WikiPortal Armenia / ՎիքիՊորտալ Հայաստան
Armenia ( ( listen); Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
Between the 16th century and 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.
Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian: Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն; Russian: Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика) was the name of Armenia when it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. From March 12, 1922 to December 5, 1936 it was part of the Transcaucasian SFSR together with the Georgian SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR. Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. Life under the Soviet Union proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The Armenians received medicine, food, as well as other provisions from Moscow. Additionally, the Armenian alphabet was reformed to increase literacy among the populace. The situation was difficult for the church which struggled under Communism.
The Coat of Arms of Armenia
The Coat of Arms of Armenia consists of an eagle and a lion supporting a shield. The coat of arms combines new and old symbols. The eagle and lion are ancient Armenian symbols dating from the first Armenian kingdoms. The shield itself consists of many components. In the center is a depiction of Mount Ararat, where Noah's ark came to rest after the great flood. Surrounding Mount Ararat are symbols of old Armenian dynasties. In the lower left is the emblem of the Artaxiad Dynasty that ruled in the 1st century BC. In the upper left is the emblem for the Bagratuni Dynasty that ruled during the Middle Ages, between 7th and 11th centuries. That dynasty was destroyed by the Byzantine Empire's encroachment and by Seljuk invasions in the 11th century AD. In the upper right is the emblem of the first dynasty to reign over a Christian Armenia, the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia. This dynasty ruled from the 1st century AD to 428 AD. In the lower right is the emblem of the Rubenid dynasty. This dynasty reigned in Lesser Armenia (also known as Cilicia), a state that expanded and prospered during the 12th and 13th centuries, until the Mamelukes and Turks eventually conquered it.
Tigranes the Great (Armenian: Տիգրան Մեծ, translit. Tigran Mets or Dikran Medz ) (ruled 95–55 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a king of Armenia. Tigranes was born around 140 BC and was the son or nephew of Artavasdes I.
Tigranes had been a hostage until the age of 40 at the court of King Mithridates II of Parthia who defeated the Armenians in 105 BC. After the death of King Tigranes I in 95 BC, Tigranes ransomed his freedom by handing over "seventy valleys" in Atropatene (Azerbaijan) to the Parthians (Strabo 11.14.15). He deposed Artanes, the last king of Armenian Sophene and a descendant of Zariadres (Strabo XI. 532). He invaded Cappadocia in 93 BC together with Mithridates Eupator, but was driven back by Sulla in 92 BC.
Did you know...
- ...that Tigranakert was an ancient center of Armenian Hellenistic culture founded by Tigranes the Great? The exact location was never discovered but the interest in doing so disappeared after the Armenian Genocide of 1915, when the Armenian population was eradicated and replaced by Kurds.
- ...that one of the finest khachkar memorial stones is located at Goshavank Monastery in Armenia, the place where the law of Armenia was first codified by Mkhitar Gosh in the late 12th and early 13th century?
News from Armenia
- 15 October 2017: Armenia: Iveta Mukuchyan surprises all in The Voice of Armenia (esctoday)
- 14 October 2017: Armenian Genocide deniers introduce "fake” Turkey-Armenia resolution (PanARMENIAN.NET)
- 14 October 2017: Startup Armenia, UAE sign memo, plan Seaside Startup Summit (panorama.am)
- 14 October 2017: ‘Mom, you know it well, I don't give up easily’ – fallen hero Tigran Abgaryan would turn 21 today (panorama.am)
- 13 October 2017: Armenia to Finally Pass a Law against Domestic Violence (Armenian Weekly)
- 12 October 2017: Armenia ranked as innovation achiever country (Armenpress)
- 11 October 2017: Armenian Armed Forces Soldier Killed by Azerbaijani Fire ahead of Sarkisian-Aliyev Meeting (Armenian Weekly)
- 10 October 2017: Google honors Fridtjof Nansen - a friend of Armenians (PanARMENIAN.NET)
- Founded: 31 July 2006
- Founder: Eupator
- Maintainers: Members of WP:AM
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