The arts is a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which, as a description of a field, usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass the visual arts, the literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and film, among others. This list is by no means comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts. For all intents and purposes, the history of the arts begins with the history of art. The arts might have origins in early human evolutionary prehistory.
Ancient Greek art saw the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (e.g. Jupiter's thunderbolt). In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan. Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development. Paradoxically the expressions of new technologies were greatly influenced by the ancient tribal arts of Africa and Oceania, through the works of Paul Gauguin and the Post-Impressionists, Pablo Picasso and the Cubists, as well as the Futurists and others.
The buildings and architecture of Bristol
are an eclectic combination of styles, ranging from the medieval
to 20th century brutalism
and beyond. During the mid-19th century, Bristol Byzantine
, an architectural style unique to the city was developed, of which several examples have survived. Buildings from most of the architectural periods
of the United Kingdom
can be seen throughout Bristol. Parts of the fortified city and castle date back to the medieval era
, as do some churches dating from the 12th century onwards. As the city grew, it merged with its surrounding villages
, each with its own character and centre, often clustered around a parish church. The construction of the city's floating harbour
, taking in the wharves on the Avon
rivers, provided a focus for industrial development and the growth of the local transport infrastructure, including the Clifton Suspension Bridge
and Temple Meads railway station
. The 20th century saw further expansion of the city, the growth of the University of Bristol
, and the arrival of the aircraft industry. During World War II
, the city centre
suffered from extensive bombing during the Bristol Blitz
. The redevelopment of shopping centres, office buildings, and the harbourside continues to this day.
- 6 July 1845 – Soprano Ángela Peralta, a leading figure in the operatic life of 19th century Mexico, is born in Mexico City
- 11 July 1561 – Spanish lyric poet Luis de Góngora, the author of La Fábula de Polifemo y Galatea, is born in Córdoba
- 14 July 1910 – The influential French ballet master and choreographer Marius Petipa dies in the Crimean resort of Gurzuf at the age of 92
- 25 July 1723 – Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht (Lord, do not pass judgment on Your servant), a sacred cantata composed by Johan Sebastian Bach, is performed for the first time
- 27 July 1946 – Gertrude Stein (pictured), American writer, poet and art collector dies in Neuilly-sur-Seine at the age of 72
Robert Peake the elder
(c. 1551–1619) was an English painter active in the later part of Elizabeth I's
reign and for most of the reign of James I
. In 1604, he was appointed picture maker to the heir to the throne, Prince Henry
, and in 1607, serjeant-painter
to King James I
, a post he shared with John De Critz
. Peake is often called "the elder", to distinguish him from his son, the painter and print seller William Peake
(c. 1580–1639) and from his grandson, Sir Robert Peake
(c. 1605–1667), who followed his father into the family print-selling business. Peake was the only English-born painter of a group of four artists whose workshops were closely connected. The others were De Critz, Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
, and the miniature-painter Isaac Oliver
. Between 1590 and about 1625, they specialised in brilliantly coloured, full-length "costume pieces" (example pictured)
that are unique to England at this time. It is not always possible to attribute authorship among Peake, De Critz, Gheeraerts and their assistants with certainty.
A 1938 teuroteu
by Kim Song Kyu and Park Yeong Ho. Sung by Park Hyang Rim.
- Parent project
- Descendant projects