Porsche 996

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Porsche 996
Porsche GT2 white (6906399337).jpg
Porsche 996 GT2
Overview
ManufacturerPorsche AG
Also calledPorsche 911
Porsche Carrera
Production1997–2004 (2005 for 911 Turbo S, GT2 and GT3 models only)
AssemblyStuttgart, Germany
Designer
Body and chassis
ClassSports car (S)
Body style
LayoutRear-engine, rear-wheel drive/Rear-engine, all-wheel drive
RelatedRuf RTurbo
Ruf RGT
Powertrain
Engine3.4 L–3.6 L naturally aspirated/twin-turbocharged flat-6
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase92.6 in (2,352 mm)
Length
  • 174.5 in (4,432 mm)
  • Carrera 4S and Turbo: 174.6 in (4,435 mm)
Width
  • 1999–2001: 69.5 in (1,765 mm)
  • 2002–2004: 69.7 in (1,770 mm)
  • Carrera 4S and Turbo: 72.0 in (1,829 mm)
Height
  • 51.4 in (1,306 mm)
  • Carrera 4S and Turbo: 51.0 in (1,295 mm)
  • 40th Anniversary coupé: 50.2 in (1,275 mm)
  • GT2: 50.2 in (1,275 mm)
Curb weight2,904 lb (1,317 kg)
Chronology
PredecessorPorsche 993
SuccessorPorsche 997

The Porsche 996 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 model manufactured from 1997 to 2006.[1] It was replaced by the 997 in 2004.

The 996 had little in common with its predecessor, with the first all new chassis platform since the original 911 and a new water-cooled engine. Technically, it was a major change, a complete breakthrough from the original car other than overall layout.

Development was shared with its entry-level sibling, the roadster-only Boxster which was introduced around the same time, including the front suspension, various interior components, and the engine, all of which were enlarged for the 996. However, the multi-link rear suspension, was derived from the preceding 993.

At its debut, the 996 featured the most significant change from the classic 911 series: a water-cooled engine replacing the previously air-cooled engine. Progressively stringent emissions and noise regulations, environmental concerns, a higher expectation for refinement and the need for a high-performance 4 valve per cylinder engine made the switch necessary. Other major changes include a completely new platform having a sleeker body with a more raked windshield, and a re-designed interior along with new "fried egg" shaped headlamps instead of previous "bug eye" headlamps.

Design and History[edit]

Porsche 911 Carrera 4S (UK)
Porsche 996 Turbo, sectioned for display purposes

The Porsche 996 was a new design penned Pinky Lai under Porsche design chief Harm Lagaay; it was the first 911 that was completely redesigned, and carried over little from its predecessor. Featuring an all new body work, interior, and the first water-cooled engine, the 996 replaced the 993 from which only the front suspension, rear multi-link suspension, and 6 speed transmission were retained in revised form.

The 996 was initially available as a coupé or cabriolet (Convertible) with rear-wheel drive, and later with four-wheel drive, utilising a 3.4 litre flat-6 naturally aspirated engine generating a maximum power output of 221 kW (300 PS; 296 hp). The 996 had the same front end as the entry-level Boxster. After requests from the Carrera owners about their premium cars looking like a "lower priced car that looked just like theirs did", Porsche redesigned the headlamps of the Carrera in 2002 similar to the high performance Turbo's headlamps. The design for these "fried egg" shaped headlamps could be traced back to the Porsche Panamericana concept car.

In 2000, Porsche introduced the 996 Turbo, equipped with an four-wheel-drive system and a 3.6-litre, twin-turbocharged and intercooled flat-six engine generating a maximum power output of 313 kW (426 PS; 420 hp), making the car capable of accelerating from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 4.2 seconds. An X50 option which included larger turbochargers and intercoolers along with revised engine control software became available from the factory in 2002, increasing power to 336 kW (457 PS; 451 hp). In 2005, Porsche introduced the Turbo S, which had the X50 option included as standard equipment, with the formerly optional Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) composite ceramic brakes (PCCB) also included as standard.

In 2001, power on the base Carrera model was increased to 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp). 2001 also marked the final year of production for the base Carrera 4 Coupé in narrow body format.

In 2002, the standard Carrera models underwent to the above mentioned facelift. In addition, engine capacity was also increased to 3.6-litres across the range, yielding gains of 11 kW (15 PS; 15 hp) for the naturally aspirated models. 2002 also marked the start of the production of the 996 based Targa, with a sliding glass "green house" roof system like its predecessor. Also in 2002, the Carrera 4S model was first introduced. The C4S as it is called among the enthusiasts, shares the wide-body look of the Turbo as well as the brakes and suspension.[2]

Turbo[edit]

Porsche 911 (996) Turbo

The 996 Turbo debuted at the Frankfurt Auto show in September 1999. It went on sale in the US in summer of 2000 as a 2001 model. The Turbo is powered by a water-cooled twin-turbocharged and intercooled 3.6-litre flat-6 engine derived from the 1998 LeMans winning 911 GT1 race car. The engine produces 313 kW (426 PS; 420 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 415 lb⋅ft (563 N⋅m) of torque. It features all-wheel drive and was available with either a 6-speed manual or a 5-speed Tiptronic transmission. It has revised styling and a wider stance than the naturally aspirated 996 Carreras, along with new bi-xenon headlamps and a fixed rear wing. It also came with VarioCam Plus and stability management, and in the US spec an electronically adjustable rear spoiler was included which would rise at a speed of 76 mph (122 km/h) and lower at 36 mph (58 km/h). The bodywork was also revised to allow airflow to 3 radiators up front and to accommodate 18-inch wheels and tyres.

