Autumn or Fall is one of the four temperateseasons. Autumn is the period between summer and winter, usually in September (northern hemisphere) or March (southern hemisphere) when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier. In the northern hemisphere, the meteorological start of autumn is on September 1 and it ends on November 30; in the southern hemisphere it starts on March 1 and ends on May 31. The astronomical start of autumn is on the Autumnal Equinox (September 22–23) and ends on the Winter Solstice (December 21–22) in the northern hemisphere, and March 20 and June 21 in the southern hemisphere. Autumn starts on or around August 7 and ends on about November 6 in solar term. The word autumn comes from the Old French word autompne (automne in modern French), and was later normalized to the original Latin word autumnus. There are rare examples of its use as early as the 14th century, but it became common by the 16th century. Before the 16th century, harvest was the term usually used to refer to the season. However as more people gradually moved from working the land to living in towns, the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, and fall and autumn began to replace it as a reference to the season.
Fall colors are best when late summer is dry and autumn has bright sunny days and cool nights below 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
The apple is the pomaceousfruit of the apple tree, speciesMalus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is small and deciduous, reaching 5 to 12 metres (16 to 39 ft) tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown. The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5 to 12 cm long and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) broad on a 2 to 5 centimetres (0.79 to 1.97 in) petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Flowers are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimetres (0.98 to 1.38 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) diameter. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds. The tree originated from Central Asia, where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples resulting in range of desired characteristics. Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.