There are some urban areas that are known to publicly various kinds of pornographic films.
Despite the existing laws, some reports claimed that the pornography industry in the country earned around US$1 billion annually in 2006, making it the 8th largest pornography industry in the world and the 4th in Asia. This also meant that it held the top rank in the whole Southeast Asia, despite the fact that almost every month, the country's Optical Media Board (OMB) was confiscating hundreds of thousands of counterfeit VCDs and DVDs. From January to September 2008, the OMB confiscated 4,807,012 CDs costing ₱1.4 billion ($29,400,000; based on the prevailing peso-dollar exchange rate on 17 September 2008).
Since 14 January 2017, several pornographic websites including Pornhub and XVideos have been blocked in the Philippines upon the order of President Rodrigo Duterte as part of his Republic Act 9775 or Anti-Child Pornography Law. However, there are a few Internet service providers in the country which still allow access to these websites.
In Singapore the government agency responsible for regulating media content is the Info-communications Media Development Authority (prior to 2016 the Media Development Authority). It is not a crime or offence to visit pornographic websites and view their content. However, downloading pornographic content is prohibited. It is deemed illegal to provide and/or supply any form of pornography from within the country. It is also an offence to be in possession of pornographic material. The 39-year-old Yangtze Cinema, which was probably the only theatre on the island to primarily screen softcore films in the city-state, also closed its doors on February 29, 2016.
The 287th section of the Thai Penal Code makes it a criminal offence to produce, distribute or possess obscene materials for the purpose of trade. The maximum penalty is up to 3 years' imprisonment. Many types of pornography are prohibited in Thailand, but the law enforcement is relaxed and poorly enforces the prohibition. Some religious minorities may possess pornography for personal use legally because possession for personal use is legal. Other forms of pornography such as yaoi and hentai are illegal but are common over the Internet. The popular Thai actor, model and singer Penpak Sirikul has been a pioneer in Thai pornography.
Production, distribution, broadcasting, transport, import and advertisement of pornography, is strictly illegal in Vietnam. According to legislatures, pornography harms Vietnamese standard values.
In Azerbaijan in accordance with article 3 of the Media Act of 7 December 1999, "pornographic materials" are defined as works of art, photographic reproductions of paintings, information and other materials the main content of which is the crude and undignified depiction of the anatomical and physiological aspects of sexual relations. Pornography in Azerbaijan is easily and cheaply obtainable in Baku, although not in most other places. There are reports of bribes being charged for taking hardcore pornography across the country's borders. Meanwhile, the legal activity to combat child pornography is governed by 1998 Rights of the Child Act, 1999 Media Act, the Plan of Measures to Solve the Problem of Homeless and Street Children and the National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons.
The legal status of pornography in Kazakhstan was changed in 2013 with the introduction of the law: "On Ratification of the International Convention for Suppression of the Circulation and Traffic of Obscene Publications". This made it illegal to produce, possess or advertise pornography for the purpose of sale, circulation or public display. Additionally, the law made it a criminal offence to import or export pornography or run a pornography business. It is not an offence to access Internet pornography at home and Kazakhstan does block popular pornographic sites, such as Pornhub, XVideos and xHamster. However accessing Internet pornography at corporations, businesses, or any workplace is prohibited in Kazakhstan.
Even though the legal status of pornography in Turkmenistan is unknown, a law, passed on 1 January 2015, banning citizens to access pornography on the Internet suggests that pornography is definitely illegal in Turkmenistan.
In 2012, the government in Bangladesh attempted to outlaw pornography as a result of the passing of the Pornography Control Act. Information and telecommunication minister of 11th parliamentary government of Bangladesh, Mostafa Zabbar blocked nearly 20,000 porn websites access in Bangladesh from November 2018 to February 2019.
Pornography in Bhutan is strictly forbidden. It is defined in Section 476 (A) of the Bhutan Penal Code of 2004, which states, “A defendant shall be guilty of the offence of computer pornography if the defendant publishes and distributes an obscene photography or picture on the computer or over the internet."
