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Port Lincoln

Coordinates: 34°43′56″S 135°51′31″E / 34.73222°S 135.85861°E / -34.73222; 135.85861
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Port Lincoln
South Australia
Port Lincoln
Port Lincoln is located in South Australia
Port Lincoln
Port Lincoln
Location in South Australia
Coordinates34°43′56″S 135°51′31″E / 34.73222°S 135.85861°E / -34.73222; 135.85861
Population14,404 (UCL 2021)[1]
Elevation7 m (23 ft)
Time zoneACST (UTC+9:30)
 • Summer (DST)ACST (UTC+10:30)
  • 280 km (174 mi) from Adelaide ( by air )
  • 649 km (403 mi) from Adelaide via
LGA(s)City of Port Lincoln
RegionEyre Western[3]
State electorate(s)Flinders[5]
Federal division(s)Grey[6]
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
21.3 °C
70 °F
11.3 °C
52 °F
389.7 mm
15.3 in
Localities around Port Lincoln:
Boston Boston Port Lincoln (water body)
Duck Ponds Port Lincoln Port Lincoln (water body)
Tulka Port Lincoln (water body) Port Lincoln (water body)
FootnotesAdjoining localities[4]
Railway Station

Port Lincoln is a city on the Lower Eyre Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia. Known as Galinyala by the traditional owners, the Barngarla people, it is situated on the shore of Boston Bay, which opens eastward into Spencer Gulf. It is the largest city in the West Coast region, and is located approximately 280 km (170 mi) from the state's capital city of Adelaide (646 km (401 mi) by road).

In June 2019 Port Lincoln had an estimated population of 26,418,[8] having grown at an average annual rate of 0.55% year-on-year over the preceding five years. The city is reputed to have the most millionaires per capita in Australia,[9] as well as claiming to be Australia's "Seafood Capital".[10]

History and name


The Eyre Peninsula has been home to Aboriginal people for over 40 thousand years, with the Barngarla (eastern Eyre, including Port Lincoln), Nauo (south western Eyre), Wirangu (north western Eyre) and Mirning (far western Eyre) being the predominant original cultural groups present at the time of the arrival of Europeans.[11]

The Barngala people have been acknowledged as the traditional owners, and their name for Port Lincoln is Galinyala, which in the Barngarla language[12] means "place of sweet water".[13]

Matthew Flinders was the first European to reach Port Lincoln under his commission by the British Admiralty to chart Australia's unexplored coastline. On 25 February 1802, Flinders sailed his exploration vessel HMS Investigator into the harbour, which he later named Port Lincoln after the city of Lincoln in his native county of Lincolnshire in England.[14] A couple of months later on 19 April, Nicolas Baudin entered the same port and named it Port Champagny.[15]

Sealers had visited the area around 1828 and the mainly French whaling ships were fishing the local bays and island regions by the 1820s and up to the 1840s. In 1836 Governor Sir John Hindmarsh, the first Governor of South Australia, gave instructions to Colonel William Light to find a capital for the "New British Province of South Australia". With boatfuls of immigrants set to arrive and impatient settlers already camping at Holdfast Bay, Rapid Bay and Kangaroo Island, Light was under immense pressure to identify a location with a suitable harbour, sufficient agricultural land and fresh water. After assessing a number of other potential locations, Light was ordered by England to consider Port Lincoln as a possible site for the capital. While Thomas Lipson had arrived in Port Lincoln earlier and approved of its "beautiful harbour" and "fertile land", Light was unconvinced from the beginning, as he faced fierce westerly gales, ill-placed islands and rocky reefs on arrival.

Light decided that it might be dangerous for merchant ships trying to enter the unfamiliar territory after a long voyage and that there was not enough of what he thought was good agricultural land, nor enough fresh water to sustain a city. Instead he selected Adelaide as the most suitable place for settlement.