In 2002, the X50 package was offered as an option on the Turbo that included larger K24 turbochargers and intercoolers, a revised ECU and quad-pipe exhaust which raised power output to 331 kW (450 PS; 444 hp). Other features introduced in 2002 were a glove box, center mounted cup-holders, an optional Bose stereo and rain-sensing wipers.

In 2003, Porsche North America restated their horsepower numbers due to SAE changes. The turbo was still listed at 415 hp however the X50 option was now listed at 444 hp.

Porsche 911 (996) Turbo Cabriolet

In 2004, the Turbo cabriolet was introduced which was the first mass produced Turbo Cabriolet since the 1989 964 Turbo Cabriolet.[3]

Porsche 911 (996) Turbo S

In 2005, Porsche introduced the Turbo S model available as either a coupé or a cabriolet. The Turbo S was essentially a 996 turbo with the X50 option but also included PCCB, 6-disc CD changer and aluminum-faced instruments.[4]

GT variants[edit]

996 GT2 (2003)
996 GT3 (1999)
996 GT3 RS (2003)

The 996 platform was used as the basis for two lightweight GT variants called GT2[5] and the GT3. The GT3 was based on the standard 996 Carrera, but was stripped of a great deal of equipment for weight savings, featuring stiffer, adjustable suspension and upgraded brakes. The GT3 used the bodyshell of the four-wheel-drive Carrera 4, which incorporated additional front-end stiffening. The GT3 was produced in two versions. The first, commonly referred to as the Mk.I GT3, was released in 1999 in all markets, save North America. It featured a naturally aspirated 3.6-litre flat-six engine generating a maximum power output of 268 kW (364 PS; 359 hp). This engine was shared with the 996 Turbo and was a derivative of the engine developed for the 911 GT1 race car. The Mk.II GT3 variant was based on the second generation of the 996, and featured updated aerodynamics, and a more powerful version of the 3.6L engine from the MK.I, now producing 283 kW (385 PS; 380 hp). The Mk.II was the first GT3 marketed in the North America. An Mk.II GT3 was tested in 2004 and accelerated from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 4.0 seconds, and produced 1.03 g on the skidpad, the second highest number ever recorded by a street-legal vehicle.

The turbocharged counterpart to the GT3, the GT2, was Rear-wheel drive as well, to save weight and to avoid power losses through the transmission[6] (This is primarily due to the fact that the GT2 was built to compete in GT2 class racing, which restricted the use of an all-wheel-drive system). The GT2 received an added group of aerodynamic body parts, and a re-tuned version of the 996 Turbo's 3.6 litre, twin-turbocharged engine featuring larger turbochargers and intercoolers, a revised intake and exhaust system and re-programmed engine control software. The result was 355 kW (483 PS; 476 hp) at 5,700 rpm and 640 N⋅m (472 lbf⋅ft) at 3,500 to 4,500 rpm, enough to launch the car from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 3.9 seconds and to a top speed of 315 km/h (196 mph).[7] Bigger wheels and tyres along with lightweight ceramic brakes were standard.[6] The GT2's fixed rear wing (made of CFRP for the post-2003 cars) appears to be a concession to racing rules that usually outlaw adjustable aerodynamic components.[6] The GT2 had no rear seat and no air conditioning and came with a factory installed roll cage.[6] Both the GT3 and GT2 were available only with six-speed manual transmission.

The Turbo, GT2 and GT3 models use the Aluminum crankcase of the air-cooled 911 with its true dry sump oiling system. The six separate individual Nikasil lined cylinders in this engine are covered with two separately installed water jackets each covering a bank of 3 cylinders on each side of the engine, thus adding water cooling to a crankcase originally designed for air-cooled cylinders (the normal 996 Carrera engine has the cylinders and water jackets cast together with the crankcase).

Special editions[edit]

Porsche offered a special edition of the 996 for the year 2000. The car, named the 911 Millennium edition was based on the Carrera 4 coupé. Only 911 cars were made. It featured all of the options that came with the Turbo model including electric and heated seats and telephone module. It came with polished turbo twist wheels and GT3 side skirts with some having the same aerodynamic components as the GT3.

This special edition was finished in Violet Chromaflair paint with natural leather interior and dark burr maple trim. The car was available with a Tiptronic or six-speed manual gearbox. A number plate on the center console and a unique "911" badge on the engine lid and lettering on the door sills make this special edition easy to identify from other base Carrera models.

