Pornography in Japan
This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2021)
Pornography in Japan has unique characteristics that readily distinguish it from western pornography. Pornographic films are known as "adult videos" (AV) in Japan, so Japanese adult videos are "JAV", referring to the Japanese pornographic film industry. Animated films are referred to as hentai in English, but in Japan the terms "adult anime" and "erotic animation" (or ero anime) are used. In addition to pornographic videos and magazines featuring live actors, there are now categories of pornographic manga and anime[a] (i.e., hentai), and pornographic computer games (eroge; for both PC and game consoles).
Reflecting Japan's views on sexuality and culture, Japanese pornography delves into a wide spectrum of heterosexual, homosexual, and transgender sexual acts in addition to unique fetishes and paraphilias. Starting with erotic stories and wood block prints from before the 20th century, Japanese pornography evolved into distinct subcategories. Partly under attempts to circumvent Japanese laws regarding censorship, but also to cater to particular fetishes, actors and producers have featured subject matter unseen or rarely depicted in western pornography; bukkake (group ejaculation), gokkun (consuming semen), omorashi (needing to urinate), and tentacle erotica are a few uniquely Japanese genres of erotica. Lolicon (young girls), shotacon (young boys), and their contribution to the controversy regarding the regulation of cartoon pornography depicting minors has been a major issue concerning child protection, free speech, and public morality both inside and outside Japan.
The Japanese Penal Code from the early 20th century has provisions against indecent material, so any lawfully produced pornography must censor the genitals of actors and actresses; this type of censorship also extends to the graphics of hentai manga, video games, and anime. Up until the mid-1990s, any depiction of pubic hair was also censored. Anuses are only censored at contact or penetration. Breasts and nipples are not censored. Pixelization is commonly used to follow the censorship guidelines without being too obvious.
Before the 20th century
Shunga or pornographic wood-block pictures were printed with all imaginable situations. The actual uses of shunga in the period are still debated, but probably resembled modern uses of pornographic materials, including masturbation and shared viewing with a lover.
After the Meiji Restoration in the second half of the 19th century, the publication of pornographic materials declined under government pressure.
In the 20th century
In the late Taishō period and early Shōwa period, an artistic movement called Eroguronansensu, literally "erotic-grotesque-nonsense", occurred influenced by decadence works of Europe. Open sexual expressions were permitted in novels and manga but a strict control was applied on photographs and films. After World War II, the law against 'obscenity', Article 175, was the only official censorship law that remained in force.
Influenced by magazines like Playboy, pornographic magazines were printed soon after World War II. While Playboy's articles were about the American lifestyle; women were mostly non-Asian, interviews were with people largely unknown in Japan, and fashion and sport were American, it thereby spawned a fetish and a genre known as yōmono (literally "Western things").
In the early 1960s, several movie studios began producing "pink films". With censorship laws prohibiting genitals from being seen but otherwise free to express anything, these movies quickly diversified to fill all genres, including rape and bondage. Throughout the 1960s, the "pink films" were mainly produced by low-budget, independent filmmakers such as Kōji Wakamatsu. In 1971, the major studio Nikkatsu entered the pink film genre.
Starting in 1971, homosexually-oriented magazines began to appear, including Barazoku. Homosexual magazines tend to be tailored to particular segments of the population, such as Badi, which features younger adult males, Samson, devoted to chubby men, and G-men, featuring muscular men.
The proliferation of pornographic videos in the 1980s commonly called A/V (short for adult video) sold more videos because most Japanese families now had at least two television sets and VCRs. It is rumored, but not supported, that VHS became popular over Betamax format because large numbers of A/V were released in VHS format. Few A/Vs were sold in laserdisc format. Playing games on personal computers with no limitation on content except for censorship laws was sometimes viewed as being synonymous with playing bishōjo games, because so few Japanese people saw any reason to play video games on these platforms, as opposed to video game consoles.
In the late 1980s, the dōjinshi market expanded. It is estimated that about half of this market consists of pornography. Copyright problems plague the market, yet the dōjinshi market was a common place for one to start before making a debut in a professional magazine. Yaoi began in the dōjinshi market.
According to John Carr, a United Kingdom government adviser on Internet safety policy for children, two-thirds of all pedophilic images on the Internet in the late 1990s may have originated in Japan. He further commented, "We think that child pornography, in any form, promotes values and sends the message that it is OK to sexually abuse children. It helps pedophiles to justify their ideas or behavior and it desensitizes society as a whole." Since the law against child pornography in 1999, the proportion is now believed to be less than 2%. ECPAT believes that many child pornography producers have simply turned to producing anime or films featuring adults dressed as children.
A new guideline has been proposed that women pornographic actors have the right to prohibit the sale of videos in which they appear after five years from initial release date.
