The 1920s was a decade that began on January 1, 1920 and ended on December 31, 1929. It is sometimes referred to as the Roaring Twenties or the Jazz Age, when speaking about the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. In Europe the decade is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Twenties" because of the economic boom following World War I.
The twenties was a period of transformation culturally and technologically. Culturally, countries began to shed their Victorian ideals, enabling egalitarian ideas such as women's suffrage to significantly change the role of women and society. Modern artistic styles such as Surrealism, Art Deco, and Expressionism flourished, and the new music of Jazz was enormously popular. The movie industry skyrocketed in the 20s during the Golden Age of Silent Film and the birth of the Hollywood studio system. Technologically, the Twenties was an era of innovation not seen since the Second Industrial Revolution— the decade witnessed the first large scale use of automobiles and telephones, and saw the genesis of the public radio and talking pictures. The 1920s was a period of economic prosperity and rapid urbanization, marking the first time in the United States that the population in the cities surpassed the population of rural areas.
However, not all countries enjoyed this prosperity. The German Weimar Republic faced a severe economic downturn in the opening years of the decade due to the enormous debt caused by the war and its reparations, and other economic conditions which resulted from the Treaty of Versailles. Such a crisis would culminate with a devaluation of the Mark in 1923, eventually leading to severe hyperinflation, in the long term favoring the rise of the Nazi Party.
The 1920s were characterized by the rise of radical political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. Communism began attracting larger amounts of support following the success of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks' determination to win the subsequent Russian Civil War. To move the backward economy of Russia towards a more developed economy in which socialism would become possible, the Bolsheviks adopted a policy of mixed economics, from 1921 to 1928, and also created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at the end of 1922. The 1920s also experienced the rise of the far right and fascism in Europe and elsewhere, being perceived as a solution to prevent the spread of Communism. The knotty economic problems also favoured the rise of dictators in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, such as Józef Piłsudski in the Second Polish Republic and Peter and Alexander Karađorđević in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 drew a line under the prosperous 1920s.
The Battle of Radzymin
, a key part of what later became known as the Battle of Warsaw
, took place during the Polish–Soviet War
(1919–21). The battle occurred near the town of Radzymin
, some 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-east of Warsaw
, between August 13 and 16, 1920. The first phase began with a frontal assault by the Red Army
on the Praga
bridgehead. The Soviet forces captured Radzymin on August 14 and breached the lines of the 1st Polish Army
, which was defending Warsaw from the east. Radzymin changed hands several times in heavy fighting. The Russians wanted to break through the Polish defences to Warsaw, while the Polish aim was to defend the area long enough for a two-pronged counteroffensive to outflank the attacking forces. After three days of intense fighting, the corps
-sized 1st Polish Army under General Franciszek Latinik
managed to repel a direct assault by six Red Army rifle divisions
at Radzymin and Ossów. The struggle for control of Radzymin forced General Józef Haller
, commander of the Polish Northern Front
, to start the 5th Army's counterattack earlier than planned. Radzymin was recaptured on August 15, and this victory proved to be one of the turning points of the Battle of Warsaw.
(1867–1935) was Chief of State
(1918–22), "First Marshal", and authoritarian
leader of the Second Polish Republic
. From mid-World War I
he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after 123 years of partitions
. Early in his political career, Piłsudski became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party
. Concluding, however, that Poland's independence would have to be won by force of arms, he created the Polish Legions
. In 1914 he anticipated the outbreak of a European war, the Russian Empire
's defeat by the Central Powers
, and the Central Powers' defeat by the western powers. When World War I broke out, he and his Legions fought alongside the Austro-Hungarian
and German Empires
to ensure Russia's defeat. In 1917, with Russia faring badly in the war, he withdrew his support from the Central Powers. From November 1918, when Poland regained independence, until 1922, Piłsudski was Poland's Chief of State
. In 1919–21 he commanded Poland's forces in the Polish–Soviet War
. In 1923, with the Polish government dominated by his opponents, particularly the National Democrats
, he withdrew from active politics. Three years later he returned to power with the May 1926 coup d'état
, and became the de facto
dictator of Poland. From then until his death in 1935, he concerned himself primarily with military and foreign policy
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The Harlem renaissance was a time for racist white people to be put out of the picture. People like Langston Hughes, Billie Holiday , Zora Neale Hurston , Marcus Garvey and Aaron Douglas inspired many African Americans to fight back and live life to the fullest.
The musicians were louis armstrong, Duke Ellington and jazz singers like Josephine Baker. Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie were most known for their sound and being very cool. But they were many more composers that we did not name that you can look up.
Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, Lois Mailou Jones, William Johnson, Horace pippin, William Artis, Charles Wilbert white, Palmer Hayden , Augusta savage and Romare Bearden were just a few of the famous artists during the, what i like to call, the Harlem victory. Photographers like James Van Der zee saw the beauty in New York and florence mills and Bill Robison were very famous singers. To learn about artists from the harlem renaissance, look up harlem renaissance artists and you will see many artists. you could also look up famous african american artists.
Cotton club, the apollo theater and Noble Sissle all represent the time of victory for all African Americans. Jazz was the greatest and latest and you would always see the moon. African Americans will always remember the wonderful harlem renaissance. It was the beauty of New York.