Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, parachutes, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy. Some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal; then a largest step in significance came with the construction of the first powered airplane by the Wright brothers in the early 1900s. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized with the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world.
During his formative years Trenchard struggled academically, failing many examinations and only just succeeding in meeting the minimum standard for commissioned service in the British Army. As a young infantry officer, Trenchard served in India and in South Africa. During the Boer War, Trenchard was critically wounded and as a result of his injury, he lost a lung, was partially paralysed and returned to Great Britain. While convalescing in Switzerland he took up bobsleighing and after a heavy crash, Trenchard found that his paralysis was gone and that he could walk unaided. Some months later, Trenchard returned to South Africa before volunteering for service in Nigeria. During his time in Nigeria, Trenchard commanded the Southern Nigeria Regiment for several years and was involved in efforts to bring the interior under settled British rule and quell inter-tribal violence.
2009 – A Royal Air Force Panavia Tornado F.3 crashes near the Rest and Be Thankful beauty spot in Glen Kinglass, Arrochar, Scotland. The aircraft was on a routine training flight from No. 43 Squadron RAF Leuchars in Fife resulting in 2 crew killed in the accident. The crew were pilot Kenneth Thompson and weapons systems officer Nigel Morton.
2007 – OH-58D Kiowa 91-0560 from 3–17 Cavalry Regiment is shot down along a canal south of Baghdad in Babil province with small arms, both pilots were rescued by strapping themselves onto the stub wings of an AH-64 Apache. Helicopter was later destroyed.
2005 – First Trans-Atlantic flight re-enactment: Steve Fossett and co-pilot Mark Rebholz recreated the Firstdirect crossing of the Atlantic by the British team of John Alcock and Arthur Whitten-Brown. Their flight from St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada to Clifden, Ireland in the open cockpit Vickers Vimy replica took 18 hours 25 min with 13 hours flown in instrument flight conditions. Because there was no airport in Clifden, Fossett and Rebholz landed on the 8th fairway of the Connemarra Golf Course.
2005 – A CH-47D Chinook 85-24335 from C Company/159th Aviation Brigade destroyed in a fire on the ground at Ramadi Camp.
2004 – Cassini – Huygens makes its First distant flyby of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.
2000 – Philippine Air Force General Santiago Madrid and Palawan Governor Salvador Socrates were among those killed when a Philippine air force Fokker 50 GAF Nomad N.22 C crashed into the sea off the western province of Palawan.
1994 – US Airways Flight 1016, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, crashes while attempting to land at Charlotte, North Carolina during a thunderstorm. 37 of the 51 people on board are killed.
1992 – Braniff Airlines (Braniff III) goes out of business.
1987 – Per Lindstrand and Richard Branson lift off their balloon 'Virgin Atlantic' (at the time, the largest ever flown at 2.3 million cubic feet of capacity) from Sugarloaf Mountain for the Firsttransatlantic flight in a hot air balloon.
1985 – Launch of Giotto, European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency, intended to fly by and study Halley's Comet.
1985 – Death of David Charles Purley, GM, British racing driver in the crash of his Pitts Special aerobatic biplane. Purley is perhaps best known for his actions at the 1973 Dutch Grand Prix, where he abandoned his own race and attempted to save the life of fellow British driver Roger Williamson, whose car was upside down on fire following a horrific accident.
1984 – Entered Service: Mirage 2000 with Escadron de Chasse 1/2.
1982 – Death of Tow Jewett, co-founder of the Quickie Aircraft Corporation, builder of the successful Quickie tandem-winged kitplane, Killed in the crash of the sole Quickie Aircraft Corporation Free Enterprise (Big Bird) prototype during a test flight.
1982 – In the homemade Inspiration I, consisting of a patio chair attached to 45 eight-foot (2.4-m) helium-filled weather balloons, American truck driver Larry Walters lifts off from the back yard of a home in San Pedro, California, planning to drift at an altitude of about 30 feet (9.1 m) for a few hours before using a pellet gun to shoot out some balloons and descend gradually. Instead, Inspiration 1 quickly ascends to an altitude of 15,000 feet (4,572 m). After drifting into controlled airspace near Long Beach Airport, he uses the pellet gun to shoot out several of his balloons before accidentally dropping the pellet gun overboard. He gradually descends, becomes entangled in power lines, climbs down safely, and is arrested.
1945 – The Okinawa campaign is officially declared over with the complete defeat of Japanese forces there. During the campaign, the Allies have lost 32 ships and naval craft sunk and 368 damaged and over 4,900 naval personnel killed and 4,824 wounded. Most of the ships sunk were victims of kamikazes. The Allies also have lost 763 aircraft during the campaign.
1943 – Lt Charles Hall, becomes First black pilot to shoot down Nazi plane.
1943 – An airstrike on American forces on Rendova Island by 24 Japanese bombers escorted by 48 fighters achieves complete surprise, killing 55 and wounding 77.
1943 – (Overnight) The Allied Northwest African Air Force begins heavy day-and-night attacks against Axis airfields in Sicily, Sardinia, and Italy in preparation for the upcoming invasion of Sicily. Italy claims to fly 650 fighter sorties and Germany 500 between July 1 and 9 in defending against the Allied bombing campaign, but almost all Axis airfields on Sicily are knocked out by the time of the invasion.
1938 – A Heinkel He-116R, German 4 engine long-range mail plane, sets an endurance record, covering 9,942 km (6,178 mi) un-refueled, at an average speed of 214 km/h (133 mph) after a 48 hours 18 min flight.
1937 – Russian pilot Paulina Osipenka sets a women non-stop flight record of 2416 km between Novgorod and Archangelsk with a Beriev MP-1bis, Variant of the Beriev MBR-2, Soviet reconnaissance flying boat.
1919 – U.S. Navy blimp C-8 explodes while landing at Camp Holabird, Maryland, injuring ~80 adults and children who were watching it. Windows in homes a mile away are shattered by the blast.
1919 – The British airship R34 begins the first airship crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and the first east-to-west Atlantic flight, leaving East Fortune, Scotland, to arrive in New York on July 6. The journey becomes a successful two-way crossing when the airship arrives back in the United Kingdom on July 13.
1918 – Death of Percy Griffith Jones, Welsh WWI flying ace, killed in action in his Bristol F.2b.
1918 – Death of Joseph Creuss Callaghan (the mad major), Irish/American WWI flying ace, killed in his Sopwith Dolphin.
1916 – Birth of Hans-Ulrich Rudel, Famous German dive-bomber pilot and The most highly decorated German serviceman of WWII.
1912 – Death of Chester Melvin Vaniman, American acrobatic photographer, adventurer, businessman, famous aviator and balloonist, killed when his airship, the 'Akron', exploded off the New Jersey shore during his 2nd attempt at a trans-Atlantic airship crossing.
^"Boeing's CH-47 Chinook 85-24335". Retrieved 2010-07-16. On 2 July 2005, 85-24335 was lost near Ramadi, Iraq, due to an accident. While conducting a cargo transport mission at night under night vision goggles, 85-24335 sat down in a landing zone near Ramadi. A sister ship came in with a sling load and hovered nearby. The rotor wash from the second Chinook loosened the stakes securing the pad to the ground and one or more pads lifted into the rotor system causing the subsequent destruction of 85-24335. Of the crew of five and two passengers, there were some minor injuries, but no personnel were killed. When lost, 85-24335 was 38.74 years old.