Porrhothele

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Porrhothele
BlackTunnelweb head (edit).jpg
P. antipodiana
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Mygalomorphae
Family: Porrhothelidae
Hedin et al., 2018[2]
Genus: Porrhothele
Simon, 1892[1]
Type species
Mygale antipodiana
Species

See text

Diversity
5 species

Porrhothele is a mygalomorph spider genus with five described species, all endemic to New Zealand. Before 1980, this genus was considered to belong to the family Dipluridae; later it was moved to Hexathelidae. In 2018, it was placed in its own family, Porrhothelidae.[1]

Description[edit]

The genus and family are differentiated from other mygalomorph spiders by the small posterior sigillae and a single row of teeth on the forward-facing margin of the chelicerae. Males have a large number of strong spines on the forward-facing margin of their tibiae.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Porrhothele was erected by Eugène Simon in 1892 for the species Porrhothele antipodiana, which Simon transferred from Mygale[1] – a genus no longer in use, but then used for many mygalomorph spiders. Simon placed the genus in the subfamily Diplurinae,[4] which later became the family Dipluridae. In 1980, Raven transferred the genus to the family Hexathelidae; in 1981, it was transferred to its own family, Porrhothelidae,[1] as a result of a molecular phylogenetic study. The following cladogram shows the possible relationship of Porrhothele to related taxa.[3]

Dipluridae

Hexathelidae

Porrhothele (Porrhothelidae)

Macrothelidae

Calisoga (Nemesiidae)

Hebestatis (Halonoproctidae)

Atracidae

Actinopodidae

Species[edit]

As of May 2018, the World Spider Catalog accepted the following species:[1]

Distribution[edit]

All species are endemic to New Zealand.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Gen. Porrhothele Simon, 1892", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2018-05-15
  2. ^ "Family Porrhothelidae Hedin, Derkarabetian, Ramírez, Vink & Bond, 2018", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2018-05-25
  3. ^ a b Hedin, M.; Derkarabetian, S.; Ramírez, M.J.; Vink, C. & Bond, J.E. (2018), "Phylogenomic reclassification of the world's most venomous spiders (Mygalomorphae, Atracinae), with implications for venom evolution", Scientific Reports, 8 (1636): 1–7, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19946-2
  4. ^ Simon, E. (1892), Histoire naturelle des araignées, 1, Paris, pp. 174ff.