|Also called||Porsche 911
|Designer||Tony Hatter (1991)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Body style||2-door coupé
|Layout||RR layout/R4 layout|
|Engine||3.6 L air-cooled SOHC flat-six engine
3.8 L air cooled SOHC flat-six engine
5 & 6-speed manual
|Wheelbase||89.45 in (2,272 mm)|
|Length||1993-95: 167.7 in (4,260 mm)
1996-98: 167.7 in (4,260 mm)
|Width||1993-98 Coupé: 68.3 in (1,735 mm)
1993-95 Convertible: 69.9 in (1,775 mm)
1996-98 Convertible: 70.7 in (1,796 mm)
|Height||1993-95: 51.6 in (1,311 mm)
Speedster: 50.4 in (1,280 mm)
1996-98: 51.8 in (1,316 mm)
993 is the company's internal name for the version of the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold between late 1993 and early 1998 (model years 1995-1998 in the United States), replacing the 964. Its discontinuation marked the end of air-cooled Porsches, with the 993 being not just the last air-cooled 911, but also the last of the hand built 911s. The 993 generation of the 911 is often referred to as the best and most desirable of the 911 series, not only because of its beauty, but also because its performance is very good, even by modern standards, and the 993 was "the last complete 'modern classic'"; "the 993 was and forever will be that last fresh breath of air that Porsche gave the world; elegance and muscle all in one package." The book "Porsche 993 - Essential Companion" refers to the 993 as the "King of Porsche," and it is generally acknowledged as "The purists' Holy Grail."
The 993 was much improved over, and quite different from, its predecessor. Porsche said that every part of its engine was new, and only 20% of its parts were carried over from the previous generation. Porsche itself refers to the 993 as "a significant advance, not just from a technical, but also a visual perspective." Porsche's engineers devised a new light-alloy subframe with coil and wishbone suspension (an all new multi-link system), putting behind the previous lift-off oversteer and making significant progress with the engine and handling, creating a more civilized car with better than ever quality yet one in which the driving experienced remained uncompromised. The 993 was also the first 911 to receive a six speed gearbox.
Like previous and future generations of the Porsche 911, there were several variants of the car manufactured, varying in body style, engines, drivetrains and included equipment. Whereas the Porsche 964 produced 247 horsepower, the model year 1995 993 produced 272, and this was increased again in the model year 1996-1998 911s with the addition of the Varioram system, which added additional power, particularly in the mid-ranges, and also resulted in a more throaty noise at higher revs; as a consequence, the 1996-1998 Varioram 993s put out 285 horsepower. This resulted in a 15% increase in horsepower over its 964 predecessor.
The 993 was replaced by the Porsche 996. This represented a dramatic change for Porsche. As many enthusiasts agree, "the 993 is one of the sweetest spots in the 911's half-century of existence," and while "more modern versions might be more dynamically capable, they're bloated behemoths in comparison to the lean 993."
The external design of the Porsche 993, penned by Englishman Toni Hatter, retained the basic bodyshell architecture of the 964 and other earlier 911 models, but with revised external panels, with much more flared wheelarches and a smoother front and rear bumper design, an enlarged retractable rear wing, teardrop mirrors, but keeping the doors and roof panels.
This car was promoted globally via its role of pace car during the 1994 Formula One season.
A major change was the implementation of all alloy multi-link rear suspension attached to an alloy sub frame, a completely new design derived from the project 989, a four-door sedan which never went into production. The system later continued in the 993's successor, type 996, and required the widening of the rear wheel arches, which gave better stability. The new suspension improved handling, making it more direct, more stable, and helping to reduce tendency to oversteer if the throttle was lifted during hard cornering, a trait of earlier 911s. It also reduced interior noise and improved ride quality.
The 993 was the first generation of 911 to have a standard six-speed manual transmission; previous cars, except for the Porsche 959, had 4- or 5-speed gearboxes. In virtually every situation, it was possible to keep the engine in its best torque range above 4500 rpm. The Carrera / Carrera S / Cabriolet and Targa models (rear wheel drive) were available with a "Tiptronic" 4-speed automatic transmission, first introduced in the 964. Beginning with model year 1995, Porsche offered the Tiptronic S with additional steering wheel mounted controls and refined software for smoother, quicker shifts. Since the 993's introduction, the Tiptronic is capable of recognizing climbs and descents. The Tiptronic cars suffer compared with the six speed in both acceleration and also top speed, but the differences are slight. Tiptronic cars also suffered a 55-pound weight penalty.