- The publishing or transmission of pornographic material is illegal in India under section 292
- The distribution, sale, or circulation of obscene materials and the selling of pornographic content to any person under age 20 years are illegal under section 293 and IT Act-67B.
- Child pornography is illegal and strictly prohibited across the country under section 67B of the Information Technology Act, 2000
- The manufacturing, publishing and distribution of pornography is illegal in India under section 292, 293.
In July 2015 the Supreme Court of India refused to allow the blocking of pornographic websites and said that watching pornography indoors in the privacy of ones own home was not a crime. The court rejected an interim order blocking pornographic websites in the country. In August 2015 the Government of India issued an order to Indian ISPs to block at least 857 websites that it considered to be pornographic. In 2015 the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) had asked internet service providers to take down 857 websites in a bid to control cyber crime, but after receiving criticism from the authorities it partially rescinded the ban. The ban from the government came after a lawyer filed a petition in the Supreme Court arguing that online pornography encourages sex crimes and rapes. In February 2016 the Supreme Court asked the Indian Government to suggest ways of banning all forms of child pornography.
In October 2018 the government directed Internet service providers to block 827 websites that host pornographic content following an order by the Uttarakhand High Court, according to official sources. Although the Uttarakhand High Court had asked for the blocking of 857 websites, the Ministry of Electronics and IT (Meity) discovered that 30 of these had no pornographic content and removed them from the list. The court asked the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) to ban pornographic websites in India, citing an incident in Dehradun where a 10th standard girl was raped by four of her seniors. The accused later told police that they did so after watching pornographic content on the Internet. Following the order from the Uttarakhand High Court and the regulations of the DoT, Internet Service Providers in India banned pornographic websites across the country.
The production, possession, sale, dissemination, distribution, or importation of pornography or pornographic material (including sex toys) is illegal in Maldives. There were attempts by the government to block pornographic websites. However, it is still accessible in the country as long it is viewed at home.
Nepali law identifies pornography as illegal. The sharing, distribution and broadcasting of pornographic content through any medium is prohibited. In 2010 it was reported that the Home Ministry had banned access to a list of websites including explicitly adult websites. In September 2018, concerns about violence against women led the Government of Nepal to announce its intention to ban online pornography. From 24 September, the Nepal Telecommunications Authority (NTA) began to put a block on all websites providing pornographic content on the orders of the Nepal Government Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MOCIT). By 12 October more than 21,000 pornographic websites had been blocked.
Pornography is illegal. It is not easily accessible, and the Government has put an all-time ban on websites containing such material since November 2011. The list of banned pornographic websites is updated on an ongoing basis.
The laws against pornography in Sri Lanka are strict. Under the Explicit Literature Ordinance, sale or possession of pornographic material can be classified as illegal. The production of local pornography is strictly illegal.
Child pornography is considered to be illegal under the National Child Protection act and the punishments are very severe. Child pornography possession, production and distribution is punishable by up to 20 years' imprisonment, severe fines and in some cases, even forfeiture of property. This act covers the rights of children, but not pornography per se. Therefore, the same act cannot be used as an anti-pornographic law.
In the year of 2009, The government banned more than 100 local and international porn sites and nearly 80 Sri Lankan porn stars were arrested by the local authorities. They were all sentenced to fines, community service and prison sentences up to 2 years.
In Iran pornography is illegal. However, due to widespread Internet access (in particular, downloading programs) and the existence of a large-scale black market in Western films, pornography is called "super film." In Iran, a law was passed in mid-2007 by parliament but still required approval of the Guardian Council, producers of pornographic films face execution if found guilty.[additional citation(s) needed]
Pornography is legal in Israel. Pornographic films in Israel began to be produced in the 1990s, but most of the films were shot in the early 2000s. Any kind of child pornography is strictly forbidden (under the age of 18).
Distribution of pornography is illegal in Jordan.