Port Lincoln, however, proved popular with pioneers and developers. The first settlers arrived on 19 March 1839 aboard the ships Abeona, Porter and Dorset. On 3 October 1839, Governor George Gawler proclaimed the whole area from Cape Catastrophe to the head of the Spencer Gulf as one district, which he named the District of Port Lincoln.

In 1840, one year after settlement, the population of Port Lincoln was 270. There were 30 stone houses, a hotel, blacksmith's shop and a store in the Happy Valley area. Around this time, Edward John Eyre explored the peninsula that was subsequently named in his honour.

In early 1842, local Aboriginal resistance to the British settlement became so successful that it prompted the near abandonment of Port Lincoln. As a result, Governor George Grey ordered a detachment of the 96th Regiment of the British Army under the command of Lieutenant Hugonin to enforce control in the area. After an initial defeat at Pillaworta, the 96th in combination with the Mounted Police and armed settlers were able to restore full British authority by the end of 1843. A section of Native Police were later deployed to the area to maintain this control.[16] An unknown number of Aboriginal people were killed by soldiers near Pillaworta in retribution for the presumed killings of colonists.[17]

In 1849, five Aboriginal people including an infant were poisoned after being given flour mixed with arsenic by hutkeeper Patrick Dwyer near Port Lincoln. Despite being arrested with strong evidence against him, Dwyer was released from custody by Charles Driver, the Government Resident at Port Lincoln.[18]

Local government formally began on the Eyre Peninsula on 1 July 1880, with the establishment of the District Council of Lincoln. The township of Port Lincoln naturally was included in that area. On 18 August 1921, the Municipality of Port Lincoln was formally proclaimed.

By 1936 the population had grown to 3200 and the town had a first-class water supply. The port had become the commercial pivot for the area, providing for its many agricultural and commercial requirements. City status was granted to Port Lincoln on 21 January 1971 and the proclamation was read at the opening of the tenth annual Tunarama Festival on the Australia Day weekend.

Water supply


The lack of a reliable surface water supply was a factor preventing Port Lincoln from being proclaimed the colony's capital city in the 1830s. Even as a small town, Port Lincoln outgrew its fresh water supplies. It is now largely dependent on water drawn from groundwater basins in the south of the peninsula.

The southern and western parts of the Eyre Peninsula region also share this resource via the Tod-Ceduna pipeline. The Iron Knob to Kimba pipeline completed in 2007 provides limited transfer capacity of River Murray water into the Tod-Ceduna system. Following the development of a long term water supply plan for Eyre Peninsula, the South Australian government is progressing detailed investigation of augmentation options. These include seawater desalination.[19]

Formerly a potable water resource fed by the Tod River, the Tod Reservoir was taken offline in 2001–2002 due to concerns about rising levels of agricultural chemical contamination and salinity.[20]

Heritage listings


Port Lincoln has a number of places listed on the South Australian Heritage Register, including:



At June 2018 Port Lincoln had an estimated urban population of 26,326.[8] Aboriginal people make up 5.6% of Port Lincoln's population.[27]



Port Lincoln has a contrasting coastal landscape, ranging from sheltered waters and beaches, to surf beaches and rugged oceanic coastline.[according to whom?] The Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System brings cold, nutrient-rich water into nearby waters of the Great Australian Bight and Spencer Gulf. These upwellings support lucrative fisheries, including that of the southern bluefin tuna and sardine.[28]



Port Lincoln has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb). The climate is highly variable due to the town's position between the Outback and Southern Ocean. Summers alternate between frequent southerly sea breezes (keeping maxima under 30.0 °C (86.0 °F)), with occasional northerly heatwaves (that raise the temperature to well over 40.0 °C (104.0 °F)). Meanwhile, winters are cool and cloudy, with frequent drizzle, showers and cold fronts, albeit with frost being very rare.