Porsche celebrated the 911's 40-year history in 2003, using the slogan, "40 Jahre 911/40 Fast Years". The company also introduced the 996 "40th Anniversary Edition" for model year 2004. This model has the 996 Turbo's front-end, and was available only in GT Silver metallic paint. Other unique features included: X51 power kit, turbo radiators, limited slip differential, sport suspension, polished 5-spoke alloy wheels (unique to this model), GT3 side skirts, natural gray leather interior (with matching luggage set), sports seats (there was a power comfort seat option), polished exhaust tips, heated seats (option in Latin America), litronic bi-xenon headlights, special dynamic sealed panels, and a special "40 Jahre 911" logo on the engine cover. The power was increased 254 kW (345 PS; 341 hp)> Only 1,963 units were made, to commemorate 1963—the year in which the 911 was first introduced.

Statistics[edit]

Model PS, Engine 0–100 km/h (62 mph) acceleration Top Speed
911 Carrera 320 PS (235 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 4.9 s 178 mph (286 km/h)
911 Carrera 4S 320 PS (235 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 5.0 s 174 mph (280 km/h)
911 "40 Jahre" 345 PS (254 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 4.8 s 180 mph (290 km/h)
911 Targa 320 PS (235 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 5.2 s 174 mph (280 km/h)
911 Turbo 420 PS (309 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.2 s 190 mph (310 km/h)
911 Turbo X50 450 PS (331 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.0 s 192 mph (309 km/h)
911 Turbo S 450 PS (331 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 3.9 s 197 mph (317 km/h)
911 GT3 381 PS (280 kW) @ 7400 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.5 s 190 mph (310 km/h)
911 GT3 RS 381 PS (280 kW) @ 7400 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.4 s 190 mph (310 km/h)
911 GT2 484 PS (356 kW) @ 5700 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 3.6 s 208 mph (335 km/h)
911 Turbo Cabriolet 420 PS (309 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.4 s 187 mph (301 km/h)
911 Turbo X50 Cabriolet 450 PS (331 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.2 s 189 mph (304 km/h)
911 Turbo S Cabriolet 450 PS (331 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 3.6L dry-sump 4.1 s 190 mph (310 km/h)
911 Carrera Cabriolet 320 PS (235 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 4.9 s 176 mph (283 km/h)
911 Carrera 4 Cabriolet 320 PS (235 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 5.2 s 175 mph (282 km/h)
911 Carrera 4S Cabriolet 320 PS (235 kW) @ 6800 rpm, 3.6L integrated dry-sump 5.4 s 172 mph (277 km/h)
  • All specifications stated are for the MkII, EU spec 996's.
  • Integrated dry-sump is Porsche's name for a dry sump lubrication system integrated within the engine block, i.e. no separate oil reservoir.[8]

Production Numbers:[9]

Year Production
1997 14
1998 9,248
1999 28,040
2000 20,979
2001 27,275
2002 33,013
2003 29,536
2004 23,145
2005 4,012
Total 175,262

Individual vehicles[edit]

Movie character[edit]

Sally Carrera as a customised 996

Hollywood custom car builder Eddie Paul created a modified 996 Carrera as one of a set of three vehicles for Pixar's 2006 Cars promotional tour.[10] Sally, a blue Porsche 996 designed to closely resemble a 2002 Carrera, is built on a slightly-shortened wheelbase; her windscreen is tilted closer to vertical (adding a few inches to the car's height) to accommodate the animated character's eyes.[11]

Police car[edit]

In 2007, a motorist's 2001 Porsche 911 was searched during a traffic stop by Hoover, Alabama police. The police department seized the vehicle after they found 10 kilograms of cocaine hidden inside two compartments. Since then the vehicle was redecorated in two-tone police blue with a wing, light bar, and rear window lights.[12] The vehicle was unveiled in 2009 as a Hoover Police Department police car and has appeared at various public events.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Porsche 996 Production numbers". Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  2. ^ "Porsche 996 The Essential Companion".
  3. ^ robert-ross (1 February 2004). "Car of the Year 2004: Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet". The Best Luxury Cars, Jets, Yachts, Travel, Watches - Robb Report.
  4. ^ http://press.porsche.com/archive/products/press_kits/press_kits_2005/pdf/911_turbos/911_Turbo_specs.pdf
  5. ^ "First Drive: 2002 Porsche 911 GT2". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  6. ^ a b c d "Porsche 911 GT2 - Car News". Car and Driver. March 2001. Archived from the original on 2012-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
  7. ^ Stone, Matt (23 October 2002). "First Drive: 2002 Porsche 911 GT2". Motor Trend. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Utvalg av biler". Porsche.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2007-06-14.
  9. ^ Adrian Streather (2008). 996: The Essential Companion. Veloce Publishing. p. 602.
  10. ^ "A-List Auto Shop". Popular Mechanics. October 1, 2009.
  11. ^ Mike Hanlon (March 26, 2006). "Disney's cute Porsche - Sally Carrera". Gizmag.
  12. ^ Ramsey, Jonathon (2009-02-24). "Alabama Slammer: Seized Porsche 911 becomes newest member of Hoover PD". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  13. ^ "Hoover, Alabama police unveil newest fleet addition - a Porsche 911". Blog.al.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.

Further reading[edit]

  • Streather, Adrian (2008). Porsche 996 The Essential Companion. Veloce Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84584-096-9.

External links[edit]