Port of Tanjung Priok
|Port of Tanjung Priok|
|Location||Tanjung Priok, North Jakarta|
|Owned by||PT Pelabuhan Indonesia II|
|Type of harbor||Natural|
|Size of harbor||604 ha (6.04 sq km)|
|Land area||424 ha (4.24 sq km)|
|Size||1,028 ha (10.28 sq km)|
|Annual container volume||6.59 million TEU's (2013)|
The Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian seaport, handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic. The port is located at Tanjung Priok, North Jakarta, which is operated by Indonesian state owned PT Pelindo II. Jakarta International Container Terminal (JICT) operated by the Hutchison Port Holdings and Pelindo II is the largest container terminal in Indonesia and the country's national hub port. In April 2011, JICT received an Asian Freight and Supply Chain Award (AFSCA) as the best service quality and technology innovation of terminal with less than 4 million twenty-foot equivalent units handling capacity.
The port was among the least efficient in all Southeast Asia, with turn-around times 6 times that of Singapore, and severely congested due to slow customs handling, as well as limited port capacity. In regard to the port capacity, two-phase "New Priok" extension project is currently ongoing,which is expected to be fully operational in 2023. When fully operational this New Priok Port (which is also known as Kalibaru Port) will increase annual capacity of Tanjung Priok more than triple. Annual capacity will increase from five million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of containers to 18 million TEU and the the port will be able to facilitate triple-E class container ships (with a 18,000 TEU capacity) in a 300 meters wide two-way sea lane. First phase of the project has completed in 2016, which has helped to improve the performance of the port. Dwelling time in the port which was once 7 days, now reduced to almost 3 days. The port now can accommodate container ships with capacity up to 14,000 TEUs. The port loaded and unloaded 6.2 million TEUs of cargo, out of a total capacity of about 8 million TEUs, in 2016.
Before humans settled the area, the coastal environment that would become the Port of Tanjung Priok was a swamp with brackish water and mangrove forests. Until the late 19th century, Jakarta's port was Sunda Kelapa in the Kingdom of Pajajaran. When the Suez Canal was opened, maritime traffic grew beyond the capacity of Sunda Kelapa.. The earliest record mentioning this area as a capital city can be traced to the Indianized kingdom of Tarumanagara as early as the fourth century. In AD 39, King Purnawarman established Sunda Pura as a new capital city for the kingdom, located at the northern coast of Java. Purnawarman left seven memorial stones with inscriptions bearing his name spread across the area, including the present-day Banten and West Java provinces. The Tugu Inscription is considered the oldest of all of them.
After the power of Tarumanagara declined, all of its many territories, including Sunda Pura, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. The harbour area were renamed Sunda Kelapa as written in a Hindu monk's lontar manuscripts, which are now located at the Bodleian Library of Oxford University in England, and travel records by Prince Bujangga Manik. By the 14th century, Sunda Kelapa became a major trading port for the kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper.
Construction on the Port of Tanjung Priok began in 1877 along with Tanjung Priok railway station, and several supporting facilities, which were completed over the following decades. By that time, Sunda Kalapa was being used by traditional two-masted sailing vessels carrying inter-island freight, as it is still used today.A new harbor of Batavia to replace the Sunda Kelapa harbor area to the west that had become too small for the increased traffic resulting from the opening of the Suez Canal. The construction of the new harbor was started in 1877 by Governor General Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge (1875-1881). The new harbor was named Tandjong Priok. Several facilities were built to support the function of the new harbor, such as the Tanjung Priok Station (1914). In the early 1960s, the National Port Company managed Java's public ports. Later in that decade, the National Port Company was responsible for the Port of Tanjung Priok's commercial functions, while the Port Authority was responsible for operational activities in the Port of Tanjung Priok.From 1970 until 1983, Java's Port Management Board was created to manage the Port of Tanjung Priok and other public ports. In 1983, the Port Management Board became Java's Public Port Corporation responsible for managing the country's commercial ports. The Public Port Corporation governed four different areas.
In 1991, the Public Port Corporation was legally changed to the Pelindo. There are four state-owned Indonesia Port Corporations. The headquarters of Pelindo II are located in Jakarta and control port operations in ten provinces containing 12 commercial ports, including the Port of Tanjung Priok in the Jakarta Capital District Province.
The Port of Tanjung Priok has 20 terminals: general cargo, multipurpose terminal, scraps terminal, passenger terminal, dry bulk terminal, liquid bulk terminal, oil terminal, chemicals terminal and three container terminals, 76 berths, a quay length of 16,853 metres, a total storage area of 661,822 m2 and a storage capacity of 401,468 tonnes.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Port of Tanjung Priok.|
- Port Commerce
- Hutchinson Port Holdings
- "Tanjung Priok Port sets dwell time benchmark".
- "Now Indonesia Can Take Large Container Vessels Usually Handled by Singapore".
- "Tanjung Priok Welcomes Larger Ships".
- "Indonesia inches closer to realizing port hub dream".
- Sundakala: cuplikan sejarah Sunda berdasarkan naskah-naskah "Panitia Wangsakerta" Cirebon. Yayasan Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. 2005.
- The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. 2007.
- Three Old Sundanese Poems. KITLV Press. 2007.
- Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16. Cipta Loka Caraka. 1999.
- Cobban, James L. 1985. "The ephemeral historic district in Jakarta". Geographical Review 75(3):300-318.
- Port of Tanjung Priok facilities