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Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean

The Arctic- The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt.The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. (It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Sápmi would be included.) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada. The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi).

The Circle itself passes through eight countries. Canada, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United States. Denmark which represents Greenland, and the Faroe Islands is a member of the Arctic Council. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Very few people live north of the Arctic Circle due to the cold conditions. The three largest communities above the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia; Murmansk (population 325,100), Norilsk (135,000), and Vorkuta (85,000). Tromsø in Norway has about 62,000 inhabitants, whereas Rovaniemi in Finland—which lies slightly south of the line—has slightly fewer than 58,000.

The Circumpolar North or Arctic generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle and these indigenous peoples. Evenks, Inuit, Greenland, Northern Canada (Nunavut and Northwest Territories), Alaska, Chukotka (Russia) , Koryaks, Nenets, Khanty, Chukchi, Sami Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Kola peninsula in Russia and Yukaghirs.

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Transient Orcas near Unimak Island, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska
The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca), less commonly, Blackfish or Seawolf, is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family. It is found in all the world's oceans, from the frigid Arctic and Antarctic regions to warm, tropical seas.

Orca are versatile and opportunistic predators. Some populations feed mostly on fish, and other populations hunt marine mammals, including sea lions, seals, and even large whales. There are up to five distinct Orca types, some of which may be separate races, subspecies or even species. Orcas are highly social; some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups which are the most stable of any animal species.[1] The sophisticated social behaviour, hunting techniques, and vocal behaviour of Orcas have been described as manifestations of culture.[2]

Although Orcas are not an endangered species, some local populations are considered threatened or endangered due to pollution, depletion of prey species, conflicts with fishing activities and vessels, habitat loss, and whaling. Wild Orcas are usually not considered a threat to humans.[3] There have, however, been isolated reports of captive Orcas attacking their handlers at marine theme parks.[4]

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Kenojuak Ashevak 1 1997-05-09.jpg
Kenojuak Ashevak, CC (born October 3, 1927) is regarded as one of the most notable pioneers of modern Inuit art.

Kenojuak Ashevak was born in an igloo in an Inuit camp, "Ikirasaq", at the southern coast of Baffin Island. At three years old, she lost her father. In 1952, she had to be treated for three years for tuberculosis in a hospital in Quebec. During this time and later on many of her children and grandchildren succumbed to disease, as did her husband of 45 years.

Kenojuak Ashevak became one of the first Inuit women in Cape Dorset to begin drawing in the late 1950s. She has since created many carvings from soapstone and thousands of drawings, etchings, stone-cuts, and prints — all sought after by museums and collectors. She designed several drawings for Canadian stamps and coins. In 2004, she started to design the first Inuit-designed stain glass window for a chapel.

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rimsvötn in Vatnajökull-glacier in Iceland (1972)

Description:rimsvötn in Vatnajökull-glacier in Iceland (1972)

Author: Roger McLassus.

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Contamination pathways large.jpg
  • ...that John Wilson Danenhower, survivor of an Arctic expedition whose ship was crushed by ice, later committed suicide due to the grounding of the ship which was to be his first command?Read More...


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Panoramic view of Naajaat in North-West Greenland. The ice cap is seen to the upper left..


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  1. ^ Ford, John K. B.; Ellis, Graeme M.; Balcomb, Kenneth C. (2000). Killer Whales, Second Edition. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0800-4. 
  2. ^ Glen Martin (December 1, 1993). "Killer Culture". DISCOVER Magazine. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  3. ^ Carwardine, Mark (2001) "Killer Whales" London: BBC Worldwide Ltd., ISBN 0-7894-8266-5
  4. ^ "Orca attack puts Sea World trainer in hospital". Associated Press (in the Seattle Times). 2006-11-30. Retrieved 2006-11-30.