There is moderate seasonal temperature variation and seasonal lag: with average maxima ranging from 26.2 °C (79.2 °F) in January to 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) in July, while average minima vary from 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) in February to 7.2 °C (45.0 °F) in August. Average annual rainfall is rather low: 392.5 mm (15.45 in), occurring within 127.1 rainfall days, and the wettest month on record was 200.4 mm (7.89 in) in June 1981. Despite the low intensity of rainfall: there are 154.5 cloudy days and only 57.2 clear days annually. [29] Extreme temperatures have ranged from −0.3 °C (31.5 °F) on the 16th of July 2016 to 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) on the 24th of January 2019.[30]

Climate data for Port Lincoln (34º36'00"S, 135º52'48"E, 9 m AMSL) (1992-2024 normals and extremes, sun 1973-1991)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 48.3
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 26.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 15.8
Record low °C (°F) 8.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.7 3.7 5.8 8.5 14.9 17.2 18.2 18.0 13.7 9.6 6.8 6.0 127.1
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 50 52 54 57 61 66 66 64 62 56 52 51 58
Average dew point °C (°F) 12.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 294.5 245.8 223.2 183.0 151.9 129.0 155.0 179.8 189.0 229.4 243.0 272.8 2,496.4
Percent possible sunshine 67 65 59 54 48 44 50 53 53 57 58 61 56
Source: Bureau of Meteorology (1992-2024 normals and extremes, sun 1973-1991)[31][32]



Port Lincoln is located in the federal Division of Grey, the state electoral district of Flinders and the local government area of City of Port Lincoln.[5][6] [4]



The economy is based on the huge grain-handling facilities (with a total capacity of over 337,500 tonnes), the canning and fish processing works, lambs, wool and beef, and tuna farming for the Japanese market.[33] Home of Australia's largest commercial fishing fleet,[citation needed] Port Lincoln now has a thriving aquaculture industry that farms the following species: southern bluefin tuna, yellowtail kingfish, abalone, mussels, oysters, and experimentally, seahorses and spiny lobsters. Before the advent of aquaculture, the main fishing was for southern bluefin tuna.[citation needed] Frank Moorhouse recommended the South Australian government lend the Haldane family 20,000 pounds which they used to build a super vessel. The MFV Tacoma was Australia's first purpose-built tuna fishing vessel. It revolutionised the industry and began catching the fish off the coast of Port Lincoln in the early 1950s.[34]

The city also functions as a regional centre for government administration, corporate services and commerce to Eyre Peninsula; however, many state government functions are gradually being withdrawn as they become more centralised in Adelaide. During the early years of this century, housing demand has led to a boom in property development, both residential and commercial.

A proposal by Centrex Metals to export iron ore through an expanded facility at the existing Port Lincoln wharf was approved by the South Australian Government c. Oct 2009.[35] The proposal was abandoned by the company following strong public opposition. The chief public concern was the potential harm that spillage or dust plumes might cause to the profitability or reputation of the region's dominant seafood industry.[36][37]



Port Lincoln is a centre for tourism, due to the scenic beauty and coastal locality. Ready access to both Spencer Gulf and the Great Australian Bight mark Port Lincoln out as a site for yachting, scuba diving, shark cage diving and game fishing. Lincoln National Park, Coffin Bay National Park and Kellidie Bay Conservation Park are within easy driving distance.

Panorama of Boston Bay, with Port Lincoln in the right third of picture.



Port Lincoln railway station is the terminus of Eyre Peninsula Railway, a narrow gauge (1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)) railway which consists of three lines; Port Lincoln to Kevin, Cummins to Buckleboo and Yeelanna to Kapinnie.[38][39]

Port Lincoln was also the port terminus for the privately owned standard-gauge Coffin Bay Tramway that operated from 1966 to 1989 to carry lime sand to the port at Proper Bay on the south side of the town for BHP. It was used as flux in blast furnaces.[40]

Port Lincoln Airport is located a few kilometres north of the city. Regional Express and QantasLink provide multiple daily flights to the state capital of Adelaide.

