How a Mosquito Operates is a silent animated film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. The six-minute short, about a giant mosquito who torments a sleeping man, is one of the earliest animated films and is noted for the high technical quality of its naturalistic animation, considered far ahead of its contemporaries. McCay had a reputation for the technical dexterity of his cartooning, displayed most famously in the children's comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland (1905–1911). He delved into the infant art of film animation in 1911 with Little Nemo, and followed that film's success with How a Mosquito Operates. McCay gives the animation naturalistic timing, motion, and weight, and displays a more coherent story and developed character than in Nemo. How a Mosquito Operates was enthusiastically received when McCay first unveiled it as part of his "chalk talk" vaudeville act, and in a theatrical release that soon followed. In 1914 McCay further developed the character animation he introduced in Mosquito with his best-known animated work, Gertie the Dinosaur.
Fritz the Cat is a 1972 American animated film written and directed by Ralph Bakshi(pictured) as his feature film debut. Based on the comic stripof the same name by Robert Crumb, the film was the first animated feature film to receive an X rating in the United States. It focuses on Fritz (voiced by Skip Hinnant), an anthropomorphic feline in mid-1960s New York City who explores the ideals of hedonism and sociopolitical consciousness. The film is a satire focusing on American college life of the era, race relations, the free love movement, and left- and right-wing politics. Fritz the Cat was the most successful independent animated feature of all time, grossing over $100 million worldwide. The film had a troubled production history and controversial release. Creator Robert Crumb is known to have had disagreements with the filmmakers, claiming in interviews that his first wife signed over the film rights to the characters, and that he did not approve the production. Crumb was also critical of the film's approach to his material. Fritz the Cat was controversial for its rating and content, which viewers at the time found to be offensive.
Hoodwinked! is a 2005 computer-animated film that retells the folktale Little Red Riding Hood as a police investigation, using flashbacks to show multiple characters' points of view. It was directed and written by Cory Edwards, Todd Edwards, and Tony Leech, and was among the earliest computer-animated films to be completely independently funded. Due to its small budget, the animation was produced in the Philippines with a less realistic design inspired by stop motion films. Its structure was inspired by the Japanese film Rashomon and it is part of the fairy tale parody genre. Released shortly after the first two installments in the successful Shrek series, Hoodwinked! intentionally deviated from that series in its style of humor and in certain plot elements. The Weinstein Company signed on as the distributor near the end of production, and while the company recast many roles, it otherwise made few changes. Critical reception to the film was varied; although its script and cast were praised by many reviewers, its animation quality was heavily criticized. It was a commercial success, earning over ten times its budget. A sequel, Hoodwinked Too! Hood vs. Evil, was released in 2011.
Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. It is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur. McCay first used the film before live audiences as an interactive part of his vaudeville act—the frisky, childlike Gertie did tricks at the command of her master. McCay's employer William Randolph Hearst later curtailed McCay's vaudeville activities, so McCay added a live-action introductory sequence to the film for its theatrical release. McCay abandoned a sequel, Gertie on Tour (c. 1921), after producing about a minute of footage. Though popularly thought to be the earliest animated film, McCay had earlier made Little Nemo (1911) and How a Mosquito Operates (1912), and the American J. Stuart Blackton and the French Émile Cohl had experimented with animation even earlier; having a character with an appealing personality distinguished Gertie from these earlier "trick films". John Randolph Bray unsuccessfully tried to patent many of McCay's animation techniques, and is said to have been behind a plagiarized version of Gertie that appeared a year or two after the original. Gertie is the best preserved of McCay's films—some of which have been lost or survive only in fragments—and has been preserved in the US National Film Registry.
Kampung Boy is an animated television series first broadcast in 1997 over Malaysian satellite television network Astro and later in 60 other countries such as Canada and Germany. Comprising 26 episodes—one of which won an Annecy Award—the series is adapted from the best selling graphical novel The Kampung Boy. The book is an autobiography by the Malaysian cartoonist Lat(pictured), detailing his early life experiences. The television series adapted Lat's tale of the adventures of a young boy, Mat, and his life in a Malaysian kampung (village). The stories focus on the meeting between traditional and modern ways of life, either depicting the village way of life as superior to urban lifestyles, or discussing the merits and integration of modern conveniences. It has also faced questions from Southeast Asian audiences for its similarities with Western animation and deviations from the local style of spoken English. Malaysian animation critics held up Kampung Boy as the standard to which their country's animators should aspire, and academics in cultural studies regarded the series as a method of using modern technologies and cultural practices to preserve Malaysian history.
Atlantis: The Lost Empire is the first science fiction film in Disney's animated features canon and the 41st overall. Set in 1914, the film tells the story of a young man who gains possession of a sacred book, which he believes will guide him and a crew of adventurers to the lost city of Atlantis. Linguist Marc Okrand created an Atlantean language for the film (letter "A" pictured). Atlantis made greater use of computer-generated imagery than any of Disney's previous animated features; it remains one of the few to have been shot in anamorphic format. Atlantis, which adopted the distinctive visual style of comic book creator Mike Mignola, is one of the few Disney animated features not to have songs. The film premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California, on June 3, 2001, and went into general release on June 15. Due to the film's poorer-than-expected box-office performance, Disney quietly canceled both a spin-off television series and an underwater attraction at its Disneyland theme park. Some critics praised it as a unique departure from typical Disney animated features, while others disliked it due to the unclear target audience and absence of songs.
"Hell Is Other Robots" is the ninth episode of season one of Futurama. It originally aired in North America on May 18, 1999, as the season finale of the first season. The episode was written by Eric Kaplan and directed by Rich Moore. Guest stars in this episode include the Beastie Boys as themselves and Dan Castellaneta voicing the Robot Devil. The episode is one of the first to focus heavily on Bender. In the episode he develops an addiction to electricity. When this addiction becomes problematic, Bender joins the Temple of Robotology, but after Fry and Leela tempt Bender with alcohol and prostitutes, he quits the Temple of Robotology and is visited by the Robot Devil for sinning. Finally Fry and Leela come to rescue him, and the three escape. The episode introduces the Robot Devil, Reverend Lionel Preacherbot and the religion of the Temple of Robotology, a Futurama spoof on the Church of Scientology. The episode received positive reviews, and was one of four featured on the DVD boxed set of Matt Groening's favorite episodes, Monster Robot Maniac Fun Collection.
Katsudō Shashin is a filmstrip speculated to be the oldest work of animation in Japan. Three seconds long, it depicts a boy who writes "moving picture" in Japanese script, removes his hat, and waves. Discovered in a collection of films and projectors in Kyoto, its creator is unknown. Natsuki Matsumoto, an expert in iconography at the Osaka University of Arts, determined that it was most likely made before 1912. It may have been influenced by animated filmstrips for German cinematographs, devices that first appeared in Japan in 1904. Evidence suggests Katsudō Shashin was mass-produced to be sold to wealthy owners of home projectors. To Matsumoto, the relatively poor quality and low-tech printing technique indicate it was likely from a smaller film company. Unlike in traditional animation, the frames were not produced by photographing the images, but were impressed directly onto film. They were stencilled in red and black using a device for making magic lantern slides, and the filmstrip was fastened in a loop for continuous play.
Adventure Time is an American animated television series created by Pendleton Ward(pictured in 2011) for Cartoon Network. The series follows the adventures of Finn, a 14-year-old human boy, and his best friend Jake, a dog with magical powers to change shape and grow and shrink at will. Finn and Jake live in the post-apocalyptic Land of Ooo, and travel the land while they adventure. The series is based on a short produced for Frederator's Nicktoons Network animation incubator series Random! Cartoons. After the short became a viral hit on the internet, Cartoon Network picked it up for a full-length series that previewed on March 11, 2010, and officially premiered on April 5, 2010. Ever since its debut, Adventure Time has been a ratings success for Cartoon Network. The show has received positive reviews from critics and has developed a cult following among teenagers and adults, many of whom are attracted due to the series' animation and stories. In addition, the series has also produced various clothing and merchandise, video games, comic books, and DVD compilations.
"Lisa the Vegetarian" is the fifth episode of The Simpsons'seventh season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on October 15, 1995. In the episode, Lisa decides to stop eating meat after bonding with a lamb at a petting zoo. Her schoolmates and family members ridicule her for her beliefs, but with the help of Apu, Paul McCartney, and Linda McCartney, she commits to vegetarianism. Directed by Mark Kirkland, "Lisa the Vegetarian" is the first full-length episode David S. Cohen wrote for The Simpsons. David Mirkin, the show runner at the time, supported the episode in part because he had just become a vegetarian himself. Dan Castellaneta, the voice of Homer Simpson is also a vegetarian. Former Beatle Paul McCartney and his then wife Linda McCartney guest star in the episode (pictured). Paul McCartney's condition for appearing was that Lisa would remain a vegetarian for the rest of the series. The episode makes several references to his musical career, and his song "Maybe I'm Amazed" plays during the closing credits. "Lisa the Vegetarian" finished 47th in the ratings for the week of October 9–15, 1995, with a 9.0 Nielsen rating. It was the fourth highest-rated show on the Fox network that week. The episode received generally positive reviews from television critics. It has won two awards, an Environmental Media Award and a Genesis Award, for highlighting environmental and animal issues.
