The Tassili n'Ajjer is a mountain range in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria. It extends about 500 km from east-south-east to , and the highest point is Adrar Afao, 2158 m, at . The nearest town is Djanet, about 10 km southwest of the range.
Much of the range, including the cypresses and archaeological sites (see below), is protected in a National park, Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site, named the Tassili n'Ajjer National Park. The range is composed largely of sandstone. Erosion in the area has resulted in nearly 300 natural rock arches being formed, along with many other spectacular landforms.
Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced [pje.nwaʁ], is a term used to refer to colonists of French Algeria until the Algerian independence in 1962. Specifically, Pieds-Noirs were French nationals, including those of European descent, Sephardic Jews, and settlers from other European countries such as Spain, Italy, and Malta, who were born in Algeria. From the French invasion on 18 June 1830, until attaining independence, Algeria formed three départements (Algiers, Oran and Constantine) and was considered a part of France. By independence, the Pieds-Noirs accounted for 1,025,000 people, or roughly 10 percent of the total population.
The Pieds-Noirs are known in reference to the Algerian War, which saw the deaths of 24,000 French Nationals and at least 153,000 Algerians, with estimates varying due to differing statistical analyses. The Algerian War was fought by nationalist groups such as the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) against the colonial French government in response to political and economic inequalities as well as their perceived "alienation" from the French settlers. The conflict contributed to the fall of the French Fourth Republic and the mass migration of French Nationals to France.
Berbers, also called Imazighen (in antiquity known as Libyans by the Greek), are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are discontinuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke various Berber languages, which together form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Today many of them speak Arabic and also French in the Maghreb, due to the French colonization of the Maghreb, and especially Spanish in Morocco. Today most Berber-speaking people live in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
Many Berbers call themselves some variant of the word Imazighen (singular: Amazigh), possibly meaning "free people" or "free and noble men" (the word has probably an ancient parallel in the Roman name for some of the Berbers, "Mazices").
The best known of the ancient Berbers were the Roman author Apuleius, Saint Augustine of Hippo, and the Roman general Lusius Quietus, who was instrumental in defeating the major Jewish revolt of 115–117. Famous Berbers of the Middle Ages included Tariq ibn Ziyad, a general who conquered Hispania; Abd ar-Rahman I, the founder of the Caliphate of Córdoba and Abbas Ibn Firnas, a prolific inventor and early pioneer in aviation.
Constantine (Arabic: قسنطينة, Qusanṭīnah, also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, Arabic: Blad el-Hawa is the capital of Constantine Province in north-eastern Algeria. During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honour of emperor Constantine the Great. It was the capital of the same-named French département until 1962. Slightly inland, it is about 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the Rhumel river.
Regarded as the capital of eastern Algeria and the centre of its region, Constantine has a population of 448,374 (938,475 with the agglomeration), making it the third largest city in the country after Algiers and Oran. There are museums and important historical sites around the city.
It is often referred to as the "City of Bridges" due to the numerous picturesque bridges connecting the mountains the city is built on.
Constantine was named the Arab Capital of Culture in 2015.
Timgad (called Thamugas or Thamugadi in old Berber) was a Roman-Berber town in the Aurès Mountains of Algeria. It was founded by the Emperor Trajan around AD 100. The full name of the town was Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi. Trajan commemorated the city after his mother Marcia, eldest sister Ulpia Marciana, and father Marcus Ulpius Traianus.
In the former name of Timgad, Marciana Traiana Thamugadi, the first part - Marciana Traiana - is Roman and refers to the name of its founder, Emperor Trajan and his sister Marciana. The second part of the name - Thamugadi - "has nothing Latin about it". Thamugadi is the Berber name of the place where the city was built, to read Timgad plural form of Tamgut, meaning "peak", "summit".