The Port Lincoln Bus Service operates Monday to Friday from 9.00 am to 4.30 pm with separate morning and afternoon services. The morning service runs to a fixed route timetable and services Lincoln North and Lincoln South.

Long-distance bus services are operated by Stateliner with multiple daily services to Adelaide and Port Augusta.



The book Blue Fin by Colin Thiele was set in Port Lincoln, with the movie of the same name filmed in nearby Streaky Bay.[41]

Some of the ANZAC Cove scenes in Gallipoli were also filmed near Port Lincoln.[42]

The first edition of Australian Survivor, the Australian version of the popular US television series, Survivor, was filmed at Whalers Way, south of Port Lincoln, in 2001.[43]

The Discovery Channel documentary series Tuna Wranglers (2007) and Abalone Wars were both filmed in and around Port Lincoln.[44]

Port Lincoln was visited in 1939 by English travel author Eric Newby, while he was crew in the 4-masted barque Moshulu, which anchored outside of Boston Island. Moshulu had taken 82 days to sail to Port Lincoln from Belfast in ballast (a fast passage for a windjammer), but there was no grain to be had there, even though Moshulu waited at anchor for most of January. The crew was given shore leave in Port Lincoln, encountering large amounts of Australian wine. Moshulu eventually carried on to Port Victoria for cargo. During the 1939 season, Passat and Lawhill were also present at Port Lincoln. Newby wrote about his experiences on the round-trip from Ireland to South Australia in his book The Last Grain Race (1956), and several pictures of Port Lincoln as it appeared in 1939 are included in his photo-essay of his voyage, Learning the Ropes.[citation needed]

On the TV show Neighbours, the Brennan brothers, Tyler, Mark and Aaron, are originally from Port Lincoln.[45]

The town was featured in the second series of An Idiot Abroad. British comedian Karl Pilkington was in Port Lincoln for the show were he swam with sharks.[46][47]



According to the Port Lincoln Council the most popular sports are tennis, Australian rules football, soccer, netball and basketball.[48] The Port Lincoln Football League (PLFL) has 6 teams competing including the Mallee Park Football Club which is notable as having produced many Australian Football League players, particularly indigenous.[49] The Centenary Oval has a capacity for 7,500 and has hosted sellout pre-season AFL matches in 2005 and 2015.[50] Port Lincoln Soccer Association runs a 4 team competition.



Historically, South Australia's first rural newspaper, the Port Lincoln Herald, owned by Robert Thomas, was published on 10 April 1839, before ceasing publication in September 1840.[51][52] According to the first edition, "...The object of the proprietors...is to promulgate just accounts of the capabilities of the only safe and commodious harbour yet known within the territories of South Australia."[53] Only six issues were released, with the first edition being printed in Hindley Street, Adelaide, and the second issue arriving seven months later, after being printed in a hut at Port Lincoln.[53]

The Western Weekly News (22 March 1902 – 1904)[54] was also briefly published in the town, as was another short lived, but outspoken publication, called Challenger (28 May 1932 - 4 June 1934), a sister publication of the West Coast Recorder.[55] The town was also the base of the Port Lincoln, Tumby and West Coast Recorder (22 July 1904 – 6 October 1909),[56] later known as the West Coast Recorder (1909-1942), which was then absorbed by the Port Lincoln Times. These days, Port Lincoln has one local newspaper (the Port Lincoln Times), a Rural Press publication first issued on 5 August 1927. It is published on Tuesdays and Thursdays and is printed in Murray Bridge at the high-tech Rural Press printing centre.

Port Lincoln has two local commercial radio stations, 89.9 Magic FM and 765 AM 5CC (the first local commercial station) broadcasting out of their Washington Street studio. It is also served by ABC West Coast SA on 1485 AM which broadcasts out of the Civic Centre on Tasman Terrace. It's also served by Triple J and ABC Radio National from Tumby Bay and satellite uplink from Melbourne respectively. ABC News Radio is also available on 91.5FM. It also receives KIXFM 87.6.

