Portal:American Revolutionary War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The American Revolutionary War Portal

Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
The American Revolutionary War began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen united former British colonies on the North American continent, and ended in a global war between several European great powers. The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution and intellectual American Enlightenment, whereby the colonists rejected the right of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them without representation. In 1775, revolutionaries gained control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up an alliance called the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army. Petitions to the king to intervene with the parliament on their behalf resulted in Congress being declared traitors and the states in rebellion the following year. The Americans responded by formally declaring their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, claiming sovereignty and rejecting any allegiance to the British monarchy. In 1777 the Continentals captured a British army, leading to France entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. Spain and the Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years.

Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west.

Show new selections...

Selected event

KingsMountain DeathOfFerguson Chappel.jpg
The Battle of Kings Mountain was a decisive battle between the Patriot and Loyalist militias in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It took place on 7 October 1780 near Kings Mountain in North Carolina, where the Patriot militia defeated the Loyalist forces commanded by British Major Patrick Ferguson of the 71st Foot.

Major Ferguson had recruited a company of Loyalists in the North Carolina hills, but had sparked a spontaneous rising of Patriot militia when he made aggressive threats against local Patriots. The Patriot force, led by a coalition of commanders, surprised the Loyalists at Kings Mountain, inflicting heavy casualties, killing Ferguson. The battle was a pivotal moment in the Southern campaign; the surprising victory over the Loyalist American militia came after a string of rebel defeats at the hands of Lord Cornwallis, and greatly raised morale among the Patriots. With Ferguson dead and his militia destroyed, Cornwallis was forced to abandon plans to occupy North Carolina and retreated into South Carolina.


Featured content

Featured articles
Featured lists
A-Class articles

Selected picture

John Trumbull - The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, October 19, 1781 - 1832.4 - Yale University Art Gallery.jpg
The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, October 19, 1781, by John Trumbull
Credit: Itsmine
John Trumbull painted this depiction of Lord Cornwallis surrendering at Yorktown on October 19, 1781, however, neither George Washington or Lord Cornwallis participated directly.

Selected biography

Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png
George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States, (1789–1797), after leading the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

Washington was chosen to be the commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, but was defeated when he lost New York City later that year. He revived the patriot cause, however, by crossing the Delaware River in New Jersey and defeating the surprised enemy units. As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies — Saratoga and Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and failure. Following the end of the war in 1783, Washington retired to his plantation on Mount Vernon.

Washington became President of the United States in 1789 and established many of the customs and usages of the new government's executive department. Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against involvement in foreign wars.

Washington is seen as a symbol of the United States and republicanism in practice. His devotion to civic virtue made him an exemplary figure among early American politicians. Washington died in 1799, and in his funeral oration, Henry Lee said that of all Americans, he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." Washington has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.


Selected ships and units

The Romney breaking up in 1804
HMS Romney was a 50-gun fourth rate of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1762, the Romney spent most of her early career in North American waters, serving on the Newfoundland station, often as the flagship of the commander-in-chief. The ship was involved in the tensions of the American Revolution when she was sent to support the Boston commissioners enforcing the Townshend Acts in 1768. Her actions involved impressing local sailors, confiscating the merchant ship Liberty (a vessel belonging to John Hancock), and providing a refuge for the unpopular commissioners when rioting broke out after the seizure. She was active in the American War of Independence, serving in European waters from 1779. She assisted in the defense of the British Isles against a planned Franco-Spanish invasion, assisted in the capture of a Spanish frigate, and participated in the inconclusive 1781 Battle of Porto Praya. She later served in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars in a career that spanned forty years, finally breaking up after running aground off the Dutch coast in 1804.


Things you can do

From the American Revolutionary War task force of the Military history WikiProject:

Attention needed
...to referencing and citation  • ...to coverage and accuracy  • ...to structure  • ...to grammar  • ...to supporting materials 
Popular pages
Full list
Cleanup needed
Add an article here!
Requested articles
Add an article here!
Expansion needed
Quebec in the American Revolution; many existing "<State> in/during the American Revolution" articles • Hercules Mulligan
Images needed
1780 Black Camp RebellionAlbemarle BarracksBattle of Lenud's FerryBattle of Wetzell's MillCarleton's RaidCortlandt SkinnerDaniel Waters (minuteman)Fort DaytonFort Independence (Vermont)HM galley PigotJohn Swift (general)King's Royal Regiment of New YorkMatthias OgdenSamuel Holden ParsonsVolunteers of Ireland
Merging needed
Add an article here!
Citations needed
Battles in {{Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Gulf Coast}} • Peter FranciscoAaron BurrCharles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess CornwallisContinental Army
Translation needed
Add an article here!

Categories

Major topics

Related content

Portals