Further, the 993's optional all wheel drive system was refined over that of the 964. Porsche departed from the 964's setup consisting of three differentials and revised the system based on the layout from its 959 supercar, replacing the centre differential with a viscous coupling unit. In conjunction with the 993's redesigned suspension, this system improved handling characteristics in inclement weather and still retained the stability offered by all wheel drive without having to suffer as many compromises as the past all wheel drive system. Its simpler layout also reduced the earlier all wheel drive system's weight, though the four wheel drive C4 weighs 111 pounds (50 kg) more than the rear wheel drive version (at 3,131 pounds vs. 3,020 pounds or 1,420 kg vs. 1,370 kg).
Carrera Coupe / Cabriolet
The Carrera was available in rear and all-wheel drive versions. It was equipped with the naturally aspirated 3.6 liter M64 engine, further developed from the 964, and combined with a new dual-flow exhaust system now incorporating two catalytic converters. The 993 Carrera originally was equipped with orange turn indicators on the front, side and rear, black brake calipers, black Carrera logo on the back and 16 inch alloy wheels with black Porsche logos on the center wheelcaps. The 1994 coupe version had a curb weight of 1370 kg (basic empty weight 1270 kg). US models had a ground clearance at curb weight of 120 mm whereas rest of the world (ROW) versions had 110 mm. This was further lowered with the M030 sport chassis option to 90 mm. The coupe is the stiffest, tightest, most solid, yet lightest of the 993 models.
The Cabriolet, introduced in 1994 for the 1995 model year, features a fully electrical and hand-stitched soft-top reinforced with metal sheets and an automatic wind-blocker. On the rear of the Cabriolet a small spoiler is mounted with the 3rd braking light. The 993 Cabriolet was slightly heavier than the coupe version and has a curb weight of 1420 kg. On average a high percentage of the total Cabriolets produced ended up in the US. Both coupe and cabriolet versions were available with all-wheel drive.
Porsche offered the 993 Carrera also as an all-wheel drive version called the Carrera 4. In contrast with the Type 964, Porsche deleted the "2" from the rear-wheel drive "Carrera" name tag. However among enthusiasts, to differentiate between the rear-wheel and all-wheel drive variants of the Type 993 Carrera they were (and still are) commonly referred to as "C2" and "C4", respectively, as purists will accept nothing other than 2 wheel rear drive. The Carrera 4 has an ABD system (Automatic Braking Differential); it brakes the inner wheel when accelerating out of a corner. From the outside the Carrera 4 is visually distinguishable by clear front & side turn indicators and rear red turn indicators. The brake calipers are painted silver as is the 'Carrera 4' badge on the hood. The center wheel-caps carry the Carrera 4 logo instead of the Porsche crest. The Carrera 4 has a curb weight of 1420 kg, same as the Cabriolet, and in both instances more than the coupe. Key on the Carrera 4 is the weight saving verses the 964 all wheel drive system, a lower maintenance viscous coupling unit that transfers 5-50% of power to the front wheels and changes the driving behavior of the car compared to the 993 Carrera. The 993 Carrera 4 all-wheel drive is suited to cope with all inclement weather conditions, which provides extra security in rain or snow, though on a dry circuit the C2 is the faster car, and the C4 is of course heavier than the C2. As one publication summarized it, "Some may like the all-wheel-drive system making the front end feel a tad more stable. Others will insist that a skittish nose and lively, ultra-informative steering are absolute necessities for proper Porsche driving. On a dry track and everything else being equal, the rear-drive car is probably the faster of the two." There was no Triptronic option available on the Carrera 4.
The options list for the 993 Carrera (and most other variants) offered many choices, including up to five different styles of wheels, various suspension set-ups, and three different seat styles (comfort, sport, racing). In addition, many upholstery options were offered and various sound systems including digital sound processing. Further, customers had the option of any color other than standard shades. Even more, the Tequipment- and Exclusive-Programs added further options and built to order almost any specific wishes of customers such as special consoles, fax-machines or even brightly colored interior upholstery.
In contrast with most of the other variants, production of the Carrera Coupe and Cabriolet ceased with the end of model year 1997, except for a very few produced in a shortened 1998 model year.