Free to air TV stations available in Port Lincoln are ABC, SBS, Seven GTS/BKN (formerly Central Television), the Nine Network and Southern Cross Ten. Also available is Foxtel pay TV.

Twin towns


Port Lincoln is twinned with:

Notable people

Statue of Makybe Diva by artist, Ken Martin, at Port Lincoln, South Australia

See also



  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 June 2022). "Port Lincoln (urban centre and locality)". Australian Census 2021. Edit this at Wikidata
  2. ^ Port Lincoln Postcode Australia Post
  3. ^ "Eyre Western SA Government region" (PDF). The Government of South Australia. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Search result(s) for Port Lincoln LOCB (Record No.SA0040601) with the following layers being selected – "Suburbs and Localities", "Local Government Areas", "Counties" and "Place names (gazetteer)"". Property Location Browser. Government of South Australia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b "District of Flinders Background Profile". Electoral Commission SA. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Federal electoral division of Grey" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  7. ^ "2011 Census Community Profiles: Port Lincoln". ABS Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  8. ^ a b "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18: Population Estimates by Significant Urban Area, 2008 to 2018". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018.
  9. ^ "Swimming with bluefin tuna lucrative starter for locals fishing for tourists". 25 April 2008.
  10. ^ City of Port Lincoln website (Retrieved 1 December 2013)
  11. ^ Tindale 1974 in DEH 2004a; SATC 1999.
  12. ^ "Professor Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Chair of Linguistics and Endangered Languages at the University of Adelaide [...] told NITV: 'I urge Australia to define the 330 Aboriginal languages, most of them sleeping beauties, as the official languages of their region. [Australia should] introduce bilingual signs and thus change the linguistic landscape, of this beautiful country. So, for example, Port Lincoln should also be referred to as Galinyala, which is its original Barngarla name '", article by Sophie Verass (NITV), Indigenous meanings of Australian town names, 10 August 2016.
  13. ^ Costigan, Amelia (14 December 2023). "Government plaque naming wrong traditional owners 'quite upsetting', Barngarla people say". ABC News. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  14. ^ Flinders, Matthew (1966) [1814]. "Chapter 6". A Voyage to Terra Australis : undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, and 1803 in His Majesty's ship the Investigator, and subsequently in the armed vessel Porpoise and Cumberland Schooner; with an account of the shipwreck of the Porpoise, arrival of the Cumberland at Mauritius, and imprisonment of the commander during six years and a half in that island (Facsimile ed.). Adelaide: Libraries Board of South Australia. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  15. ^ "Timeline". Encounter 1802–2002: Flinders, Baudin, and the discovery of the 'unknown coast'. State Library of South Australia. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  16. ^ Foster and Nettelbeck (2012). Out of the Silence: The History and Memory of South Australia's Frontier Wars. Wakefield Press. pp. 43–54. ISBN 9781743051726. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Some Known Conflicts in South Australia". Australian Frontier Conflicts. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  18. ^ Tolmer, Alexander (1882). Reminiscences of an adventurous and chequered career at home and at the Antipodes Vol.2. London: Sampson Low. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  19. ^ Government of South Australia, BUILDING South Australia "Regional Overview – Eyre & Western" (2010) Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  20. ^ "Eyre Peninsula Water Supply Final Report 85th Report of the Natural Resources Committee – Under the lens" Parliament South Australia, 2013
  21. ^ "Former Windmill Base (sometime Pioneer Mill Museum)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  22. ^ "Hawson's Grave, Hawson Square". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  23. ^ "'Arrandale' (Dwelling, Cottage and Stables)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  24. ^ "Port Lincoln Railway Station". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  25. ^ "Port Lincoln Police Station & Courthouse". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  26. ^ "Dwelling ('Ravendale House')". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  27. ^ Population 2011 Census Australian Bureau of Statistics