The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest is an American animated action-adventure television series produced by Hanna-Barbera Cartoons and broadcast on Cartoon Network from August 26, 1996 to April 16, 1997. A revival of the 1960s Jonny Quest franchise, it features teenage adventurers Jonny Quest, Hadji Singh, and Jessie Bannon as they accompanied Dr. Benton Quest and bodyguard Race Bannon to investigate strange phenomena, legends, and mysteries in exotic locales. Action also takes place in the virtual realm of QuestWorld, a three-dimensional cyberspace domain rendered with computer animation. Conceived in the early 1990s, Real Adventures suffered a long and troubled development. Real Adventures debuted with an unprecedented wide release on Cartoon Network, TBS, and TNT, airing twenty-one times per week. Critics have debated the merits of the show's animation, writing, and spirit compared to classic Quest, but it has also received praise in those categories. Real Adventures failed to gain high ratings with its targeted demographics and its merchandise performed poorly, leading to cancellation after fifty-two episodes. Turner has released eight VHS, two laserdisc, and thirteen DVD episodes; reruns have appeared on Toonami, CNX, and other Cartoon Network formats.
Little Nemo is a 1911 silentanimated short film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. One of the earliest animated films, it was McCay's first, and featured characters from McCay's comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland. Its expressive character animation distinguished the film from the experiments of earlier animators. Inspired by flip books his son brought home, McCay came to see the potential of the animated film medium. He claimed to be the first to make such films, though James Stuart Blackton and Émile Cohl were among those who preceded him. The short's four thousand drawings on rice paper were shot at Vitagraph Studios under Blackton's supervision. Most of the film's running time is made up of a live-action sequence in which McCay bets his colleagues that he can make drawings that move. He wins the bet with four minutes of animation in which the Little Nemo characters perform, interact, and metamorphose to McCay's whim. Little Nemo debuted in movie theaters on April 8, 1911, and four days later McCay began using it as part of his vaudeville act. Its good reception motivated him to hand-color each of the animated frames of the originally black-and-white film. The film's success led McCay to devote more time to animation. He followed up Little Nemo with How a Mosquito Operates in 1912 and his best-known film, Gertie the Dinosaur, in 1914.
"Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo" is the ninth episode of the first season of the animated comedy television series South Park. The show's first Christmas special, it portrays the Jewish character Kyle feeling excluded from the town's Christmas celebrations and being comforted by Mr. Hankey, who can talk and sing. As Mr. Hankey does not come alive in the presence of other characters, they begin to think that Kyle is delusional. In another plot strand, the townspeople remove all symbols of Christmas from South Park to render the celebrations politically correct and inoffensive. When all the children start believing in him, Mr. Hankey finally reveals himself to everyone and scolds them for losing sight of the good things of Christmas and focusing on the bad. The townspeople apologize to Kyle, then sing Christmas songs and watch Mr. Hankey fly away with Santa Claus. Heavily influenced by the Peanuts Christmas special A Charlie Brown Christmas, "Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo" was the first South Park musical episode and the only episode in season one in which Kenny does not die. It is a satire of political correctness and religious sensitivity and has been described as one of the classic South Park episodes.
Dream of the Rarebit Fiend was a newspaper comic strip by American cartoonist Winsor McCay which began September 10, 1904. As in McCay's signature strip, Little Nemo, the strip was made up of bizarre dreams. It was McCay's second successful strip, after Little Sammy Sneeze secured him a position on the cartoon staff of the New York Herald. Rarebit Fiend was printed in the Evening Telegram, a newspaper published by the Herald. For contractual reasons, McCay signed the strip with the pen name "Silas". The strip had no continuity or recurring characters. Instead, it had a recurring theme: a character would have a nightmare or other bizarre dream, usually after eating a Welsh rarebit (a cheese-on-toast dish). His editor there thought his highly-skilled cartooning was "serious, not funny", and he was made to give up comic strips to do editorial cartooning. The strip was revived 1923–1925 as Rarebit Reveries, though few examples have survived. Rarebit Fiend was the inspiration for a number of films, including Edwin S. Porter's live-action Dream of a Rarebit Fiend in 1906, and four pioneering animated films by McCay himself: How a Mosquito Operates in 1912, and 1921's Bug Vaudeville, The Pet and The Flying House.
The Sinking of the Lusitania is a silent animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. A work of propaganda, it is a re-creation of the never-photographed 1915 sinking of the RMS Lusitania. At twelve minutes it has been called the longest work of animation at the time of its release. The film is the earliest animated documentary and serious, dramatic work of animation to survive. In 1915, a German submarine torpedoed and sank the RMS Lusitania; 128 Americans were among the 1,198 dead. The event outraged McCay, but the newspapers of his employer William Randolph Hearst downplayed the tragedy, as Hearst was opposed to the US joining World War I. The earlier films were drawn on rice paper, onto which backgrounds had to be laboriously traced; The Sinking of the Lusitania was the first film McCay made using the new, more efficient cel technology. McCay and his assistants spent twenty-two months making the film. His subsequent animation output suffered setbacks, as the film was not as commercially successful as his earlier efforts, and Hearst put increased pressure on McCay to devote his time to editorial drawings.
"Road to the Multiverse" is the first episode of the eighth season of the animatedcomedy seriesFamily Guy. Directed by Greg Colton and written by Wellesley Wild, the episode originally aired on Fox in the United States on September 27, 2009. In "Road to the Multiverse", two of the show's main characters, baby Stewie and anthropomorphic dog Brian, who are voiced by series creator Seth MacFarlane(pictured), use an "out-of-this-world" remote control to travel through a series of various parallel universes. They eventually end up in a world where dogs rule and humans obey. This causes Brian to become reluctant to return home to his own universe, and he ultimately ends up breaking the remote, much to the dismay of Stewie, who soon seeks a replacement. The "Road to" episodes which have aired throughout various seasons of Family Guy were inspired by the Road to ... comedy films starring Bing Crosby, Bob Hope and Dorothy Lamour, though this episode was not originally conceived as a "Road to" show. Critical responses to the episode were mostly positive; critics praised its storyline, numerous cultural references, and its use of various animation styles.
"Stark Raving Dad" is the first episode of the third season of American animated television series The Simpsons. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on September 19, 1991. In the episode, main character Homer Simpson is sent to a mental institution, where he shares a room with a large white man named Leon Kompowsky who pretends to be Michael Jackson. Al Jean and Mike Reiss wrote the episode while Rich Moore served as director. Michael Jackson guest starred in the episode as the speaking voice of Leon Kompowsky. For contractual reasons, he was credited as John Jay Smith in the closing credits. Jackson pitched several story ideas for the episode and wrote a song that is featured in the plot. He also stipulated that he would provide Kompowsky's speaking voice, but his singing voice would be performed by a sound-alike (Kipp Lennon) because he wanted to play a joke on his brothers. "Stark Raving Dad" received generally positive reviews from critics, particularly for the writing and Jackson's performance.
Marjorie "Marge" Simpson (née Bouvier) is a fictional main character in the animated television series The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by actress Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Showshort "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters. He named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Marge is the well-meaning and extremely patient mother of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and often provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household. She is often portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is often included on lists of top "TV moms". She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise.
"A Rugrats Chanukah" is a special episode of Nickelodeon's animated television series Rugrats. The first episode of the show's fourth season, it tells the story of the Jewish holiday Chanukah through the eyes of the Rugrats, who imagine themselves as the main characters. The idea of a Rugrats Chanukah special was pitched by Nickelodeon executives in 1992, but the concept was revised and became the 1995 special, "A Rugrats Passover". After production of the Passover episode wrapped, the crew returned to the Chanukah idea. Nickelodeon broadcast "A Rugrats Chanukah" on December 4, 1996; the episode received a Nielsen rating of 7.9 and positive reviews from television critics. Along with other Rugrats episodes featuring Grandpa Boris and his wife, the special attracted controversy when the Anti-Defamation League compared the character designs to anti-Semitic drawings from a 1930s Nazi newspaper.
"Starvin' Marvin" is the eighth episode of the first season of the American animated television series South Park. It first aired on Comedy Central in the United States on November 19, 1997. In the episode, Cartman, Kenny, Kyle and Stan send money to an African charity hoping to get a sports watch, but are instead sent an Ethiopian child whom they dub Starvin' Marvin. Later, Cartman is accidentally sent to Ethiopia, where he learns activist Sally Struthers(pictured) is hoarding the charity's food for herself. In an accompanying subplot, after genetically engineered turkeys attack South Park residents, Chef rallies the residents to fight back, in a parody of the film Braveheart. "Starvin' Marvin" was the first South ParkThanksgiving special. The episode simultaneously served as a satire on American indifference toward impoverished countries and the humanitarianism industry. The episode received generally positive reviews and several commentators have described it as a classic South Park episode. According to Nielsen Media Research, it was viewed by about 2.2 million households during its original broadcast, which at the time was roughly eight times Comedy Central's average viewership. Parker and Stone said they were unhappy with the turkey subplot, which they wrote only because they felt obligated to include a B story. In addition to Starvin' Marvin, who became a popular minor character, the episode introduced regular characters Kyle's father Gerald Broflovski and Kenny's family members Stuart, Carol and Kevin McCormick.
