Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.
Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.
Selected general articles
is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function
of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury. Diseases are often construed as medical conditions
that are associated with specific symptoms
. A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens
or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the immune system
can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of immunodeficiency
and autoimmune disorders
In humans, disease
is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain
, social problems
, or death
to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries
, isolated symptoms
, deviant behaviors
, and atypical variations
of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person's perspective on life.
Death due to disease is called death by natural causes
. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases
, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases
and non-genetic hereditary diseases
), and physiological diseases. Diseases can also be classified in other ways, such as communicable
diseases. The deadliest diseases in humans are coronary artery disease
(blood flow obstruction), followed by cerebrovascular disease
and lower respiratory infections
. Read more...
is a medical condition
in which excess body fat
has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index
(BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over kg/m2
, with the range 30 kg/m2
defined as 25–30 overweight
. Some East Asian
countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions
, particularly cardiovascular diseases
, type 2 diabetes
, obstructive sleep apnea
, certain types of cancer
Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake
, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility
. A few cases are caused primarily by genes
, endocrine disorders
, or mental disorder
. The view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not medically supported. On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices. Changes to diet
are the main treatments. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat or sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber
can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon
may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food. Read more...
is a branch of medicine
that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer
. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist
. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (ónkos
), meaning "tumor", "volume" or "mass" and the word λόγος (logos
), meaning "study".
Cancer survival has improved due to three main components including improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking
consumption), improved screening
of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis), and improvements in treatment.
Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists
, pathologists, radiologists, and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient. It is very important for oncologists to keep updated with respect to the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common. All eligible patients in whom cancer progresses, and for whom no standard of care treatment options are available should be enrolled in a clinical trial. Read more...
is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients
and other substances in food
in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health
and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption
, and excretion
of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability
of foods. For humans, a healthy diet
includes preparation of food
and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses
In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness
, preterm birth
, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity
and metabolic syndrome
; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease
, and osteoporosis
. Undernutrition can lead to wasting
in acute cases, and the stunting
in chronic cases of malnutrition
. Read more...
is the science
and practice of the diagnosis
, and prevention
. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care
practices evolved to maintain and restore health
by the prevention
. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences
, biomedical research
, and medical technology
, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals
, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy
, external splints and traction
, medical devices
, and ionizing radiation
, amongst others.
Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious
beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man
would apply herbs and say prayers
for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician
would apply bloodletting
according to the theories of humorism
. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science
, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic
, under the umbrella
of medical science
). While stitching technique for sutures
is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular
level in the tissues being stitched arises through science.
Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine
and folk medicine
. They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine
. For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture
is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition, but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner. In contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery
. Read more...
In physical fitness
, body composition
is used to describe the percentages of fat
in human bodies
. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness. Two people of the same sex and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. Read more...
Major depressive disorder
), also known simply as depression
, is a mental disorder
characterized by at least two weeks of low mood
that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem
, loss of interest
in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain
without a clear cause. People may also occasionally have false beliefs
or see or hear things that others cannot
. Some people have periods of depression
separated by years in which they are normal, while others nearly always have symptoms present. Major depressive disorder can negatively affect a person's personal life, work life, or education, as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health. Between 2–8% of adults with major depression die by suicide
, and about 50% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder
The cause is believed to be a combination of genetic
, environmental, and psychological factors. Risk factors include a family history
of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems
, and substance abuse
. About 40% of the risk appears to be related to genetics. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the person's reported experiences and a mental status examination
. There is no laboratory test for major depression. Testing, however, may be done to rule out physical conditions that can cause similar symptoms. Major depression is more severe and lasts longer than sadness
, which is a normal part of life. The United States Preventive Services Task Force
(USPSTF) recommends screening for depression among those over the age 12, while a prior Cochrane review
found that the routine use of screening questionnaires have little effect on detection or treatment.
Typically, people are treated with counseling
and antidepressant medication
. Medication appears to be effective, but the effect may only be significant in the most severely depressed. It is unclear whether medications affect the risk of suicide. Types of counseling used include cognitive behavioral therapy
(CBT) and interpersonal therapy
. If other measures are not effective, electroconvulsive therapy
(ECT) may be considered. Hospitalization may be necessary in cases with a risk of harm to self and may occasionally occur against a person's wishes. Read more...
is a substance
used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals
, and protists
. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes
by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair
, or exoskeletons
. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates
, and fermentation
), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide
. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids
that are combined to create proteins
, a subset of fatty acids
and certain minerals
. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves. Fungi
live on dead or living organic matter and meet nutrient needs from their host.
Different types of organism have different essential nutrients. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C
) is essential, meaning it must be consumed in sufficient amounts, to humans and some other animal species, but not to all animals and not to plants, which are able to synthesize it. Nutrients may be organic
or inorganic: organic compounds include most compounds containing carbon, while all other chemicals are inorganic. Inorganic nutrients include nutrients such as iron
, and zinc
, while organic nutrients include, among many others, energy-providing compounds and vitamins.