Under Article 175 of the Criminal Code of Japan people who sell or distribute obscene materials can be punished by fines or imprisonment. Article 175 was included in the original document in 1907 and remains relatively unchanged. Showing pubic hair and adult genitalia was once considered obscene. Video pornography routinely depicts explicit sex scenes with the participants' genitalia obscured by pixelization. The amount of censorship of the penis can vary. The publication of Waterfruit and Santa Fe by Kishin Shinoyama was likely the first publication that featured pubic hair. Many video production companies belong to ethical associations which provide guidance on what is acceptable and what is not. The Nihon Ethics of Video Association, the Ethics Organization of Computer Software and the Contents Soft Association are three examples of such organizations.
Religion and pornography
Japan's indigenous religion, Shinto (Kami-no-Michi), is based in animism, with a belief that supernatural beings dwell in nature. The gods and goddesses of Shinto are not repositories of morality or perfection; instead, they exist within nature and thus, sexuality is an innate part of life itself. Therefore, religious attitudes are no obstacle to the presence of pornographic material in Japan's society.
Possession of child pornography depicting real children is illegal in Japan since June 2014. Distribution of child pornography was made de jure illegal in 1999 after international pressure from the United Nations, UNICEF and other international organizations, although the law made a distinction between hardcore pornography and softcore pornography, which is widely available in Japan, such as at junior idol and lolicon media centers like Akihabara and Nipponbashi, and at most konbini, or Japanese convenience stores. Prosecutions have been made under the new law by prosecutors under Japan's unique legal system, resulting in some financial verdicts, with relative strictness of enforcement continuing to vary by prefecture.
In June 2008, a bill that proposed the imposition of a ban on child-pornography possession was submitted to the House of Representatives of Japan where it was brought before the Diet in September, but failed to pass. On 15 July 2014 penalties were added to the simple possession of child pornography as a result of the revision of the law.
In 2016, the campaign group Human Rights Now reported allegations that some women appearing in pornographic films had been forced to do so against their will. The group called for the introduction of legislation to regulate production companies and for help for any performers who had experienced abuse.
Dōjin and parodies
Dōjinshi (often transliterated as doujinshi), or self-published works that are often manga, are frequently (but not always) pornographic, either as original works or as imitations of popular anime, games and manga.
Animated erotica (known in the West as hentai but in Japan as "adult anime", "ero anime" or "erotic animation") is a popular genre in Japan and generally maintains the same style of animation seen in other popular forms of Japanese animation (anime). The term hentai literally means "metamorphosis" or "transformation", but in alternate use and in context to the situation of lewdness, it means "perverse manner" or "pervert".
Adult-oriented games are a genre for video games in Japan. Because of the language barrier and cultural differences, the genre is less popular outside Japan. Known as bishōjo games or "pretty girl games" (alternately spelled bishoujo), or as eroge in Japanese, the games are known under several names used by English fans, including PC dating-sim game, hentai game/H game, and so on. Companies such as JAST USA and MangaGamer are translating dating sims and visual novels into English for the fledgling market outside Japan. For adult video games in Japan, the rating of "18+" was coined by the Ethics Organization of Computer Software or Contents Soft Association. Rating of adult video games has not gone in Computer Entertainment Rating Organization.
Fanfiction, commonly found in websites, is not limited to fictitious characters and often uses real live people as well, though these works would make little sense to those who do not see Japanese TV programs. Dōjinshi writers typically use the Internet to market their products by offering previews of new works, a secret address where buyers can find additional works, and a sample of their games. They also recruit new writers and artists online. Several exclusively adult oriented search engines exist to let someone find a site they are looking for, without having to search through commercial websites that list all keywords. Many works of dōjinshi are featured in websites that collect the art and let people look for free.
Many websites feature seasonal greeting pictures, often pornographic, from linked sites and friends who frequent their sites. A typical Christmas greeting picture on such sites features a Santa-girl in various stages of undressing. The twelve zodiac animals of Chinese astrology allow for variations on catgirls.
Magazines are, along with videos, popular media for pornographic materials. Magazines that contain pornographic manga or pictures are controlled, and feature age requirements for purchase. Many localities in Japan require pornographic magazines to be sealed when sold outside of adult bookstores, but it is not uncommon to find non-pornographic magazines that feature nudity. Many magazines, especially weekly tabloids, include nude images and photo spreads similar to Page Three girls featured in many western tabloids. So long as these images do not depict sexual organs or sex acts, they are not considered pornographic and, hence, are freely sold in public.
Confessional writings by both genders are a popular topic in men's and pornographic magazines.
Manga with pornographic content targets both male and female audiences, and both male and female manga artists write pornographic works. Male-oriented pornographic manga is known as eromanga. In Western contexts, this is more commonly referred to as hentai manga.