The Targa version of the 993 was introduced in model year 1996 and saw the debut of a retractable glass roof, a design continued on the 996 and 997 Targa. The glass roof would retract underneath the rear window revealing a large opening. A shade was there to help prevent the greenhouse effect of the closed roof. This system was a complete redesign, as previous Targa models had a removable roof section and a wide B-pillar functioning as a roll bar. The new glass roof design allowed the 993 Targa to retain the same side-on profile as the other 911 Carrera variants and finish without the inconvenience of storing the removed top of the old system. The Targa has the body of the convertible with the Targa glass roof replacing the fabric roof.
The Targa was equipped with distinctive 2-piece 17-inch (430 mm) wheels, which could be ordered as an option on all cars not having standard 18-inch (460 mm) wheels. Problems with the Targa include heat in the cabin, creaking noises on rough roads and a very complicated and unreliable mechanism. In addition, the Targa roof is heavier than the coupe version, and that extra weight is of course at the top of the car, increasing its center of gravity and decreasing handling.
Production Numbers: 1996:ROW 1980 US/Canada 462 1997:ROW 1276 US/Canada 567 1998:ROW 212 US/Canada 122 Total Production Run 993 911 Targa: 4619
The 993 Turbo coupe was released in 1995. It featured a new turbocharged engine displacing 3.6 liters and producing 408 PS (300 kW; 402 hp). Twin turbochargers and air-to-air intercoolers, electronic engine management, redesigned cylinder heads and other modified engine internals were used. The 993 Turbo was the first 911 Turbo with all wheel drive, finally delivering Porsche 959 performance as a production car. The electronic engine management helped the Turbo to achieve fuel efficiency far superior to any of the previous production Turbos. In connection with two catalytic converters and an on-board-diagnostics-system including four oxygen-sensors, it also made the 993 Turbo the cleanest sports car at its time. The Turbo's bodywork differs from the Carrera body by widened rear wheel arches (approximately 6 cm), redesigned front and rear bumper moldings, and a fixed rear wing housing the intercoolers. New 18-inch (460 mm) alloy wheels with weight-reducing hollow spokes were standard.
This was one of the first production cars in the world to have OBDII diagnostics (the 3.8-liter and track versions didn't have it, and the normally aspirated 993s didn't get it until 1996). All turbos since have had water-cooled heads. The car also had brakes that were larger than those on the base Carrera model.
Within the 1996 through 1998 production run, there were two distinct differences: the 1996 and the later ones. The 1997s and 1998s had the following differences from the 1996s:
- Stronger transmission input shafts (a known weakness due to the combination of immense power and AWD).
- An ECU that was able to be flashed and modified (the 1996 was not modifiable).
- With the addition of a Porsche child seat, the passenger airbag was cut off.
- Motion sensors for the alarm that were integrated into the map light above the rear view mirror.
- Standard wheel center caps that said "turbo" (the 1996 version had Porsche crests).
During the second to the last year of production of the 993 (1997), Porsche offered the 993 Turbo S. Ultimately 183 cars were sold. The Turbo S is a high-spec Turbo including a power upgrade to 450 hp (DIN) (424 hp (SAE) for the American market). The inclusion of extras including carbonfibre decoration in the interior makes it different from the earlier lightweight, spartan 964 Turbo S. The 993 Turbo S is recognized by yellow brake calipers, a slightly larger rear wing, a 4-pipe exhaust and air scoops behind the doors. This was the last of the air-cooled Turbos. 12 Turbo S cars were delivered to Australia.
Carrera 4S / Carrera S
The Carrera 4 S (1996) and later rear wheel drive Carrera S (1997) shared the Turbo model's bodyshell, but housed the naturally aspirated Carrera engine in the rear. The 4S came with four-wheel drive, whereas the S (sometimes referred to as C2S) was rear wheel drive. Both S models had slightly lowered suspension compared to standard Carrera models. The all wheel drive 4S is heavier than the C2S due to the former's all wheel drive mechanicals, resulting in a curb weight of 3,197 pounds for the C4S vs. 3,064 pounds for the C2S. This also results in both a quicker 0-60 time as well as a higher top speed for the C2S as compared with the C4S. Although a Carrera S Cabriolet was never officially offered by the factory, a small number (believed to be 5) were special ordered through the Porsche Exclusive department in 1997 and sold as 1998 models by Beverly Hills Porsche in California. The wide body is widely acclaimed for its rear looks. It creates more aerodynamic drag, leading to slightly lower top speeds compared to the narrower siblings (about 5 km/h), but the wider tires result in excellent roadholding for the widebody 993 model. As opposed to later models, the 993 Cabriolet was never produced as a S version. The widebodies, and in particular the C2S, are the most valuable and achieve the highest sales prices. In addition, the widebodies are quite rare, with just 1,752 C2S examples made for all of North America during the entire 993 series run (in part because they were manufactured only for the 1997 model year, together with a very brief stub period later in 1997 denominated as 1998 models), though of course special extremely limited run models such as the 993RS, GT2, and Turbo S are rarer and more costly still.