"A Streetcar Named Marge" is the second episode of The Simpsons' fourth season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on October 1, 1992. In the episode, Marge wins the role of Blanche DuBois in a musical version of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire. Homer offers little support for his wife's acting pursuits, and Marge begins to see parallels between him and Stanley Kowalski, the play's boorish lead male character. The episode contains a subplot in which Maggie Simpson attempts to retrieve her pacifier from a strict daycare attendant. Jeff Martin wrote the episode (pictured), and Rich Moore served as director. The episode generated controversy for its original song about New Orleans, which contains several unflattering lyrics about the city. One New Orleans newspaper published the lyrics before the episode aired, prompting numerous complaints to the local Fox affiliate. In response, the president of Fox Broadcasting issued an apology to anyone who was offended. Despite the controversial song, the episode was well received by many fans, and show creator Matt Groening has named it one of his favorite episodes.
"Weight Gain 4000" is the second episode of the American animated television series South Park. In the episode, South Park residents excitedly prepare for a visit by celebrity Kathie Lee Gifford, whom teacher Mr. Garrison plans to assassinate because of a childhood grudge, and Cartman becomes extremely obese after buying a bodybuilding supplement called Weight Gain 4000. The episode was written and directed by Trey Parker(pictured) and Matt Stone. After the pilot episode drew poor test audience results, Comedy Central requested a further script, and "Weight Gain 4000" helped the network decide to pick up the show. It was the first South Park episode created completely using computers rather than construction paper. Although some reviewers criticized the episode for its profanity and other material deemed offensive, others felt "Weight Gain 4000" was a significant improvement over the pilot, particularly for its satirical element regarding American consumerism. The show's portrayal of Kathie Lee Gifford was the first time a celebrity was spoofed in South Park. Cartman's line "Beefcake" became one of the most popular catchphrases from the series.
Aang is a fictionalcharacter in Nickelodeon's animated television seriesAvatar: The Last Airbender. The character is created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko(pictured) and is voiced by Zach Tyler Eisen. Aang is depicted as the show's main protagonist, and as such has appeared in all but one episode of the show, the exception being "Zuko Alone". Aang also appeared in the pilot episode which has not been aired. Most of Aang's traits, such as vegetarianism, are based on Buddhist and Taoist tradition. Aang is the series' reluctant hero, showing hesitation when joining his friends to save the world from the Fire Nation. The series depict Aang as the last surviving Airbender and a monk of the Air Nomads, the only race of people with the unique ability to manipulate the air around them. As the Avatar, Aang has the ability to control the four classical elements and is tasked with keeping the Four Nations at peace. The show follows Aang's journeys to complete this task, during a war instigated by the Fire Nation when he was frozen. Aang is also depicted as having a lighthearted personality which has been accepted well among critics.
"Volcano" is the third episode of the American animated television series South Park. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on August 27, 1997. In the episode, Stan, Kyle, Cartman and Kenny go on a hunting trip with Stan's uncle Jimbo and his war buddy Ned. While on the trip, Stan is frustrated by his inability to shoot a living creature and Cartman tries to scare the hunting party with tales of a creature named Scuzzlebutt. The episode was written by series co-creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone(pictured) and is rated TV-MA in the United States. It was inspired by the 1997 disaster films Volcano and Dante's Peak, both of which Parker and Stone strongly disliked. "Volcano" was the third episode produced, but it was broadcast as the second. "Volcano" received generally positive reviews and was nominated for a 1997 Environmental Media Award. Slightly more than 1 million viewers watched the original broadcast, according to Nielsen ratings. The episode parodied the Duck and Cover educational videos from the 1950s and 1960s that advised people to hide under tables in the event of a nuclear attack.
Sideshow Bob is a recurring character in the animated television series The Simpsons. He is voiced by Kelsey Grammer(pictured) and first appeared briefly in the episode "The Telltale Head". Bob is a self-proclaimed genius who is a graduate of Yale, a member of the Republican Party, and a champion of high culture. He began his career as a sidekick on Krusty the Clown's television show, but after enduring constant abuse, Bob attempted to frame his employer for armed robbery in "Krusty Gets Busted". The plan was foiled by Bart Simpson, and Sideshow Bob was sent to prison. Bob made his second major appearance in season three's "Black Widower". In each appearance thereafter, Bob has assumed the role on The Simpsons of an evil genius. Episodes in which he is a central character typically involve Sideshow Bob being released from prison and executing an elaborate revenge plan, usually foiled by Bart and Lisa. His plans often involve murder and destruction, usually targeted at Bart or, less often, Krusty, though these plans often involve targeting the entire Simpson family. Sideshow Bob shares some personality traits of Grammer's character Frasier Crane from the sitcoms Cheers and Frasier, and has been described as "Frasier pickled in arsenic". As of 2012, Bob has had speaking appearances in thirteen episodes and been featured in eleven; the most recent of the latter, "The Bob Next Door", aired during the twenty-first season.
"Interactions" is the second episode of the animatedtelevision seriesThe Spectacular Spider-Man, which is based on the comic book character Spider-Man, created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. The episode sees Spider-Man confronting the supervillainElectro, whose body was corrupted with electricity after a freak lab accident. "Interactions" was written by Kevin Hopps, who researched all the available comic books he had that featured Electro, and directed by Troy Adomitis. Electro's appearance in the episode draws on his traditional comic book style, though designer Victor Cook emphasized the color green and removed the character's customary star-shaped mask. His voice actor, Crispin Freeman, sought to reflect the character's declining sanity in his vocal style. "Interactions" first aired March 8, 2008, on the Kids WB! block for The CW network, following the first episode. Its 1.4/4 Nielsen rating was higher than that of the pilot, "Survival of the Fittest". The episode received mixed reviews, with IGN commenting that "[w]hile not as strong as the pilot, the episode had some notable moments."
Adult animation is a term used to describe animation that is targeted at adults. Animated films and television shows may be considered adult for a number of reasons. Some productions are noted for experimental storytelling and animation techniques, or sophisticated storytelling. Others may be noted for a use of risqué themes, portrayal of violence, or sexuality in a manner that is unsuitable for younger viewers. Some adult animation is pornographic, although not all adult animated features are pornography. Before the enforcement of the Hays Code, some cartoon shorts contained humor that was aimed at adult audience members rather than children. Following the introduction of the Motion Picture Association of America film rating system, independent animation producers attempted to establish an alternative to mainstream animation. Initially, few animation studios in the United States attempted to produce animation for adult audiences, but later examples of animation produced for adults would gain mainstream attention and success.
"Focus Grill" is the thirteenth episode of the fourth season and the series finale of the American animated sitcomHome Movies, and 52nd episode of the series overall. It originally aired in the United States on Adult Swim on April 4, 2004. In the episode, Brendon, Melissa, and Jason decide to finally film an ending to the first movie they did together. "Focus Grill" was written by Brendon Small and directed by Loren Bouchard. Mike Lazzo, an Adult Swim executive, had informed the staff of the show's cancellation during the start of the fourth season production run, so Small ; he noted, however, that it was actually an optimistic note for the series. The episode concludes with Brendon's camera breaking, which Small believed was a way to get rid of the character's metaphorical crutch that he had had for the whole series. The final episode received a largely positive response, with reviewers praising it for its sentimental, bittersweet way of concluding the show. Small received various e-mails from fans who informed him that they cried while watching "Focus Grill".
"The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" is the first episode of The Simpsons' ninth season, and premiered on September 21, 1997 on Fox. The episode sees the Simpson family traveling to Manhattan to recover the family car, which was taken by Barney and abandoned outside the World Trade Center complex with numerous parking tickets. Upon arrival, the family tour the city, while Homer attempts to find his car. He discovers it outside the World Trade Center, where a parking officer later arrives to remove the clamp, but leaves as Homer is urinating inside one of the towers. In frustration, Homer decides to drive the car with the clamp attached. He successfully removes it later and races to Central Park to find his family and leave the city. The episode received generally positive reviews, and has since been on accolade lists of Simpsons episodes. Because of the World Trade Center's central role, the episode was initially taken off syndication in many areas following the September 11, 2001 attacks, but has come back into syndication in recent years.
"Damien" is the eighth episode of the first season of the animated television series South Park. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on February 4, 1998. In the episode, the boys' class is joined by a new student named Damien, who has been sent by his father Satan to find Jesus and arrange a boxing match between the two. The majority of South Park residents bet on Satan to win the match due to his enormous size and muscular physique, but Satan ultimately throws the fight and reveals he bet on Jesus, thus winning everybody's money. The episode was written by series co-founders Trey Parker and Matt Stone, along with writer Brian Graden. The episode serves as a satire on religion, faith and the nature of good and evil, as well as a commentary on commercialism, the cult of celebrity in America and the nature of children. The episode marked the first appearance of Satan, who would become a recurring South Park character, as well as the character of Damien himself, who was inspired by the antagonist of the 1976 horror film, The Omen. Parker and Stone also said the episode introduced several key characteristics of the Cartman character that have endured throughout the rest of the series. Michael Buffer(pictured), the boxing ring announcer best known for the catchphrase, "Let's get ready to rumble!", makes a guest appearance in "Damien" as himself.