Many Japanese-made pornographic films, known as "Japanese adult videos" or JAV, have titles that suggest that they use minors, or that they show the recording of another actual crime. However, any and all titles that are circulated with the approval of Eirin, the Japanese film industry's regulatory body, are in full compliance with, and do not break any, Japanese laws.
A common ploy is to have a part of a title replaced with a character, or to use a phonetically similar neologism. For example, a video that is actually about a "19-year-old Girls Sex Party!" may be sold with a suggestive title like "1X-year-old Girls Sex Party!". The word "joshi kōsei" (女子) 生, lit. "high school girl", cannot be used as it would suggest a girl of 17 years or younger, who cannot legally act in a pornographic video. However, the homophonic neologism "joshi kōsei" (女子) 生, which utilizes different kanji and can mean "girl student", is considered a different word and is used in a large number of titles to promote the product without breaking censorship laws; this may be seen in popular places of Japan such as Akihabara in Tokyo or Den Den Town in Osaka.
Among the various subgenres of Japanese pornography are the following:
- Lolicon (short for "Lolita complex") ロリコン: This genre involves prepubescent and adolescent girls between the ages of 6–11. It is typically animated pornography, as the legal age to be featured in a pornographic film in Japan is 18.
- Shotacon (short for "Shoutarou Complex"): Similar to Lolicon, this genre involves prepubescent or under-aged boys between the ages 6–11. It is typically animated pornography, as the legal age to be featured in a pornographic film in Japan is 18.
- Yaoi ("Boy's Love"): Featuring two boys or men in a homosexual/gay relationship. Target audience is typically young adult women. Typically features a feminine 'uke,' or submissive, and a masculine 'seme,' or dominant, but this is not always the case as 'uke' is often portrayed as masculine as well.
- Geikomi (sometimes "Bara"): Manga made by and for gay men that are often pornographic. Typically features adult men with varying degrees of muscle, body fat, and body hair, akin to beefcake or bears. Geikomi can focus on the more realistic obstacles and challenges that come with being gay in Japan.
- Yuri ("Girl's Love"): Featuring two grown adult women in a homosexual/lesbian relationship. Target audience are mostly men or lesbians, but it is much less popular than Yaoi.
- Porn for women: new subgenre targeting women, portraying "eromen" (erotic men) who are catering to women's needs.
Companies and people
- Actress (Riidosha)
- Action Camera Stinger (Wani Shuppan)
- Bejean (GOT Corp.)—big seller
- Beppin School (Eichi Shuppan)
- Best Video (Sanwa Shuppan)
- Cream (Wailea Shuppan)
- Don't (Sun shuppan)
- Dr. Piccaso (Eichi Shuppan)
- Gokuh (Eichi Shuppan)
- Nessha Booi (Tokyo Sanseisha)
- Nyan Nyan Club (Core Magazine)
- Weekly Playboy (Shueisha)—big seller
- The Best Magazine (KK Best Sellers)
- Uoo! (Sun Shuppan)
- Urecco (Mirion Shuppan)
- Video Boy (GOT Corp.)
- Core Magazine
- C's Publishing
- Eichi publishing
- France shoin
- Futami Shobou
- John Howard Xtreme Publishing
- Kasakura Publishing
- Kindai Eigasha
- Myway Publishing
- Oakla Publishing
- Odysseus Publishing
- Saibunkan Shuppan
- Sakuramomo Syobo
- Sanwa Erotica
- Shinkosha Publishing
- Studio Pot
- Taiyō Publishing
- Take Shobou
- Terra Publications
- Tokyo Sanseisha
- Tsukasa Shobou
- Wailea Publishing
- Wani Books
- Alice Japan
- Big Morkal
- CineMagic Co.
- Garomage—nudity-only videos
- Glory Quest
- Hokuto Corporation
- Hot Entertainment
- Indies Media
- Japan Home Video
- Kasakura Shuppansha
- Kuki Inc.
- Lahaina Tokai
- Million Film
- Next 11
- Reddo Totsugekitai
- S1 No. 1 Style
- Shai Kikaku
- Soft On Demand
- Take Shobou
- Total Media Agency
- Uchu Kikaku—major studio associated with Eichi Shuppan publishers
- V&R Planning—includes V&R Products & V&R International
- Wanz Factory
- Yellow Box
- animated depictions of sexual activity
- Chronology of adult videos in Japan
- Ecchi (エッチ)
- Pornography in Europe
- Pornography in the United States
- Prostitution in Japan
- Sexuality in Japan
- Sex industry
- The Great Mirror of Male Love
- Malamuth, Neil; Donnerstein, Edward (1984). Pornography and Sexual Aggression. Elsevier. pp. 173–183. ISBN 978-0-12-466280-3.