The Carrera RS is a lightweight variant of the Carrera. It features a naturally aspirated 3.8 liter engine with 300 hp (DIN). On the outside it is easily distinguishable by a special non-retractable rear wing, small front flaps and 3-piece 18-inch (460 mm) aluminum wheels. The headlight washers were deleted for weight saving reasons. Inside the rear seats were removed, and special racing seats and spartan door cards were installed. Sound proofing was also reduced to a minimum.
There are further RS variants, in particular a track-oriented Carrera RS Clubsport (also referred to as the RSR in some countries) with relatively limited road usability. The Clubsport came equipped with a welded roll cage and certain comfort features such as carpets, power windows, air conditioning and radio were deleted. Externally it sports a larger rear wing and deeper chin spoiler than the standard RS.
The Carrera RS was produced in model years 1995 and 1996. It was street legal in European and many other countries around the world, but was not approved for export to the United States. As with the relative low production-quantity RS variants of earlier 911 types, some Porsche owners will turn to the standard Carrera and modify it into an RS clone as an enthusiast's attempt to own something that otherwise is unobtainable due to the rarity and consequent high market value of the RS. The practice, often using authentic Porsche-sourced RS parts, is perhaps more common amongst U.S. owners, since the RS/RS Clubsport was never certified for sale there.
The GT2 was the racing version of the Turbo. By the mid 1990s most of the sanctioning bodies of road racing had placed severe limitations if not outright bans on the use all-wheel drive systems, due in part to Audi's earlier success in campaigning their various Quattro cars in touring car races around the globe, to Porsche's 959 and its racing version the Porsche 961, and in part to the Nissan Skyline. It was in this atmosphere that in order to take their turbo-engined 993 racing, Porsche created the rear drive GT2. The deletion of the front drivetrain also brought with it the benefit of significant weight savings to the competition car. To qualify the car for racing a limited number of street GT2s were created for homologation purposes, which are now highly prized and valued by Porsche 993 collectors. The interior treatment of the GT2 is similar to that of the sibling Carrera RS. On the exterior, the fenders of the Turbo have been cut back and replaced with bolt-on plastic pieces in order to accommodate large racing tires and to help ease the repairs of damage to the fenders that are an often reoccurring event in auto racing.
Until 1997, the street version of GT2 racecar, named GT had almost the same engine as the Turbo, but operated with higher boost pressure and delivering 430 bhp (DIN). In model year 1998 it was raised to 450 bhp (DIN) and a twin ignition was added.
The many racing variants have different engine set-ups depending on the applicable racing series. By 1996 the factory-quoted power rating was 465 bhp at 5,700 rpm and torque of 670 Nm at 5,000 rpm. Power output came as high as 600 bhp (450 kW) in an "Evo" version designed for the GT1-series, which was ultimately replaced by the mid-engine 911 GT1.
Additionally, the rear deck lid of an original GT2 will also sport "911 GT" instead of "911 GT2".
The Speedster model, was a variant of the 993, with a lowered roof, and a redesigned interior.
In contrast to the G-model and the 964, Porsche never officially released a 993 Speedster. However, two were built by the factory: a dark green Speedster equipped with Tiptronic S and 17-inch (430 mm) wheels for Ferdinand Alexander Porsche (for his 60th anniversary) in 1995 and another wide-body, silver Speedster with manual transmission and 18-inch (460 mm) wheels for American TV star Jerry Seinfeld in 1998. The Seinfeld speedster was originally delivered as either a cabriolet or targa model and later sent back to the factory "Exclusive" department to be "rebuilt" as a speedster.
After the 3.3 liter G-model Turbo convertible (1987–89), Porsche never officially offered an air-cooled Turbo convertible again. However, in 1995 a small number (believed to be 14) 993 Turbo Cabriolets were sold before the introduction of the 993 Turbo coupe. They featured the 360 hp (DIN) single-turbo engine of the 964 Turbo 3.6, a 5-speed manual transmission, rear-wheel drive and the wing of the 964 Turbo 3.6. This required a premium of DM 89,500 (or plus 62%) over the standard 993 Cabriolet's price.