Ed, Edd n Eddy is an animated television series created by Danny Antonucci(picutred) and produced by Canada–based a.k.a. Cartoon. It premiered on Cartoon Network on January 4, 1999, and ended on November 8, 2009 with the premiere of the series' TV movie finale, Ed, Edd n Eddy's Big Picture Show. Designed to resemble classic cartoons from the 1940s to the 1970s, the series revolves around three adolescent boys known as "the Eds", who constantly invent schemes to make money from their peers to purchase jawbreakers. Their plans usually fail, leaving them in various predicaments. Before signing a contract with Cartoon Network, Antonucci approached Nickelodeon, but the channel demanded creative control of the show, which Antonucci did not agree to. Several specials, shorts, and video games either based on the series or featuring the series' characters have been produced. Viewed from 31 million households in 29 countries by both children and adults, Ed, Edd n Eddy received positive reviews and several awards and nominations. It remains the longest-running original Cartoon Network series and Canadian-made animated series to date.
"You Only Move Twice" is the second episode of The Simpsons' eighth season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on November 3, 1996. The episode, based on a story idea by Greg Daniels, has three major concepts: the family moves to a new town; Homer gets a friendly, sympathetic boss; and that boss, unbeknownst to Homer, is a supervillain. Bart, Lisa, and Marge each have individual secondary storylines. It was directed by Mike B. Anderson(pictured) and written by John Swartzwelder. The episode title is a reference to the James Bond film You Only Live Twice, and many elements of the episode parody the Bond films, with a character modeled after Bond making a cameo appearance. Setting the second and third acts in a new town, Cypress Creek, required the animators to create entirely new layouts and background designs. Albert Brooks, in his fourth Simpsons appearance, guest stars as the voice of Hank Scorpio, who is one of the most popular one-time characters on The Simpsons. The episode was well received by critics and IGN named "You Only Move Twice" the best episode of the eighth season.
Diary of a Camper is a short 1996 American film created by United Ranger Films, then a subdivision of a popular group of players, or clan, known as the Rangers. Made using id Software's 1996 first-person shootercomputer gameQuake and released over the Internet as a non-interactive game demo file, the video is considered the first example of machinima—the art of using real-time, virtual 3-D environments, often game engines, to create animated films. The story centers on a lone camper, a pejorative for a player who waits in a strategic location instead of seeking active battle, who faces five members of the Rangers clan in a deathmatch, a type of multiplayer game whose goal is to kill as many opponents as possible. Although players had previously recorded segments of gameplay, these were usually deathmatches or speedruns, attempts to complete a map as quickly as possible. Diary of a Camper was the first demo to contain a narrative with (text-based) dialogue, instead of merely showing gameplay. Commentators agree that the work itself is primitive, but acknowledge its importance in establishing video games as a medium for filmmaking.
Kenny McCormick is a character in the animated television seriesSouth Park. He is one of the main characters along with his friends Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, and Eric Cartman. His oft-muffled and indiscernible speech—the result of his parka hood covering his mouth—is provided by co-creator Matt Stone. He debuted on television when South Park first aired on August 13, 1997, after having first appeared in The Spirit of Christmas shorts created by Stone and long-time collaborator Trey Parker in 1992 (Jesus vs. Frosty) and 1995 (Jesus vs. Santa). In a running gag most prevalent during the first five seasons of the series, Kenny would die in many episodes before returning in the next with little or no definitive explanation given. Other characters' accompanying exclamation of "Oh my God! They killed Kenny! ...You bastards!" became a catchphrase. Media commentators have published their interpretations of the many aspects of the running gag from philosophical and societal viewpoints. Since the show began its sixth season in 2002, the practice of killing Kenny in almost every episode has been seldom used by the show's creators. Various episodes have set up the gag, sometimes presenting a number of explanations for Kenny's unacknowledged reappearances.
"Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", also known as "The Simpsons Christmas Special", is the first full-length episode of The Simpsons to air despite originally being the eighth episode produced for season one. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on December 17, 1989. In the episode, Homer discovers that he will not be getting a Christmas bonus and thus the family has no money to buy Christmas presents. He decides to keep their financial troubles a secret and gets a job as a department store Santa, but later discovers that the job does not pay enough. Desperate for a miracle, Homer and Bart go to the dog racing track on Christmas Eve in hopes of earning some money. The episode was written by Mimi Pond and directed by David Silverman. The title alludes to "The Christmas Song", also known as "Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire". "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" was nominated for two Emmy Awards in 1990, and has received positive reviews from television critics. It was viewed by approximately 13.4 million viewers in its original airing.
Kyle Broflovski (sometimes spelled Brovlofski) is a fictional character in the animated television series South Park. He is voiced by co-creator Matt Stone. Kyle is one of the show's four central characters, along with his friends Stan Marsh, Kenny McCormick, and Eric Cartman. He debuted on television when South Park first aired on August 13, 1997, after having first appeared in The Spirit of Christmas shorts created by Stone and long-time collaborator Trey Parker in 1992 (Jesus vs. Frosty) and 1995 (Jesus vs. Santa). Kyle is a third- then fourth-grade student who commonly has extraordinary experiences not typical of conventional small-town life in his fictional hometown of South Park, Colorado. Kyle is distinctive as one of the few Jewish children on the show, and because of this, he often feels like an outsider amongst the core group of characters. His portrayal in this role is often dealt with satirically, and has elicited both praise and criticism from Jewish viewers.
"Proposition Infinity" ("Proposition ∞") is the fourth episode of the sixth season of the animatedsitcomFuturama, and originally aired July 8, 2010 on Comedy Central. In the episode, Amy Wong and Bender fall in love and begin a culturally taboo "robosexual" relationship. After facing anti-robosexual sentiments from society, they elect to get married and advocate to legalize robosexual marriage through "Proposition Infinity." The episode was written by Michael Rowe and directed by Crystal Chesney-Thompson (pictured). "Proposition Infinity" served as a satire of the controversy over same-sex marriage and California Proposition 8 (generally referred to as "Proposition 8"), which banned same-sex marriage in California in November 2008. The title of the episode is derived from Proposition 8, turning the 8 sideways to create the symbol for infinity (∞), hence "Proposition ∞". Though the episode satirizes arguments for and against same-sex marriage, it leans favorably toward the idea of allowing same-sex marriage. The theme of the episode revisits the social taboo of robosexual relationships presented in earlier episodes "Space Pilot 3000" and "I Dated a Robot". Openly gay actor George Takei of Star Trek fame, who married his partner in California during the debate over Proposition 8, returns as a guest star in the series. "Proposition Infinity" received mostly positive reviews from critics. Co-creator David X. Cohen named it as one of his favorite episodes of the sixth season.
WALL-E is a 2008 American computer-animatedscience fiction film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and directed by Andrew Stanton. The story follows a robot named WALL-E, who is designed to clean up a waste-covered Earth far in the future. He eventually falls in love with another robot named EVE, and follows her into outer space on an adventure that changes the destiny of both his kind and humanity. After directing Finding Nemo, Stanton felt Pixar had created believable simulations of underwater physics and was willing to direct a film largely set in space. Most of the characters do not have actual human voices, but instead communicate with body language and robotic sounds, designed by Ben Burtt, that resemble voices. Walt Disney Pictures released it in the United States and Canada on June 27, 2008. The film grossed US$23.1 million on its opening day, and $63 million during its opening weekend in 3,992 theaters, ranking #1 at the box office. Following Pixar tradition, WALL-E was paired with a short film, Presto, for its theatrical release. WALL-E has been met with overwhelmingly positive reviews among critics. It grossed $534 million worldwide, won the 2008 Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film, the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form, the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature as well as being nominated for five other Academy Awards at the 81st Academy Awards. WALL-E ranks first in TIME's "Best Movies of the Decade."
"Donnie Fatso" is the ninth episode of the twenty-second season of the animated comedy series The Simpsons. It first aired on Fox in the United States on December 12, 2010. The plot revolves around an FBI agent, who helps Homer go undercover to infiltrate Fat Tony's mob. Homer agrees to this in hopes of decreasing his sentence after being charged for bribery. This episode is a reference to Goodfellas as well as real-life informant Donnie Brasco. "Donnie Fatso" was written by Chris Cluess and directed by Ralph Sosa. Critics were polarized with the episode, with criticism stemming from its main plot and cultural references. Upon its initial airing, the episode received 7.32 million viewers and attained a 3.2/8 rating in the 18-49 demographic, according to Nielson ratings. "Donnie Fatso" featured guest appearances from Jon Hamm and Joe Mantegna, as well as several recurring voice actors and actresses for the series.
"Get Away From My Mom" is the pilot episode of the American animated sitcomHome Movies. It originally aired on United Paramount Network on April 26, 1999. In the episode, eight-year-old Brendon Small discovers that his mother, Paula, is set to have a date with Brendon's soccer coach, the lazy, profane alcoholic John McGuirk. Brendon resents McGuirk for this and expresses his outrage throughout the episode. The date goes terrible and McGuirk and Paula decide to not pursue a relationship. Meanwhile, Brendon and his friends Melissa and Jason film a new movie about a rogue police officer. The episode used retroscripting, a process by which the actors completely improvised all their dialogue lines, the first time this technique was used for an animated television production. Certain script material, however, was provided by series co-founder Loren Bouchard(pictured), who also directed the episode. The pilot also utilized the "Squigglevision" style of animation which was used to produce the show for the entirety of its first season. In its original broadcast, "Get Away From My Mom" received a 1.4/2 Nielsen Rating, the lowest UPN had ever received in that time slot. The episode received mixed reviews from television critics, particularly pertaining to its employment of improvisation.