A classification used primarily to describe nutrient needs of animals divides nutrients into macronutrients
. Consumed in relatively large amounts (grams
), macronutrients (carbohydrates
, proteins, water) are used primarily to generate energy or to incorporate into tissues for growth and repair. Micronutrients are needed in smaller amounts (milligrams
); they have subtle biochemical
roles in cellular processes, like vascular functions
or nerve conduction
. Inadequate amounts of essential nutrients, or diseases that interfere with absorption, result in a deficiency state that compromises growth, survival and reproduction. Consumer advisories for dietary nutrient intakes, such as the United States Dietary Reference Intake
, are based on deficiency outcomes and provide macronutrient and micronutrient guides for both lower and upper limits
of intake. In many countries, macronutrients and micronutrients in significant content are required by regulations to be displayed on food product labels. Nutrients in larger quantities than the body needs may have harmful effects. Edible plants also contain thousands of compounds generally called phytochemicals
which have unknown effects on disease or health, including a diverse class with non-nutrient status called polyphenols
, which remain poorly understood as of 2017. Read more...
Walking is beneficial for health
In health care
is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual
control, deliberate and self-initiated.
Some place self-care on a continuum with health care providers
at the opposite end to self-care. In modern medicine, preventive medicine
aligns most closely with self-care. A lack of adherence to medical advice
and the onset of a mental disorder
can make self-care difficult. Self-care is seen as a partial solution to the global rise in health care costs placed on governments. The notion that self-care is a fundamental pillar of health and social care means it is an essential component of a modern health care system
governed by regulations and statutes
Self-care is considered a primary form of care for patients with chronic conditions who make many day-to-day decisions, or self-manage, their illness
. Self-management is critical and self-management education complements traditional patient education in primary care
to support patients to live the best possible quality of life
with their chronic condition. Self-care is learned, purposeful and continuous. In philosophy, self-care refers to the care and cultivation of self
in a comprehensive sense, focusing in particular on the soul
and the knowledge of self. Read more...
How alternative treatments "work":
, fringe medicine
or simply questionable medicine
is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing
effects of medicine
. They differ from experimental medicine
in that the latter employs responsible investigation
, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus
is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature
are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical
. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic
Alternative therapies may be credited
for perceived improvement through placebo effects
, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects
; or nocebo effects
towards standard treatment), or the natural course of the condition or disease
. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment
or traditional medicine
, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body
and of science
Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated. Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion
spent by the United States government alone. Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment
, and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma"
. The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine. Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers
varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them. Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society. For example, the United States National Institutes of Health
department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine
and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed
as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment. Significant drug interactions
caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer
. and are not part of medicine
, or of science-based curricula in medical schools
, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience. Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief
, tradition, superstition
, belief in supernatural
, errors in reasoning
, propaganda, fraud, or lies. Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery
, and poor scientific methodology
. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical
. Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources. Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't", that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical
, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine". Read more...
A selection of plant-sourced food
consumed by humans. The human diet can vary widely.
is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism
The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition
reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores
, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.
Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins
, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy
in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life
. Read more...
Newspaper headlines from around the world about polio vaccine
tests (13 April 1955)
is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health
through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the health of a population and the threats is the basis for public health. The "public" in question can be as small as a handful of people, an entire village or it can be as large as several continents, in the case of a pandemic
. "Health" takes into account physical, mental and social well-being. It is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, according to the World Health Organization
. Public health is interdisciplinary
. For example, epidemiology
and health services
are all relevant. Environmental health
, community health
, behavioral health
, health economics
, public policy
, mental health
and occupational safety
, gender issues in health, sexual and reproductive health are other important subfields.
Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease
, including mental health. This is done through the surveillance
of cases and health indicators
, and through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Common public health initiatives include promoting handwashing
, delivery of vaccinations
, suicide prevention
and distribution of condoms
to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases
Modern public health practice requires multidisciplinary teams
of public health workers and professionals. Teams might include epidemiologists
, medical assistants
, public health nurses
or medical microbiologists.
Depending on the need environmental health officers
or public health inspectors
, and even veterinarians
, Gender experts, Sexual and reproductive health specialists might be called on. Read more...
is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs
. It is a health profession
that links health sciences
with chemical sciences
and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs
The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding
and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care
, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists
, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients.
An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy
(this term is more common in the United States) or a chemist's
(which is more common in Great Britain). In the United States and Canada, drugstores
commonly sell medicines, as well as miscellaneous items such as confectionery, cosmetics
, office supplies
, hair care products and magazines
and occasionally refreshments and groceries. Read more...
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Consider asking it at the Wikipedia reference desk.
For editor resources and to collaborate with other editors on improving Wikipedia's Health and fitness-related articles, see WikiProject Health and fitness.