  28. ^ Ward, T. M., McLeay, L. J., Dimmlich, W. F., Rogers, P. J., McClatchie, S., Matthews, R., Kämpf, J. and Van Ruth, P. D. (2006), Pelagic ecology of a northern boundary current system: effects of upwelling on the production and distribution of sardine (Sardinops sagax), anchovy (Engraulis australis) and southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in the Great Australian Bight. Fisheries Oceanography, 15: 191–207. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2006.00353.x
  29. ^ "Port Lincoln Climate (1866-2002)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 19 July 2024.
  30. ^ "North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) (1992-2024)". FarmOnline Weather. Retrieved 19 July 2024.
  31. ^ "North Shields (Port Lincoln AWS) Climate Statistics (1992-2024)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 19 July 2024.
  32. ^ "Port Lincoln (Todd River) Climate Statistics (1968-1997)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 19 July 2024.
  33. ^ Tim Treadgold, The future is Fish: Japan's taste for tuna is creating millionaires in a tiny Australian town" Forbes Magazine, 22 May 2006
  34. ^ "Three Men and a Boat". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 April 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  35. ^ Pt Lincoln ore exports win approval – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
  36. ^ ABC West Coast SA "Port fishermen protest against mineral exports" (2008-06-13)
  37. ^ Company defends Lincoln ore export plan – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
  38. ^ Knife, Peter (2006). Peninsula Pioneer. Wahroonga: Peter Knife. pp. 162, 173, 321. ISBN 0975783505.
  39. ^ Railway Museum celebrates 90th anniversary of building Port Lincoln Times 2 May 2017
  40. ^ Buckland, J. L. "A Standard Gauge Industrial Railway in Mothballs" Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, August 1977 pages 184-189
  41. ^ "How the little town of Streaky Bay got into films". The Australian Women's Weekly. Australia. 27 September 1978. p. 50. Retrieved 20 November 2021 – via Trove.
  42. ^ "Gallipoli movie brought war to our shores". Port Lincoln Times. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  43. ^ "Australian Survivor season one cast reunite | TV Tonight". tvtonight.com.au. 10 November 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  44. ^ "Abalone divers hit the big screen". Port Lincoln Times. 3 October 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  45. ^ Tyler Brennan biography at The Perfect Blend
  46. ^ "An idiot up close with our sharks". Adelaide Now. 21 October 2011.
  47. ^ "'Idiot' thrown to the sharks". Adelaide Now. 22 July 2011.
  48. ^ Port Lincoln Sport and Recreation Strategy 2023
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i The magic of Mallee Park By Katrina Gill 26 May 2007
  50. ^ Centenary Oval Austadiums
  51. ^ Port Lincoln herald. Adelaide : George Dehane. 1839.
  52. ^ "Port Lincoln Herald - Trove List". Trove. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  53. ^ a b "SA Memory - Port Lincoln Herald". www.samemory.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  54. ^ The Western weekly news. Port Lincoln, S. Aust. : T. and J. Borthwick & Co. 1902.
  55. ^ Laube, Anthony. "LibGuides: SA Newspapers: C-E". guides.slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  56. ^ Port Lincoln, Tumby and West Coast recorder. Port Lincoln, S. Aust. : A.J. Hannagan for the proprietors, D. Drysdale & Co. 1904.
  57. ^ Fenn, Kate. "Lincoln's Twin Towns". City of Lincoln Council, City Hall, Beaumont Fee, Lincoln. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  58. ^ "Sprint Prince Chalmers, 15 & A Boy Called Kyle, Cracks Thorpey Mark Then Goes 49.6". SwimVortex. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  59. ^ "Dean Lukin". Australian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  60. ^ "Australians at the 1996 Atlanta Paralympics: Cyclists". Australian Sports Commission. Archived from the original on 20 January 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  61. ^ Daniel Wells from Deadly Vibe 30 November 2007
  62. ^ Olivia Barnes (16 May 2013). "Bianca's An Inspiration". Eyre Peninsula Tribune. Retrieved 11 January 2019.