"The Uncertainty Principle" is the ninth episode of the animated television seriesThe Spectacular Spider-Man, which is based on the comic book character Spider-Man, created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. It originally aired on the Kids WB!programming block on The CW Network on May 10, 2008, with a TV-Y7-FV parental guidance rating. The episode chronicles Spider-Man on Halloween, as he partakes in his final battle with the villain Green Goblin and finally discovers the villain's true identity. Meanwhile, Air ForceColonelJohn Jameson attempts to land his badly damaged space craft back on Earth. The episode was written by Kevin Hopps and directed by Dave Bullock. Hopps researched all the available comic books he had that featured Green Goblin in order to prepare his penning of the episode's teleplay. "The Uncertainty Principle" served as a conclusion to the Green Goblin storyline for the first season. The supposed revelation of Goblin's identity in the episode would later be disproved by the second season finale "Final Curtain," which the writers had unplanned since the series began, and were lucky enough to think of the plot twist and created the episode. "The Uncertainty Principle" is available on both the third volume DVD set for the series, as well as the complete season box set. The episode received a generally positive critical response from television critics—reviewers singled out elements such as the Halloween motif and Mary Jane's vampire costume.
"Cartman Gets an Anal Probe" is the first episode of the American animated television series South Park. It was originally broadcast on Comedy Central in the United States on August 13, 1997. The episode introduces child protagonists Eric Cartman, Kyle Broflovski, Stan Marsh and Kenny McCormick, who attempt to rescue Kyle's younger brother Ike from abduction by aliens. At the time of the writing of the episode, South Park creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone did not yet have a series contract with Comedy Central, and Parker later commented that they felt "pressure" to live up to the internet shorts that first made them popular. Short on money, the duo animated the episode using cut paperstop motion techniques. As such, "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe" remains the only South Park episode animated without the use of computer technology. When the episode was first broadcast in Canada, "objectionable" material was cut; it was later restored in subsequent showings. Initial reviews of the episode were generally negative; critics singled out the gratuitous obscenity of the show for particular scorn and compared South Park unfavorably with what they felt were the more complex and nuanced The Simpsons and Beavis and Butthead.
"Wet Hot Demonic Summer" is the second season premiere of the American animated television series Ugly Americans, and the fifteenth overall episode of the series. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on June 30, 2011. In the episode, Leonard Powers is about to retire as the Wizard of Social Services and give the job to his apprentice, Lionel, whom he abandoned fifty years prior. Meanwhile, Twayne Boneraper and Callie Maggotbone must infiltrate the compound where the wizards hold the initiation ritual, but their complicated strategy involves building a summer camp with Mark Lilly as the head counselor. The episode was written by Daniel Powell and directed by Aaron Augenblick. Powell was inspired to write the episode after reading a critic's review of the series; the critic referred to Leonard as having "omnipotence", which spurred an idea involving the character having to take responsibility. "Wet Hot Demonic Summer" parodies the Harry Potter series, particularly the character design of Lionel. The Harry Potter elements were planned nine months in advance to coincide with the release of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, which premiered two weeks after the episode aired. "Wet Hot Demonic Summer" received generally positive reviews from television critics; several commentators praised its cultural references and claimed that it showed similar quality to that of the series' first season. According to Nielsen Media Research, "Wet Hot Demonic Summer" was watched by 1.14 million viewers in its original airing and attracted less viewers than the series' pilot episode.
"Flop Starz" is the first segment for the first official aired episode of the animated television seriesPhineas and Ferb. The episode was originally broadcast on Disney Channel on February 1, 2008. In the episode, Phineas and Ferb become one-hit wonders in the matter of a morning. This is much to the disappointment of Candace, who is trying out for super stardom on a competition show entitled The Next American Pop Teen Idol Star! Meanwhile, Doofenshmirtz converts his building into a giant robot to aid him in his attempt to conquer the tri-state area. The episode's storyboard was written by Sherm Cohen and Antoine Guilbaud, though the story itself was made by the co-creators of the series. The song in the episode, "Gitchee, Gitchee, Goo," was the first song the series had and caused for Disney to want one in every episode. Despite the actual pilot being "Rollercoaster," the episode was broadcast to premiere the series, so a majority of the series' standard humor and plot devices had yet to be established (e.g. Perry and Doofenshmirtz have no involvement in the removal of the boys' evidence [mainly instigated by the boys themselves] and Candace's busting attempts in the A-plot are limited to two). "Flop Starz" carried several references to the music industry and several genres (the title itself is as well a spoof of the phrase "pop stars"), as well as to the talent competitionAmerican Idol. The episode was well received by critics and fans alike, gaining 23.5 million viewers in its premiere. The song featured, "Gitchee, Gitchee, Goo," was as well reviewed favorably by critics. "Flop Starz" has been featured in several pieces of merchandise, including a junior novelization by Lara Bergen in 2009.
"Raging Bully" is the sixth broadcast episode of the animatedtelevision seriesPhineas and Ferb. In the episode, Phineas Flynn is challenged to a thumb wrestling competition at the mall with the local bully, Buford, after he accidentally embarrasses him in the food court. Meanwhile, the evil Dr. Heinz Doofenshmirtz tries using a hypnotic contraption to force everyone to celebrate his birthday and clean up their mess after the party. "Raging Bully" was written by series co-founders Dan Povenmire and Jeff "Swampy" Marsh and directed by Povenmire. Heavyweight boxing champion Evander Holyfield(pictured) guest starred as himself, training Phineas for the big thumb-wrestling match. The episode originally broadcast on Disney Channel on February 6, 2008, as part of the month-long special event, "Phineas and Ferb-urary." It received generally positive reviews from television critics and the featured musical number, "He's a Bully," became available on the official Phineas and Ferb soundtrack in 2009.
"Fatbeard" is the seventh episode of the thirteenth season of the American animated television series South Park, and the 188th overall episode of the series. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on April 22, 2009 and in the United Kingdom on April 24, 2009. It was the mid-season finale, marking the final South Park episode for six months. In the episode, Cartman misinterprets news reports about Piracy in Somalia to mean the return of the classic era of swashbuckling pirates, and misleads a handful of South Park boys to voyage to Mogadishu to start a pirate crew. The episode was written and directed by series co-founder Trey Parker, and was rated TV-MA L in the United States for strong to extreme language. "Fatbeard" was a reference to increasing international media attention to Somalian piracy, and the script depicted the pirates in a sympathetic light. The crew of the USS Bainbridge(pictured), the Arleigh Burke-classguided missile destroyer which participated in the rescue of the hijackedMVMaersk Alabama, contacted the South Park creators to praise them for the episode. "Fatbeard" received generally positive reviews and was seen by 2.59 million households in its original broadcast, making it the most-watched Comedy Central production the week it aired.
"Reaction" is the eighth episode of the American animated television seriesThe Spectacular Spider-Man, which is based on the comic book character Spider-Man, created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. The episode originally broadcast in the United States on the Kids WB! block for The CW on May 3, 2008, where it was rated TV-Y7-FV. The episode details Dr. Otto Octavius as a laboratory incident caused by the Green Goblin merges special mechanical tentacles to his skin and turns him from a timid and weak scientist into the villain Dr. Octopus. "Reaction" was directed by Jennifer Coyle and was the first episode of the series to be written by Randy Jandt. While writing the teleplay, Jandt was challenged with staying true to the original material of Spider-Man, particularly towards that of Dr. Octopus. "Reaction" received generally positive reviews, with television critics singling out Dr. Octopus' portrayal. Octopus's character design was applauded by both the designers and Coyle; the latter noted that his design allowed her to direct them freely in different manners, and the that the arms in particular were particularly well-done. Peter MacNicol voiced the character and used a voice inspired by that of late actor Laird Cregar. It is available on both the third volume DVD set for the series, as well as the complete season box set.
Halo Legends is a collection of seven short anime films set in the Halo science-fiction universe. Financed by Halo franchise overseer 343 Industries, the stories were created by six Japanese production houses: Bones, Casio Entertainment, Production I.G., Studio 4°C, and Toei Animation. Shinji Aramaki, creator and director of Appleseed and Appleseed Ex Machina, serves as the project's creative director. Warner Bros. released Legends on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on February 16, 2010. The idea for an anime compilation existed for years before there was momentum for the project. 343 creative director Frank O'Connor (pictured) produced story outlines or finished scripts that the production houses animated in a variety of styles.
"Cape Feare" is the second episode of the fifth season of American animated television series The Simpsons. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on October 7, 1993, and has since been featured on DVD and VHS releases. Written by Jon Vitti and directed by Rich Moore(pictured), "Cape Feare" features the return of guest star Kelsey Grammer as Sideshow Bob, who tries to kill Bart Simpson after getting out of jail. "Cape Feare" is a spoof of the 1962 film Cape Fear and its 1991 remake, and alludes to other horror films such as Psycho. The episode was pitched by Wallace Wolodarsky, who wanted to parody Cape Fear. Originally produced for the fourth season, it was held over to the fifth and was therefore the last episode produced by the show's original writers, most of whom subsequently left. The production crew found it difficult to stretch "Cape Feare" to the standard duration of half an hour, and consequently padded several scenes. In one such sequence, Sideshow Bob continually steps on rakes, the handles of which then hit him in the face; this scene became one of the show's most memorable moments. The episode is generally considered one of the best of the entire series, and the score received an Emmy Award nomination.