Jack Drummond’s single paragraph paper in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins
Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary, http://stats.oecd.org
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
An astronaut, Daniel Tani, working out with a short bar to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment
Hippocrates lived about 400 BC, and Galen and the understanding of nutrition followed him for centuries.
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
Running has become a popular form of exercise.
Proteins are chains of amino acids found in most nutritional foods.
A woman jogging at a beach in the U.S. to maintain/improve her physical fitness
Followed for a millennium and a half, Galen (1st century) created the first coherent (although mistaken) theory of nutrition.
James Lind conducted in 1747 the first controlled clinical trial in modern times, and in 1753 published Treatise on Scurvy.
A lady washing her hands c. 1655
Swimmers perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011.
Colorful fruits and vegetables may be components of a healthy diet.
Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted – and depicted – in a wide variety of ways.
Summary of long-term adaptations to regular aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise can cause several central cardiovascular adaptations, including an increase in stroke volume (SV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), as well as a decrease in resting heart rate (RHR). Long-term adaptations to resistance training, the most common form of anaerobic exercise, include muscular hypertrophy, an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle(s), and an increase in neural drive, both of which lead to increased muscular strength. Neural adaptations begin more quickly and plateau prior to the hypertrophic response.
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Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist, widely regarded as the premier chemist of the twentieth century. Pauling was a pioneer in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry, and in 1954 was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work describing the nature of chemical bonds. He also made important contributions to crystal and protein structure determination, and was one of the founders of molecular biology. Pauling received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his campaign against above-ground nuclear testing, becoming only one of four people in history to individually receive two Nobel Prizes. Later in life, he became an advocate for regular consumption of massive doses of Vitamin C. Pauling coined the term "orthomolecular" to refer to the practice of varying the concentration of substances normally present in the body to prevent and treat disease, and promote health.
Pauling was first introduced to the concept of high-dose vitamin C by biochemist Irwin Stone in 1966 and began taking several grams every day to prevent colds. Excited by the results, he researched the clinical literature and published "Vitamin C and the Common Cold" in 1970. He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon, Ewan Cameron, MD  in 1971 on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients. Cameron and Pauling wrote many technical papers and a popular book, "Cancer and Vitamin C", that discussed their observations. He later collaborated with the Canadian physician, Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD, on a micronutrient regimen, including high-dose vitamin C, as adjunctive cancer therapy.
The selective toxicity of vitamin C for cancer cells has been demonstrated repeatedly in cell culture studies. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  recently published a paper demonstrating vitamin C killing cancer cells. As of 2005, some physicians have called for a more careful reassessment of vitamin C, especially intravenous vitamin C, in cancer treatment.
With two colleagues, Pauling founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine in Menlo Park, California, in 1973, which was soon renamed the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine. Pauling directed research on vitamin C, but also continued his theoretical work in chemistry and physics until his death in 1994. In his last years, he became especially interested in the possible role of vitamin C in preventing atherosclerosis and published three case reports on the use of lysine and vitamin C to relieve angina pectoris. In 1996, the Linus Pauling Institute moved from Palo Alto, California, to Corvallis, Oregon, to become part of Oregon State University, where it continues to conduct research on micronutrients, phytochemicals (chemicals from plants), and other constituents of the diet in preventing and treating disease.
Health and fitness news
“Be careful about reading health books. You may die of a misprint.”
- — Mark Twain
"The more you sweat in training, the less you bleed in battle."
- - Navy SEALs
"He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything." [Arabian Proverb]
“Human life needs superhuman health.”
- - Leonid S. Sukhorukov
"An apple a day keeps the doctor away."
"Do not spend health to gain money, and then, do not spend money to regain health"
" Honour your Divine Body Temple"
- - Fitness Guru Derek Duke Noble
"To sit in a comfortable position or posture for everlasting period is called asana"
- - BirenDra ShaH
Health is very important for our life [kailash vishwakarma]
Things you can do
- Improve the see also reference sections in health articles
- Check the related topic lists for completeness
- Help change the articles on this portal at the beginning of each month
- See also: Biology (below)
Health – Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. this is a level of functional and (or) metabolic efficiency of a person in mind, body and spirit; being free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
- Death – cessation of life.
- Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and mental health including the prevention of depression. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
- Nutrition – provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.
- Life extension – The study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
- Health sciences – applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
- Medicine – science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
- Anesthesia – a way to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using medicine called anesthetics.
- Cardiology – branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the human heart. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.
- Clinical research – aspect of biomedical research that addresses the assessment of new pharmaceutical and biological drugs, medical devices and vaccines in humans.
- Diabetes – a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar) above 200mg/dl, either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
- Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the mouth, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures (teeth) and their impact on the human body.
- Emergency medicine – medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians undertake acute investigations and interventions to resuscitate and stabilize patients.
- Obstetrics – medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.
- Trauma & Orthopedics – medical specialty dealing with bones, joints and operative management of trauma.
- Psychiatry – medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities.
- Autism a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.
- Psychiatric survivors movement – is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services (known as consumers or service users), or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health.