There were a few engine options available for the 993.
The 993 Carrera is powered by an air-cooled Porsche flat-six "boxer" engine using a Single Overhead Cam (SOHC) valvetrain. Porsche had begun employing the earliest evolution of this overhead cam engine in the 1963 Porsche 901, which had a displacement of 2 liters and produced 130 hp (DIN). More specifically, the 993 engine is the final factory refinement of the Porsche-designated "M64" boxer engine. The standard, naturally aspirated M64/05(06) engine at 3.6 liters capacity is a refined version of the M64/01 installed in the 964 Carrera. The M64/05(06) made 272 PS (200 kW; 268 hp) through model year 1995.
In 1995 Porsche switched to the VarioRam -equipped M64/21(22) engine. Varioram adjusts the length of the air intake ducts in line with the engine RPMs and the speed of the car, with this the power output is increased to 286 PS (210 kW; 282 hp).
For the 993 Carrera RS there was a slightly more powerful version with 3.8 liter 300 hp (221 kW) available and this was also offered as build-to-order options throughout the 993's lifespan.
The 3.6 liter twin turbo M64/60 engine uses two KKK K16 turbos and produces 408 PS (300 kW; 402 hp). More powerful versions (430 and 450 hp (DIN)) were available as build-to-order options, in the Turbo S, and in the GT2. Depending on the country, Porsche still offers 430 and 450 PS (331 kW; 444 hp) kits for the Turbo.
|Performance data: Porsche 993|
|Model (Source)||0-60 mph||0–100 km/h||0–160 km/h
|1/4 mile||1 km||Top speed|
|Carrera 1994 272HP
|-||5.6 s||-||-||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera 1994 272HP
(Auto Motor Sport 1993)
|-||5.3 s||12.4 s||21.1 s||-||24.7 s||267 km/h (166 mph)|
|Carrera Tiptronic 1994 272HP
|-||6.6 s||-||-||-||-||265 km/h (165 mph)|
|Carrera RS 3.8 300 hp 1995
(Sport Auto 11/94)
|-||5.2 s||11.4 s||18.7 s||-||-||287 km/h (178 mph)|
|Carrera (US) 1995
|5.2 s||-||13.3 s||-||13.8 @ 102 mph (164 km/h)||-||est 168 mph (270 km/h)|
|Carrera (US) 1995
|4.7 s||-||12.1 s||-||13.4 @ 104 mph (167 km/h)||-||162 mph (261 km/h)|
|Carrera 4 (US) 1995
(Road & Track Jan/95)
|5.7 s||-||14.0 s||-||14.1 @ 100.5 mph (161.7 km/h)||-||est 168 mph (270 km/h)|
|Carrera 1996/1997 285HP
|-||5.6 s||12.3 s||-||-||25,1 s||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera Tiptronic 1996/1997 285HP
|-||6.4 s||13.8 s||-||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera RS 1996 3.8 300HP
(performance car Mar/96)
|4.7 s||-||11.2 s||-||13.2 @ 109 mph (175 km/h)||-||-|
|Targa ROW 1996 285HP
(Auto Motor Sport 20/95)
|5.5||5.5 s||-||21.3 s||-||-||172 mph (277 km/h)|
|Carrera 4S 1996 285HP
(Sport Auto 12/95)
|-||5.5 s||13.2 s||23.0 s||-||-||290 km/h (180 mph)|
|Targa Tiptronic 1996 285HP
(Sport Auto Dec/95)
|-||7.1 s||15.4 s||27.3 s||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera 4S (US) 1997
(Car and Driver Jun/96)
|4.9 s||-||12.8 s||-||13.5 @ 102 mph (164 km/h)||-||161 mph (259 km/h)|
|Carrera S 1997 285HP
(Sport Auto 02/97)
|5.2 s||5.7 s||13.3 s||22.7 s||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Turbo 1995-1998 408HP
|-||4.5 s||-||-||-||23.0 s||290 km/h (180 mph)|
|Turbo 1995 408HP
(Auto Motor Sport 1995)
|-||4.3 s||9.5 s||15.1 s||-||22.4 s||291 km/h (181 mph)|
|Turbo 1996 408HP
|3.9 s||-||9.9 s||-||12.5 @ 112.5 mph (181.1 km/h)||-||est 180 mph (290 km/h)|
|Turbo 1995 408HP
(Car and Driver Jul/95)
|3.7 s||-||9.4 s||-||12.3 @ 114 mph (183 km/h)||-||176 mph (283 km/h)|
|Turbo S 1997 430HP
(Car and Driver Jul/97)