Down and Dirty Duck, promoted under the abbreviated title Dirty Duck, is a 1974 American adult-orientedanimated film directed by Charles Swenson and starring Mark Volman and Howard Kaylan (Flo & Eddie) as the voices of a strait-laced blue collar worker named Willard and an unnamed duck, among other characters. The plot consists of a series of often abstract sequences, including plot material created by stars Kaylan, Volman, Robert Ridgely, and, according to the film's ending credits, various people Swenson encountered during the making of the film. Dirty Duck received mostly negative reviews, with many criticizing it for its crude humor and others seeing the film as an attempt to cash in on the success of Ralph Bakshi's Fritz the Cat. Dirty Duck fared better on home video and is considered a cult film.
"Dances with Smurfs" is the thirteenth episode of the thirteenth season of the American animated television series South Park, and the 194th overall episode of the series. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on November 11, 2009. In the episode, Cartman becomes the reader of the elementary school announcements, and starts making politically charged accusations against student body president Wendy. The episode was written and directed by series co-creator Trey Parker, and was rated TV-MA L in the United States. "Dances with Smurfs" served as a parody of the political commentary style of Glenn Beck (pictured), a nationally syndicated radio show host and former Fox News Channel pundit. The episode also satirized the 2009 James Cameron film, Avatar, suggesting the plot of that film borrows heavily from the 1990 film Dances with Wolves, and comparing Avatar's blue aliens to the cartoon Smurfs. It also included references to the Tea Party protests, radio personality Casey Kasem, and former-vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin. The episode received generally positive to mixed reviews. According to Nielsen ratings, "Dances with Smurfs" was seen by 1.47 million households among viewers aged between 18 and 34.
Anime are Japaneseanimated productions, and come in all formats and include computer animation creations. The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of "animation" in Japanese. In English, the term is defined as a style of animation originating in Japan, which often features colorful graphics, vibrant characters and action-filled plots with fantastic or futuristic themes. While the earliest known Japanese animation dates to 1917, and many original Japanese animations were produced in the ensuing decades, the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s—notably with the work of Osamu Tezuka—and became known outside Japan in the 1980s. Anime, like manga, has a large audience in Japan and recognition throughout the world. Distributors can release anime via television broadcasts, directly to video, or theatrically, as well as online. As the market for anime increased in Japan, it also gained popularity in East and Southeast Asia. Anime is currently popular in many different regions around the world.
"The Last Temptation of Krust" is the 15th episode of The Simpsons' ninth season, and first aired on February 22, 1998. Bart convinces Krusty the Clown to appear at a comedy festival organized by Jay Leno(pictured), but Krusty's old material does not go over well with the audience, and he receives bad reviews. After Krusty goes on a drinking binge, Bart and Jay Leno bathe him at the Simpsons' house, and Krusty decides to announce his retirement. At Krusty's retirement press conference, the audience finds his tirade against modern comedy hysterical, and he returns to comedy with a new style where he complains about commercialism. He later agrees to a deal with marketing executives in return for a new "Canyonero" – a spoof on sport utility vehicles, and markets products during his next comedy appearance. The episode ends with an extended Canyonero sequence, with a background song sung by Hank Williams, Jr. The writing staff initially had trouble getting Krusty's offensive bad jokes through network censors, but convinced them this was simply a way to emphasize his old and dated comedic material. The episode was highlighted by USA Today in a review of the season's episodes, and received positive reviews in The Washington Times, the Evening Herald, and in books on The Simpsons.
My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic is an animated television series produced by Hasbro Studios in the United States (for scripts) and at DHX Media's studio located in Vancouver (for animation; formerly known as Studio B Productions). The series, which is based on Hasbro's My Little Pony line of toys and animated works, is intended for girls age 2 to 11 and considered to be the fourth generation (G4) of the My Little Pony franchise, following earlier lines and television show tie-ins in the 1980s and 1990s. The series premiered on October 10, 2010, on The Hub, now known as Hub Network, an Americanpay television channel partly owned by Hasbro. Hasbro selected animator Lauren Faust(pictured) as the creative director and executive producer for the show. The show follows a studious unicorn pony named Twilight Sparkle as her mentor Princess Celestia guides her to learn about friendship in the town of Ponyville. The show has been critically praised for its humor and moral outlook. Despite the target demographic of young girls, Friendship Is Magic has also gained a large following of older viewers, predominately teenagers and adults, largely male, who call themselves "bronies". Portions of the show have become part of the remix culture, and have formed the basis for a variety of Internet memes.
"Homer's Enemy" is the 23rd episode of the eighth season of American animated television series The Simpsons. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 4, 1997. The plot of the episode centers on the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant's hiring of a new employee named Frank Grimes. Homer attempts to befriend Grimes; however, Grimes takes an instant dislike to Homer, angered by his laziness and incompetence, and eventually declares himself Homer's enemy. The episode was directed by Jim Reardon and the script was written by John Swartzwelder, based on an idea pitched by executive producer Bill Oakley. The episode explores the comic possibilities of a realistic character with a strong work ethic placed alongside Homer in a work environment. The show's staff worked hard to perfect the character of Frank Grimes. He was partially modeled after Michael Douglas as he appeared in the film Falling Down. Hank Azaria provided the voice of Frank Grimes, and based some of the character's mannerisms on actor William H. Macy(pictured). "Homer's Enemy" is considered to be one of the darkest episodes of The Simpsons and is a favorite of several members of the production staff. Although Grimes makes his only appearance in this episode, he was later named one of the "Top 25 Simpsons Peripheral characters" by IGN.
The Legend of Korra is an Americananimated television series that premiered on the Nickelodeon television network in 2012. It was created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko as a sequel to their series Avatar: The Last Airbender, which aired on Nickelodeon from 2005 to 2008. Several people involved with creating Avatar, including designer Joaquim Dos Santos and composers Jeremy Zuckerman and Benjamin Wynn, returned to work on The Legend of Korra. The series is set in a fictional universe where some people can manipulate, or "bend", the elements of water, earth, fire, or air. Only one person, the "Avatar", can bend all four elements, and the Avatar is responsible for maintaining balance in the world. The series follows Avatar Korra as she travels to the metropolis of Republic City to learn airbending and face an anti-bender revolutionary group called the "Equalists." The series, whose style is strongly influenced by Japanese animation, has been a critical and commercial success. It obtained the highest audience total for an animated series in the U.S. in 2012, and it was praised by reviewers for its high production values and for addressing difficult sociopolitical issues such as social unrest and terrorism. It was initially conceived as a miniseries of 12 episodes, but it is now set to run for 52 episodes separated into four "books," each of which tells a separate story.
Eric Cartman is a fictional character on the Americananimatedtelevision seriesSouth Park. One of four main characters, along with Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, and Kenny McCormick, he is often portrayed as the series' main anti-hero and in opposition to his friends, who commonly refer to him by his last name. He debuted on television when South Park first aired on August 13, 1997; he had earlier appeared in The Spirit of Christmas shorts created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone in 1992 (Jesus vs. Frosty) and 1995 (Jesus vs. Santa). Voiced by Trey Parker, Cartman is an overweight, immature, spoiled, lazy, foul-mouthed, mean-spirited, racist, sexist, anti-semitic, sociopathic, narcissistic, and ill-tempered third- then fourth-grader living with his mother in the fictional town of South Park, Colorado, where he routinely has extraordinary experiences not typical of conventional small-town life. Cartman is one of the most popular characters on the show, and has remained one of the most recognizable television characters ever since South Park became a hit during its first season. Parker and Stone describe the character as "a little Archie Bunker", and state that he is their favorite character, and the one with whom they most identify. During its fifteen seasons, South Park has received both praise and criticism for Cartman's tendency to be politically incorrect and shockingly profane. Prominent publications and television channels have included Cartman on their lists of the most iconic television and cartoon characters of all time.
Stan Marsh is a fictional character in the animated television series South Park. He is voiced by and loosely based on series co-creator Trey Parker. (pictured in 2013) Stan is one of the show's four central characters, along with his friends Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, and Eric Cartman. He debuted on television when South Park first aired on August 13, 1997, after having first appeared in The Spirit of Christmas shorts created by Parker and long-time collaborator Matt Stone in 1992 (Jesus vs. Frosty) and 1995 (Jesus vs. Santa). Stan is a third- then fourth-grade student who commonly has extraordinary experiences not typical of conventional small-town life in his fictional hometown of South Park, Colorado. Stan is generally friendly, down-to-earth, knowledgeable, helpful, laid back, and often shares with Kyle a leadership role as the main protagonist of the show. Stan is unreserved in verbally expressing his distinct lack of esteem for adults and their influences, as adult South Park residents rarely make use of their critical faculties. Stan is animated by computer in a way to emulate the show's original method of cutout animation. He also appears in the 1999 full-length feature film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, as well as South Park-related media and merchandise. While Parker and Stone portray Stan as having common childlike tendencies, his dialogue is often intended to reflect stances and views on more adult-oriented issues, and has been frequently cited in numerous publications by experts in the fields of politics, religion, popular culture and philosophy.