- Geerinck, Jan Willem. "Ero guro nansensu (erotic-grotesque-nonsense)". Jahsonic. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
- da Silva, Joaquín (21 April 2009). "Obscenity and Article 175 of the Japanese Penal Code: A Short Introduction to Japanese Censorship". redsiglo21.com. Cine Japonés. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011.
- Arnold, Michael John (2015). Sex Every Afternoon: Pink Film and the Body of Pornographic Cinema in Japan (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Michigan.
- Rowley, Ian (22 January 2007). "Next-Gen DVD's Porn Struggle". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
One oft-recalled explanation for the failure of Sony's (SNE) Betamax videocassette format in the 1980s was the Japanese company's ambivalence towards producers of pornographic videos. By contrast, proponents of VHS, Betamax's rival, welcomed adult content with open arms and, the legend goes, caused Betamax's demise.
- McNicol, Tony (27 April 2004). "Does Comic Relief Hurt Kids?". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "'It was like rape': Women in Japan tricked into pornography". ABC News. 10 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "More Japanese women being forced into porn, report finds". ABC News. 8 October 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- New rules allow Japanese adult film actresses to stop the sale of their videos after five years Retrieved 29 December 2017
- The Penal Code, translated into English by the Japanese Cabinet Secretariat
- Zanghellini, A. (2009). "Underage Sex and Romance in Japanese Homoerotic Manga and Anime". Social & Legal Studies. 18 (2): 159–177. doi:10.1177/0964663909103623. S2CID 143779263.
- Perper, Timothy; Cornog, Martha (2002). "Eroticism for the Masses: Japanese Manga Comics and Their Assimilation into the U.S.". Sexuality & Culture. 6 (1): 3–126. doi:10.1007/s12119-002-1000-4. S2CID 143692243.
- "Japan police crack down on 300 child porn cases". Time. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Archived copy" 児童買春、児童ポルノに係る行為等の処罰及び児童の保護等に関する法律. Law.e-gov.go.jp. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Japan police crack down on 300 child porn cases". Reuters. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- 児童ポルノ単純所持、摘発３７件 罰則適用から１年. Asahi shimbun. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Diamond, Milton; Uchiyama, Ayako (1999). "Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan". International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 22 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1016/S0160-2527(98)00035-1. PMID 10086287. Archived from the original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
- "Japan's porn industry preys on young women: activists". The Japan Times. 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Keiko Sato (4 March 2016). "Women ensnared by ruthless porn producers, group says". The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Kazuaki Nagata (8 March 2016). "Japanese porn actresses defend industry from NGO's accusations of abuse". The Japan Times. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Apology after Japan porn industry coercion claims". BBC. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- Adelstein, Jake (2 July 2016). "Porn industry takes first step toward recognizing it has a problem". The Japan Times. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
- "Tricked into porn: Japanese actresses step out of the shadows". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Agence France-Presse. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
- Justin McCurry (15 May 2017). "Forced into pornography: Japan moves to stop women being coerced into sex films". The Guardian.
- Itasaka, Gen (1996). "Why are pornographic newspapers and magazines read on trains?". In Itasaka Gen (ed.). 100 Tough Questions for Japan. Bilingual Books Series. Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-4-7700-2091-8.
- Nagayama, Kaoru (2020). Erotic Comics in Japan: An Introduction to Eromanga. Translated by Galbraith, Patrick W.; Bauwens-Sugimoto, Jessica. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-94-6372-712-9. OCLC 1160012499.
- "Japanese women: The new demographic for porn". Rocketnews. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- 女の子のためのポルノ - JAPORN: Porn That Makes Girls Wet (Youtube). VICE Japan (in Japanese and English). 30 January 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Berry, Paul (2004). "Rethinking Shunga: The Interpretation of Sexual Imagery of the Edo Period". Archives of Asian Art. Brepols, for the Asian Society. 54: 7–22. doi:10.1484/aaa.2004.0002. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111313. OCLC 486236671.
- Constantine, Peter (1993). Japan's Sex Trade: A Journey Through Japan's Erotic Subcultures. Tokyo: Yen Books. ISBN 978-4-900737-00-6.
- Ferrari, Paige (March 2015). "Meet the Hardest Working Man in Porn". Details. Retrieved 17 April 2015. The current status of live-action Japanese pornography.
- Fornander, Kjell (July 1992). "A Star is Porn". Tokyo Journal (130). Retrieved 5 August 2012. An overview of the Japanese pornographic film and video industry.
- James (31 January 2006). "Why is Japanese Porn Censored?". Japan Probe. Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Weisser, Thomas; Mihara Weisser, Yuko (1998). Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Miami: Vital Books. ISBN 978-1-889288-52-9.
- da Silva, Joaquín (29 March 2016). "Obscenity and Article 175 of the Japanese Penal Code: A Short Introduction to Japanese Censorship". EigaNove.
- Anti-Pornography-&-Prostitution Research Group (APP-JP) (pro-censorship)