Port of Novorossiysk
Coordinates: Novorossiysk Sea Port (Russian: Новороссийский морской порт) is one of the largest ports in Russia, located on the Black Sea. The seaport is located on the north-east coast in the ice[clarification needed] and is convenient for navigation in Tsemes Bay. The port is navigable all year round. Novorossiysk Bay is available for vessels with a draft up to 19.0 m and the inner port waters - up to 12.5 m. The port is operated by the Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port. The port is also a major naval base of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Navy.
Novorossiysk was founded as a port city September 12, 1838 . Already June 30, 1845 "... the Emperor has deigned to command Vysochajshe Open in Novorossiysk on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea port for receiving incoming vessels from abroad Russian and foreign ..."
Maritime trade was the main activity in the city. In 1846, 102 Russian and 17 foreign vessels visited Novorossiysk. During this period, the port exported rye, wheat, honey, fish, tobacco and sugar. In 1887 the total turnover of the port was only 7.5 thousand pounds and there were no facilities except for a wooden jetty Society "Russian Standard".
To the east of jetties Vladikavkaz railway was marina Oil Industry Company "Russian Standard", served specially for sending oil. It was equipped with a cast-iron pipeline, had a length of 150 m and a width of 8.5 m Since 1894, with the development of the oil industry in the district of Grozny, the export of oil increases. For storage of oil cargo Vladikavkaz Railway Company constructed 23 improved reservoir and 3 pipeline for oil loading on ships.
Thus, the Novorossiysk port, built and equipped with the Joint Stock Company Vladikavkaz Railway (today's Privolzhskaya Railway) at the turn of the 20th century, became a major trading center of the North Caucasus. In the late nineties, a project protection vessels at berths from gales: by port workers were built two breakwater - eastern and western. In subsequent years, the port continued to grow rapidly.
In 1920, after the departure of Denikin's forces from the last parts of the city, nationalization of the port began. All hydrotechnical works previously owned by Vladikavkaz railway and other public companies and private owners was given to the created Port Authority. Under the jurisdiction of the Port Authority were maritime agencies in Anapa, Gelendzhik, Dzhubga, Arkhipo-Osipovka, mechanical workshops, dock, boathouse, shipyard and all marine facilities and services.
In the autumn of 1921 and the entirety of 1922 food supplies passed through the port for the starving Volga region. For this work, the port was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor.
World War II
During the Great Patriotic War in the port area there were heavy fighting, which caused significant damage to the material base of the port. September 10, 1943 saw the beginning of the assault to liberate the city and the port. On September 16 the city was liberated. Of the 40 berths, one survived, also heavily damaged. The Nazi attack destroyed all the warehouses, cranes and handling equipment. In November 1943, the State Defense Committee decided on the first stage of the restoration of the NCSP. The official start of activities of the seaport after the devastation caused during the war, is considered 1 October 1944. The port at the time employed 641 people.
Post war period
By 1963, construction was completed of the first wide pier. In the same year, the port handled 162 vessels.
In the post-Soviet period, after the collapse of the USSR, Novorossiysk seaport underwent a large-scale redistribution of property and as a consequence the port was reorganized in market conditions.
Today, Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port (NCSP) is the largest port in Russia and the third largest in Europe by turnover.
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