The Care Bears Movie is a 1985 animatedadventure film, the second feature production from the Toronto animation studio Nelvana. One of the first films based directly on a toy line, it introduced the Care Bears characters and their companions, the Care Bear Cousins. The group consists of different species, such as monkeys, elephants and penguins. In the film, orphanage owners tell a story about the Care Bears, who live in a cloud-filled land called Care-a-lot. The film premiered on March 24, 1985, in Washington, D.C. and entered wide release in around 1,000 North American theatres five days later. The Care Bears Movie received mixed reviews from the outset; critics raised concern over its potential as a full-length advertisement for the title characters, among many other aspects. The movie's success saved Nelvana from closing, helped revive films aimed at children in the U.S. market, and has been cited as inspiring a spate of toy-based animated and live-action features. Nelvana produced two sequels in the next two years, A New Generation (1986) and Adventure in Wonderland (1987); neither surpassed the original financially or critically.
"Betty" is the forty-eighth episode of the fifth season of the American animated television seriesAdventure Time. It was written and storyboarded by Ako Castuera and Jesse Moynihan, from a story by Kent Osborne, Pendleton Ward, Jack Pendarvis, Adam Muto, and Moynihan. It originally aired on Cartoon Network on February 24, 2014. The episode guest stars Lena Dunham(pictured) as the eponymous character, Betty. The entry also saw the return of Miguel Ferrer, Steve Agee, Duncan Trussell, and Maurice LaMarche as various characters. In this episode, the Ice King reverts to Simon (both voiced by Tom Kenny) after being exposed to an anti-magic being named Bella Noche, and gets help from Finn, Jake, and Marceline in order to get Betty, his former fiancée, back. Once he succeeds in bring her back, however, he begins to die, forcing Betty herself to defeat Belle Noche. An episode centered around Betty had been promised by the crew at San Diego Comic-Con International in 2012. Due to the subject matter and length of the episode, several scenes had to be cut or trimmed for time, since so much was being placed in the episode. A review by Oliver Sava of The A.V. Club was complimentary towards the story, and Sava also applauded Dunham's voice acting.
Presto is a 2008 American Pixarcomputer-animatedshort film shown in theaters before their feature length film WALL-E. The short is about a magician trying to perform a show with his uncooperative rabbit and is a gag-filled homage to classic cartoons such as Tom and Jerry and Looney Tunes. Presto was directed by veteran Pixar animator Doug Sweetland, in his directorial debut. The original idea for the short was a magician who incorporated a rabbit into his act who suffered from stage fright. This was considered to be too long and complicated, and the idea was reworked. To design the theater featured in Presto, the filmmakers visited several Opera Houses and theaters for set design ideas. Problems arose when trying to animate the theater's audience of 2,500 patrons—which was deemed too expensive—and was solved by showing the back of the audience. Reaction to the short was very positive, and reviewers of WALL-E's home media release considered it to be an enjoyable special feature. One critic called Presto a "winner through and through", while another found it to be "a short and hilarious animated film". Presto was nominated for an Annie Award and Academy Award. It was included in the Animation Show of Shows in 2008.
"A Canterlot Wedding" is the collective name for the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth episodes of the second season of the Canadian-Americananimated television seriesMy Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic and the fifty-first and fifty-second episodes of the series overall. "A Canterlot Wedding" was directed by James Wootton and written by Meghan McCarthy, premiered on The Hub on April 21, 2012, with both parts airing as an hour-long event. In the episodes, Twilight Sparkle learns that her brother Shining Armor will be marrying Princess Celestia's niece, Princess Cadance. The premiere of "A Canterlot Wedding" was preceded by a major marketing campaign by the channel, which featured interactive content on the network's web site, promotional events, and a print advertisement taking the form of a formal wedding announcement in The New York Times newspaper. The episode debuted to excellent ratings and was positively received by critics, who felt that the hour-long special was highly ambitious for a children's program, and a further justification for the Brony community that the Friendship Is Magic series has developed. The first half of the episode was watched by over 483,000 viewers and the second half was watched by over 475,000.
Phineas Flynn is the main protagonist of the animated television seriesPhineas and Ferb. Voiced by Vincent Martella and created and designed by Dan Povenmire, Phineas first appeared along with the rest of the series' main characters in the pilot episode "Rollercoaster." Phineas, along with his stepbrother Ferb Fletcher, star in each A-Plot of every episode. The series concerns Phineas's attempts to avoid boredom by finding something new to do every day of the summer vacation. His sister's name is Candace Flynn, who tries to reveal their outrageous creations, but to no avail. It is also said in Phineas and Ferb's "Quantum Boogaloo" that he had won the nobel prize, as he was in Switzerland at the time for the "award ceremony". Phineas comes from a blended family. The creators chose this arrangement because they considered it underused in children's programming as well as from Marsh's past experiences in one. As a character, Phineas has received a positive critical response, with one reviewer describing him and his brother as a "comical pairing." Phineas appears in Phineas and Ferb merchandise, including plush toys, t-shirts, and a video game.
"Ride Me to Hell" is the third episode of the second season of the American animated television series Ugly Americans, and the seventeenth overall episode of the series. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on July 14, 2011. In the episode, Grimes is outraged by the unsatisfying ending of his favorite television series, and Mark helps him unravel his attachment to the series while uncovering several deep-seated memories. Meanwhile, Callie is expected to take over as the leader of Hell from her father, but is unwilling to do so. The episode was written by Mike Rowe and directed by Aaron Augenblick and series creator Devin Clark. While the series' first season mainly referenced horror films, "Ride Me to Hell" pays homage to 1970s cop shows. Clark used Grimes unleashing his memories from the 1970s as an opportunity to parody cop shows such as CHiPs and Starsky and Hutch. According to Nielsen Media Research, "Ride Me to Hell" was watched by 814,000 viewers in its original airing, a slight drop in total viewership when compared to previous episodes. The episode received positive reviews.
"What Was Missing" is the tenth episode of the third season of the American animated television seriesAdventure Time. The episode was written and storyboarded by Adam Muto and Rebecca Sugar, from a story by Mark Banker, Kent Osborne, Patrick McHale, and series creator Pendleton Ward. It originally aired on Cartoon Network on September 26, 2011. The series follows the adventures of Finn (voiced by Jeremy Shada), a human boy, and his best friend and adoptive brother Jake (voiced by John DiMaggio), a dog with magical powers to change shape and grow and shrink at will. In this episode, Finn, Jake, Princess Bubblegum, and Marcelline form a band in order to defeat the Door Lord and recover what the creature had stolen from them. Sugar noted that while the episode may appear to be about friendship, it is really about the power of telling the truth, as exemplified by the episode's songs. Episode composer Tim Kiefer played all of the conventional instruments himself, and used unique instruments, like a Game Boy(pictured), to make some of the loops heard in the episode. The episode was watched by 2.185 million people and caused a minor controversy due to the revelation of an intimate (and possibly romantic) history between Marceline and Bubblegum, a fact that also garnered praise for the episode from several LGBTQ-oriented review sites.
The animated television seriesRugrats has been noted for its portrayal of Judaism, a dynamic rarely portrayed in American animated programming during the series' broadcast run (1991–2004). Two episodes of the series are devoted to Jewish holidays and explaining their history, and the Pickles family is shown to be part-Jewish. The first Rugrats Jewish holiday special was suggested to the production staff in 1992 by Nickelodeon executives as a special devoted to Hanukkah. Germain instead refashioned it into a Passover episode and the series did not explore a Hanukkah special until 1996. Critical reaction to Jewish themes in Rugrats was largely positive. Each holiday special achieved high viewing numbers according to Nielsen Media Research and received positive reviews. However, Jewish character Grandpa Boris' portrayal in a 1998 Rugrats comic strip was criticized by the Anti-Defamation League for apparent antisemitism.
"The Coon" is the second episode of the thirteenth season of the American animated television series South Park, and the 183rd overall episode of the series. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on March 18, 2009. In the episode, Cartman poses as a superhero vigilante named "The Coon", who grows increasingly jealous of the popularity and success of a rival superhero named "Mysterion". The episode was written and directed by series co-founder Trey Parker, and was rated TV-MA L in the United States. It was originally conceived as an episode about the economic recession, but those elements were later adapted into the future episode, "Margaritaville". "The Coon" generated a great deal of speculation about the true identity of Mysterion. Parker and Stone originally said there was no specific answer to the question. The episode parodied several dark-toned comic book films that had been recently released at the time, including The Spirit, Watchmen and The Dark Knight. It received generally positive reviews and, according to Nielsen Media Research, was seen by 3.27 million households the week it aired. Comedian Bruce Vilanch, who is mocked in the episode, sent a thank you card to Parker and Stone after the episode aired. "The Coon" was released on DVD and Blu-ray along with the rest of the thirteenth season on March 16, 2010. "The Coon" was also released on DVD of The Little Box of Butters on September 28, 2010. "The Coon" was re-released once more on DVD and Blu-ray as a "bonus episode" with the complete fourteenth season.
