Portal:Albania

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Albania (/ælˈbniə, ɔːl-/ (About this soundlisten) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni or Shqipnia also Shqypni or Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast.

Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea.

Historically, the area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian, Thracian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast. The area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans.

The modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.

Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy. It also provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.

The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.

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Apollonia (Albanian: Apolonia; Greek: Ἀπολλωνία κατ᾿ Ἐπίδαμνον or Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia kat' Epidamnon or Apollonia pros Epidamnon) was an ancient Illyrian city located on the right bank of the Aous river (modern-day Vjosë). Its ruins are situated in the Fier region, near the village of Pojani (Polina), in modern-day Albania. Apollonia was founded in 588 BCE by Greek colonists from Corfu and Corinth, on a site where native Illyrian tribes lived, and was perhaps the most important of the several classical towns known as Apollonia. Apollonia flourished in the Roman period and was home to a renowned school of philosophy, but began to decline in the 3rd century AD when its harbor started silting up as a result of an earthquake. It was abandoned by the end of Late Antiquity.

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Web resources

The following publications regularly include material relevant to Albania in the English language.

History

  • Jacques, Edwin E. (1995). The Albanians. Mc Farland. ISBN 9780899509327. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  • [1] A collection of works dealing with Albanian history and culture.
  • Antonia Young; John Hodgson; William B. Bland; Nigel Young (November 1997). Albania. Clio Press. ISBN 9781851092604. Retrieved 27 April 2011.

Archaeology

  • New publications regarding Archaeology in Albania after 2000. [2] Ancient West & East, Volume 4, Issue 1 Volume 4 of Ancient West & East, No 1 Gocha Tsetskhladze Publisher BRILL, 2005 ISBN 9004141766, 9789004141766 Length 256 pages
  • A summary of Myzafer Korkuti work can be found here [3]
  • Gjerak Karaiskaj [4]

Medieval period

Ottoman period

Modern period

Society and culture

Albanian language

  • A summary by Shaban Demiraj link [5] The Indo-European languages Routledge language family descriptions Authors Anna Giacalone Ramat, Paolo Ramat Editors Anna Giacalone Ramat, Paolo Ramat Edition illustrated Publisher Taylor & Francis, 1998 ISBN 041506449X, 9780415064491 Length 526 pages
  • Cimochowski, W. "Prejardhja e gjuhës shqipe," BUShT 1958:2.37-53. Supports Illyrian kinship of Albanian. (see Hamp 1963)
  • Cimochowski, Waclaw. Des recherches sur la toponomastique de l'Albanie. LP VIII, 1960.(short version at Hamp 1963)
  • Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 ISBN 1884964982, 9781884964985 link here [6]
  • Eric P. Hamp The position of Albanian in Ancient Indo-European Dialects Publisher University of California Press link here [7]
  • Shaban Demiraj Gjuhesi ballkanike here the link [8]
  • Victor A. Friedman (vfriedm@midway.uchicago.edu) Albanian Grammar Victor A. Friedman A version of this grammar was published in
  • Studies on Albanian and Other Balkan Language by Victor A. Friedman Peja: Dukagjini. 2004.the link here [9]
  • Online IE dictionary for Albanian words

Albania news

In the news
  • Albania best backpack country of 2009. [1]

Selected biography

Marie Logoreci (23 September 1920 – 19 June 1988) was an Albanian actress in film and theater. She started her career as a singer in Radio Tirana (1945), before making her breakthrough appearance as an actress in the film The Great Warrior Skanderbeg (1953). With all the successful performances made in film, she remained a great actress of the Albanian cinema and icon of the Albanian National Theater. For her contributions she has received honorary titles People's Artist of Albania (1975) and Honor of Nation Order (2015).

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