In September 2011, four members of a criminal ring involved in the sale of pornographic films were arrested by Lebanese authorities. The men, of Lebanese and Syrian nationality, had been promoting the sale of unlicensed copies of pornographic DVDs in different areas of the country, particularly Byblos, north of Beirut, where they were apprehended. The men were referred to the relevant authorities, with the case investigated to uncover the remaining members of the ring and anyone else involved in the distribution of the pornographic films.
- "China creates stern Internet, e-mail rules". USA Today (www.usatoday.com). 18 January 2002. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- Richardson, Tim (16 August 2004). "China jails woman in porn crackdown". The Register (www.theregister.co.uk). Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- "Production of XXX movies banned in China — UPI.com". United Press International (www.upi.com). 1 January 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- "Laws of the People's Republic of China (Articles 152 and 363 to 367)". www.asianlii.org. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance". Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Bornoff, Nicholas (1994) . "18 (Naked Dissent)". Pink Samurai: An Erotic Exploration of Japanese Society; The Pursuit and Politics of Sex in Japan (Paperback ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 602. ISBN 978-0-586-20576-1.
- Sharp, Jasper. "Tetsuji Takechi: Erotic Nightmares". midnighteye.com. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
- Domenig, Roland (2002). "Vital flesh: the mysterious world of Pink Eiga". Archived from the original on 18 November 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
Since the mid-1960s, pink eiga have been the biggest Japanese film genre... By the late 1970s the production of pink eiga together with Roman Porno amounted to more than 70% of annual Japanese film production.
- Domenig, Roland (2002). "Vital flesh: the mysterious world of Pink Eiga". Archived from the original on 18 November 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
The term pink eiga was first coined in 1963 by journalist Murai Minoru. But it did not come into general use until the late 1960s. In the early years the films were known as 'eroduction films' (erodakushon eiga) or 'three-million-yen-films' (sanbyakuman eiga).
- Weisser, Thomas; Yuko Mihara Weisser (1998). Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Miami: Vital Books: Asian Cult Cinema Publications. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-889288-52-9.
- Connell, Ryann (2 March 2006). "Japan's former Pink Princess trades raunchy scenes for rural canteen". Mainichi Shimbun. Retrieved 19 April 2007.[dead link]
- Koizumi, Shinichi (1 December 2001). "Porn-star label now a badge of honor for actress". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 3 December 2001. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Moon Sung Hwee (23 December 2007). "Porno Became Widespread in '90s, Thanks to the Dear Leader". Daily NK. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- Shin, Junsik (13 April 2015). "Pornography in North Korea". New Focus International. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Hassig, Ralph; Kongdan Oh (2015). The Hidden People of North Korea: Everyday Life in the Hermit Kingdom (2nd ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-4422-3719-3.
- Schwartzman, Nathan (27 November 2009). "Is There Porn in North Korea?". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Talmadge, Eric (1 April 2016). "North Korea now blocking Facebook, Twitter, other websites". The Big Story. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "North Korea". Human Rights Watch. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review (PDF) (8th ed.). International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children. 2016. p. 34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Kwon (권), Hye-jin (혜진) (30 July 2012). 청소년 14.2% "야동 따라하고 싶었다". Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "台灣首家正版成人頻道開播 或促成人片版權保護" [Taiwan's first genuine adult channel launches and promotes adult copyright protection]. sina.com (in Chinese). 8 January 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "Local laws and customs - Brunei travel advice". GOV.UK. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- Geoff Thompson (31 October 2008). "Indonesia passes tough new anti-porn laws". ABC News. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Anti-pornography law challenges the penis-gourd wearers of West Papua". Times Online. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Indonesian anti-porn law threatens natives: Penis sheaths to be banned in Papua police crackdown?". Bild. 5 January 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Vaswani, Karishma (25 March 2010). "Indonesia upholds anti-porn bill". BBC News.
- "Indonesia's long wait for its own criminal code". The University of Melbourne. 10 November 2016.
- Herlina, Herlina (2005). "Kebijakan Hukum Pidana Dalam Menanggulangi Tindak Pidana Perdagangan Bayi (Masters thesis)". Diponegoro University Institutional Repository (UNDIP-IR). Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Malaysia targets mobile phone sex". BBC. 29 August 2005.