|3.7 s||-||8.8 s||-||12.2 @ 114 mph (183 km/h)||-||188 mph (303 km/h)|
|Turbo 1996 430HP Factory Tuning
(Auto Motor Sport 25/1996)
|-||3.8 s||8.5 s||13.5 s||-||21.8 s||300 km/h (186 mph)|
|GT2 1995 430HP
(Auto Motor Sport 1995)
|-||3.9 s||8.4 s||13.3 s||-||21.7 s||296 km/h (184 mph)|
|Porsche||Total||Subseries total||Grand total|
|993 Carrera 272 PS||14,541||46,923||68,029|
|993 Carrera Cabriolet 272 PS||7,730|
|993 Carrera 285 PS||8,586|
|993 Carrera Cabriolet 285 PS||7,769|
|993 Targa 285 PS||4,583|
|993 Carrera S 285 PS||3,714|
|993 Carrera 4 272 PS||2,884||14,114|
|993 Carrera 4 Cabriolet 272 PS||1,284|
|993 Carrera 4 285 PS||1,860|
|993 Carrera 4 Cabriolet 285 PS||1,138|
|993 Carrera 4S 285 PS||6,948|
|993 Turbo 3.6||5,978||5,978|
|993 Carrera RS||1,014||1,014|
- Mircea Panait. "This Porsche 993 GT2 is the Last of the Great Air-Cooled Turbocharged 911s – Photo Gallery". autoevolution.
- Classic Driver, http://www.classicdriver.com/en/article/cars/porsche-911-turbo-993-purple-thrills.
- "Classic Driver," August 23, 2013; "The Sports Car Guys," June 5, 2013; "K-Roll's Porsche 911 Generational Comparison: 993 vs 964," July 29, 2014.
- "'95-'98 Porsche 993 - A Guide to the Last Air-Cooled 911," www.superstreetonline.com/features/1511-95-98-porsche-993-a-guide-to-the-last-air-cooled...
- AutoTraderClassics.com — Article Finding Porsche's best road car — Porsche 911S vs 993.
- http://www.porsche.com/international/accessoriesand service/classic/models/999/993/.
- "1989 Porsche 911 Carrera 2". carfolio.com.
- http://www.porsche.com/usa/accessoriesand services/classic/models/993/993/
- 993 Buying Guide, www.jackals-forge.com/lotus/993/993_buy_guide.html.
- Excellence, "1995 911 Carrera Coupe (993), www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs.
- Excellence, www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs.
- Porsche 911 993 (1993 - 1998), www.stuttcars.com/porsche-models/911/993; Porsche 911 Buyers' Guide: Classic to Modern, www.ferdinandmagazine.com/porsche-buyers-guides/porsche-911-buyers-guide.
- 993 Buying Guide, http://www.jackals-forge.com/lotus/993/993_buy_guide.html.
- '95-'98 Porsche 993 - A Guide to the Last Air-Cooled 911," Id.
- 993 Buying Guide, www.jackals-forge.com/lotus/993/993_buy_guide.html; Porsche 911 993 (1993 - 1998), www.stuttcars.com/porsche-models/911/993.
- Excellence Magazine, www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs/323 (C2S) and 334 (C4S)
- Excellence Magazine, www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs/323 and 334.
- "Porsche 911 Evolution: Porsche 993". 911evolution.com.
- All figures from: Eberhard Kittler: Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol. 6. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02052-1, p. 361.
- Bongers, Marc (2004). Porsche — Serienfahrzeuge und Sportwagen seit 1948 (first edition). Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02388-1
- Frère, Paul (2002). Die Porsche 911 Story (revised and last edition). Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02225-7
- Streather, Adrian (2005). Porsche 993: The Essential Companion (first edition). Veloce Publishing. ISBN 1-904788-94-7
- Porsche, Christophorus, Issue no. 5 (September) of 1993, pages 11 ff. ISSN 0412-3417
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Porsche 993.|
- Official website of Porsche
- 993 Owners and information
- Information on and about Porsche 993
- Porsche 911 Carrera 2 (Generation 993) Exterior and Interior in Full HD 3D YouTube
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