"A Rugrats Passover" is the 23rd episode of the third season of the American animated television seriesRugrats, and its 62nd episode overall. It was broadcast originally on April 13, 1995, on the cable network Nickelodeon. The plot follows series regulars Grandpa Boris and the babies as they become trapped in the attic on Passover; to pass the time, Boris tells the Jewish story of the Exodus. "A Rugrats Passover" was directed by Jim Duffy, Steve Socki, and Jeff McGrath from the script by Peter Gaffney, Paul Germain, Rachel Lipman, and Jonathon Greenberg. The episode was conceived in 1992 when Germain responded to a Nickelodeon request for a RugratsHannukah special by creating a Passover episode instead. The episode scored a 3.1 Nielsen Rating, making it "the highest-rated show in Nickelodeon's history", and received overwhelmingly positive reviews, including from Jewish community publications. It was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award, an Annie Award, and a CableACE Award. The episode also, however, attracted controversy, when the Anti-Defamation League compared the artistic design of the older characters to anti-Semitic drawings from a 1930s Nazi newspaper. The episode made Rugrats one of the first animated series to focus on a Jewish holiday; its success precipitated the creation of another special, "A Rugrats Chanukah", which also attracted critical acclaim.
"Ricardio the Heart Guy" is the seventh episode of the first season of the American animated television seriesAdventure Time. The episode was written and storyboarded by Bert Youn and Sean Jimenez, from a story by Merriwether Williams, Tim McKeon, and Adam Muto. It originally aired on Cartoon Network on April 26, 2010. The episode guest stars George Takei(pictured) as the titular character, Ricardio. In this episode, Finn believes that Princess Bubblegum's (voiced by Hynden Walch) new friend, a heart named Ricardio, is evil, and is proven right after learning that Ricardio is the heart of the Ice King (voiced by Tom Kenny). Ricardio reveals that he wants to "make out" with Bubblegum's heart, but he is defeated by Finn and Jake. Ricardio would become a minor recurring villain, reappearing in the fourth season entry "Lady & Peebles". After the episode aired, series composed Casey James Basichis posted a video explaining his inspiration and the method in which he produced the music featured in the episode. Basichis largely scored the episode with opera music, because he felt the genre suited Ricardio. "Ricardio the Heart Guy" was watched by 1.91 million people and received largely positive critical attention, with many reviews praising Takei's voice work.
"The Return of Harmony" is the collective name for the first and second episodes of the second season of the American animated television seriesMy Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic and the 27th and 28th episodes of the series overall. Both episodes were written by M. A. Larson and directed by series director James Wootton. Part one of the episode aired in the United States on September 17, 2011 on The Hub network. Part two aired the following week, on September 24. The episode received a Nielsen household rating of 0.2 and was viewed by over 339,000 viewers, making it the highest-rated episode ever broadcast by The Hub at that point. This is also the last My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic episode to be produced by Studio B Productions. The show follows a studious unicorn pony named Twilight Sparkle as her mentor Princess Celestia guides her to learn about friendship in the town of Ponyville. Twilight becomes close friends with five other ponies: Applejack, Rarity, Fluttershy, Rainbow Dash, and Pinkie Pie. In the first part of the episode, an ancient evil known as Discord escapes from his stone prison, and Twilight and her friends discover that the Elements of Harmony have been stolen. They need to retrieve them in order to save Equestria from eternal chaos, but first have to contend with Discord's sinister mind games. In part two, Twilight is determined to find the Elements of Harmony after her friends are hypnotically brainwashed by Discord and all of Equestria begins to fall into disarray.
The Treehouse of Horror episodes are the annual Halloween specials in the animated seriesThe Simpsons. Each episode consists of three separate, self-contained segments, which usually involve the Simpson family in some horror, science fiction, or supernatural setting. Considered non-canon, they always take place outside the normal continuity of the show and completely abandon any pretense of being realistic. The first Treehouse of Horror episode aired on October 25, 1990 as part of the second season and was inspired by EC Comics horror tales. The episodes are known for being far more violent and much darker than an average Simpsons episode. As of 2008, there are 18 Treehouse of Horror episodes, with one airing every year, and the newest episode, "Treehouse of Horror XIX", is scheduled to air on November 2. Episodes contain several trademarks, including the alien characters Kang and Kodos, "scary names" in the credits, a special version of the opening sequence, and parodies of horror and science fiction films. The show's staff regard the Treehouse of Horror as being particularly difficult to produce as the scripts often go through many rewrites, and the animators typically have to design new characters and backgrounds.
"Adventure Time" is an animated short created by Pendleton Ward(pictured), as well as the pilot to the Cartoon Networkseries of the same name. In this episode, Pen and Jake have to rescue Princess Bubblegum (voiced by Paige Moss) from the antagonistic Ice King (voiced by John Kassir). "Adventure Time" first aired as a stand-alone short on Nicktoons Network in January 2007, after which it subsequently went viral on the internet; as of April 2008, the pilot has had over 3,000,000 views. It was then re-aired as part of Nicktoons Network's Random! Cartoons series showcase on December 7, 2008, subsequently leading to the creation of the animated series. It was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject. The short and the later-produced television series share elements, but the two differ slightly in setting, conception and continuity, especially in regard to the post-apocalyptic setting, which is only featured in the television series.
Blue's Clues is an American children's television show that premiered on September 8, 1996, on the cable television network Nickelodeon, and ran for a decade, until August 6, 2006. Producers Angela Santomero, Todd Kessler, and Traci Paige Johnson combined concepts from child development and early-childhood education with innovative animation and production techniques that helped their viewers learn. It was hosted originally by Steve Burns, who although a crucial factor in its success, left in 2002 to pursue a music career, and was replaced by Donovan Patton. The show follows an animated blue-spotted dog named Blue as she plays a game with the host and the viewers. They used research about child development and young children's viewing habits that had been conducted in the thirty years since the debut of Sesame Street in the U.S., and revolutionized the genre by inviting their viewers' involvement. Research was part of the creative and decision-making process in the production of the show, and was integrated into all aspects and stages of the creative process. By 2002, Blue's Clues had received several awards for excellence in children's programming, educational software, and licensing, and had been nominated for nine Emmy Awards. Versions of the show have been produced in other countries, and it has been syndicated in 120 countries and translated into 15 languages. It was one of the first preschool shows to incorporate American Sign Language into its content.
The World of Strawberry Shortcake is a 1980 animated television special written by Romeo Muller, directed by Charles Swenson, and produced by Swenson, Muller and Fred Wolf. Starring the voices of Romeo Muller, Russi Taylor, Julie McWhirter and Joan Gerber, it was made by animators from Murakami-Wolf-Swenson in the United States and by Toei Doga in Japan. The music was written and performed by Flo & Eddie of the rock group, The Turtles. The titular character, Strawberry Shortcake, lives in a fictional place called Strawberryland. In the special, narrated by Romeo Muller (as Mr. Sun), she and her friends celebrate her sixth birthday. While preparations for her party are underway, a villain called the Peculiar Purple Pieman plots to steal the berries from Strawberry's home in order to make his pies. Produced and sponsored by the Kenner toy company, The World of Strawberry Shortcake was the first special to feature the American Greetings character, Strawberry Shortcake. Bypassing network television, it debuted on March 28, 1980 in syndication across more than 90 U.S. cities, and was later released on 16 mm film, VHS, Beta and DVD. The special received generally favorable reviews in the School Library Journal, which reviewed it in 1983 and 2007.
The French Democracy is a short 2005 French political film made by Alex Chan (pictured) using computer animation from Lionhead Studios' 2005 business simulation gameThe Movies. The plot centers on three Moroccan men who turn to rioting after facing different forms of discrimination. Chan, a French native of Chinese descent, created the film to convey his view that racism caused the riots of the 2005 civil unrest in France. Although Chan was restricted by shortcomings and technical limitations in The Movies, he finished the film after four days of production. The film was uploaded to The Movies Online, Lionhead's website for user-created videos, on 22 November 2005 and was soon covered by American and French press. Although real-time-rendered, three-dimensional computer animation (machinima) had been used in earlier political films, The French Democracy attained an unprecedented level of mainstream attention for political machinima. While acknowledging the film's flaws, such as the grammatically poor English subtitles, commentators praised its clear political message and compared it to films such as La Haine and Do the Right Thing. The French Democracy inspired other politically conscious machinima works and fueled discussion about the art form's potential for political expression. Some raised concerns that video game companies would use their copyrights to control the content of derivative machinima films.
Flipnote Studio 3D, known in Japan as Moving Notepad 3D(うごくメモ帳 3D?,Ugoku Memochō Surī Dī) and originally announced as Flipnote Memo, is a free downloadable animation application launched in 2013 for the Nintendo 3DS. Developed by Nintendo EAD Tokyo, this successor to Flipnote Studio allows users to use three separate layers to create stereoscopic 3D animations, which can be exported into GIF or AVI format. Flipnote Studio 3D was launched with two online communities: Flipnote Gallery: Friends, and Flipnote Gallery: World. The application was released in Japan on July 24, 2013. It was set for an August 2013 release in North America and Europe, but due to "unexpectedly high" usage of the online services in Japan, the application's release was delayed for both regions.