- "ONI Country Profile: Malaysia". OpenNet Initiative. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "Police will know if you watch porn". Straits Times. 9 July 2018.
- "Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study". Open Net Initiative.
- "Pornography: Society at Risk". mentalhealthlibrary.info. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- "The legality of cam porn". www.philippines-for-men.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- Report: Philippines' Porn Industry 8th Largest in the World Archived 9 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine - PinoyExchange
- M G Martin (16 January 2017). "World's most popular adult sites blocked in Philippines due to child porn fears". Philippines Lifestyle News.
- "What is the law on pornography in Singapore?". Singapore Legal Advice. 5 May 2011.
- "MDA — FAQs". Singapore: Media Development Authority of Singapore. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "MDA — FAQs". Singapore: Media Development Authority of Singapore. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
- Yip, Wai Yee. "Goodbye to softcore cinema Yangtze". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- Shytov, Alexander. "Indecency on the Internet as a Challenge to Thai Law". Thailand Law Forum. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Fry, Gerald W.; Nieminen, Gayla S.; Smith, Harold E. (2013). Historical Dictionary of Thailand. Scarecrow Press. p. 291. ISBN 9780810875258.
- "Vietnam — Coalition Against Trafficking of Women". Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- "Sex in Azerbaijan". www.azerb.com (by travel-images.com). Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Information concerning the questionnaire of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography". Archived from the original (DOC) on 8 January 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2006.
- "Nazarbayev signs law on countering pornography". Tengrinews. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
- "Turkmėnijoje uždrausta internete įžeidinėti prezidentą ir žiūrėti pornografiją".
- "পর্নোগ্রাফি নিয়ন্ত্রণ আইন, ২০১২ ( ২০১২ সনের ৯ নং আইন )" [The Pornography Control Act, 2012]. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd (in Bengali). Bangladesh: Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Anti-Pornography Law in Bangladesh". lawyersbangladesh.com. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Law Firm in Bangladesh". shossainandassociates.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "'১৫৬৩৬টি পর্ন ও ২২৩৫টি জুয়ার ওয়েবসাইট খুঁজে পেয়েছি'" [We have found 15636 porn and 2235 gambling webcite] (in Bengali). Jamuna Television. 18 February 2019.[permanent dead link]
- "Two women convicted for computer pornography". KuenselOnline. 18 August 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
- "Section 292 in The Indian Penal Code". indiankanoon.org.
- "Section 293 in The Indian Penal Code". indiankanoon.org.
- "Central Government Act: Section 67 [B] in The Information Technology Act, 2000". Indian Kanoon. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- Rajak, Brajesh (2011) . Pornography Laws: XXX Must not be Tolerated. In order to curb this Jio has blocked around 827 pornographic sites in Oct 2018 (Paperback ed.). Delhi: Universal Law Co. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-7534-999-5.
- "It's legal to watch porn in the privacy of your house, says SC". Hindustan Times. 9 July 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Banned: Complete list of 857 porn websites blocked in India". Deccan Chronicle. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- "India lifts porn ban after widespread outrage". BBC News. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- "SC asks Centre to suggest measures to ban child pornography". Deccan Chronicle. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Ban porn sites or lose license: High Court to ISPs". India Today. India Today. 28 September 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Rastriya Samachar Samiti (12 October 2018). "NTA closes 21,000 porn websites". The Kathmandu Post.
- "Let's talk about porn". Nepali Times. November 2010.
- Siobhan Heanue (2 September 2018). "Porn ban introduced in Nepal in attempt to combat violence against women". ABC News.
- Haque, Jahanzaib (17 November 2011). "PTA Approved". Express Tribune. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Death Penalty For Porn In Iran?". Cbsnews.com. CBS News. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- "Authorities arrest Syrian-Lebanese porn gang". The Daily Star. 28 September 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- AFP: Hamas takes aim at Internet porn in Gaza Archived 5 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Hamas bans pornographic websites in Gaza Strip". Reuters. 19 May 2008.
- "Saudis 'defeating' internet porn". BBC News. 10 May 2000.